Care Decisions (care + decision)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Care Decisions

  • health care decision

  • Terms modified by Care Decisions

  • care decision making

  • Selected Abstracts

    Working Women's Selection of Care for Their Infants: A Prospective Study,

    FAMILY RELATIONS, Issue 3 2000
    Elizabeth Puhn Pungello
    We interviewed 102 employed women before and after the birth of their first child to examine: (1) the influences of environmental constraints and maternal beliefs on mothers' care decisions, and (2) change in environmental constraints and beliefs. Both employment-related constraints and maternal beliefs were related to infant care decisions, and mothers who chose nonparental versus parent-only care differed in how their constraints and beliefs changed over time. Implications for practitioners are discussed. [source]

    Commentary on Jack Dowie, "Decision validity should determine whether a generic or condition-specific HRQOL measure is used in health care decisions"

    HEALTH ECONOMICS, Issue 1 2002
    Gordon Guyatt
    First page of article [source]

    Commentary on Jack Dowie, "Decision validity should determine whether a generic or condition-specific HRQOL measure is used in health care decisions"

    HEALTH ECONOMICS, Issue 1 2002
    David Feeny
    First page of article [source]

    Measurement in Veterans Affairs Health Services Research: Veterans as a Special Population

    Robert O. Morgan
    Objective. To introduce this supplemental issue on measurement within health services research by using the population of U.S. veterans as an illustrative example of population and system influences on measurement quality. Principal Findings. Measurement quality may be affected by differences in demographic characteristics, illness burden, psychological health, cultural identity, or health care setting. The U.S. veteran population and the VA health system represent a microcosm in which a broad range of measurement issues can be assessed. Conclusions. Measurement is the foundation on which health decisions are made. Poor measurement quality can affect both the quality of health care decisions and decisions about health care policy. The accompanying articles in this issue highlight a subset of measurement issues that have applicability to the broad community of health services research. It is our hope that they stimulate a broad discussion of the measurement challenges posed by conducting "state-of-the-art" health services research. [source]


    Raquel Bernal
    This article develops and estimates a dynamic model of employment and child care decisions of women after childbirth to evaluate the effects of these choices on children's cognitive ability. We use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to estimate it. Results indicate that the effects of maternal employment and child care on children's ability are negative and sizable. Having a mother that works full-time and uses child care during one year is associated with a reduction in ability test scores of approximately 1.8% (0.13 standard deviations). We assess the impact of policies related to parental leave and child care on children's outcomes. [source]

    Association between pacifier use and breast-feeding, sudden infant death syndrome, infection and dental malocclusion

    Ann Callaghan RN RM BNurs(Hons)
    Executive summary Objective, To critically review all literature related to pacifier use for full-term healthy infants and young children. The specific review questions addressed are: What is the evidence of adverse and/or positive outcomes of pacifier use in infancy and childhood in relation to each of the following subtopics: ,breast-feeding; ,sudden infant death syndrome; ,infection; ,dental malocclusion. Inclusion criteria, Specific criteria were used to determine which studies would be included in the review: (i) the types of participants; (ii) the types of research design; and (iii) the types of outcome measures. To be included a study has to meet all criteria. Types of participants,The participants included in the review were healthy term infants and healthy children up to the age of 16 years. Studies that focused on preterm infants, and infants and young children with serious illness or congenital malformations were excluded. However, some total population studies did include these children. Types of research design, It became evident early in the review process that very few randomised controlled trials had been conducted. A decision was made to include observational epidemiological designs, specifically prospective cohort studies and, in the case of sudden infant death syndrome research, case,control studies. Purely descriptive and cross-sectional studies were excluded, as were qualitative studies and all other forms of evidence. A number of criteria have been proposed to establish causation in the scientific and medical literature. These key criteria were applied in the review process and are described as follows: (i) consistency and unbiasedness of findings; (ii) strength of association; (iii) temporal sequence; (iv) dose,response relationship; (v) specificity; (vi) coherence with biological background and previous knowledge; (vii) biological plausibility; and (viii) experimental evidence. Studies that did not meet the requirement of appropriate temporal sequencing of events and studies that did not present an estimate of the strength of association were not included in the final review. Types of outcome measures,Our specific interest was pacifier use related to: ,breast-feeding; ,sudden infant death syndrome; ,infection; ,dental malocclusion. Studies that examined pacifier use related to procedural pain relief were excluded. Studies that examined the relationship between pacifier use and gastro-oesophageal reflux were also excluded as this information has been recently presented as a systematic review. Search strategy, The review comprised published and unpublished research literature. The search was restricted to reports published in English, Spanish and German. The time period covered research published from January 1960 to October 2003. A protocol developed by New Zealand Health Technology Assessment was used to guide the search process. The search comprised bibliographic databases, citation searching, other evidence-based and guidelines sites, government documents, books and reports, professional websites, national associations, hand search, contacting national/international experts and general internet searching. Assessment of quality, All studies identified during the database search were assessed for relevance to the review based on the information provided in the title, abstract and descriptor/MeSH terms, and a full report was retrieved for all studies that met the inclusion criteria. Studies identified from reference list searches were assessed for relevance based on the study title. Keywords included: dummy, dummies, pacifier(s), soother(s), comforter(s), non-nutritive sucking, infant, child, infant care. Initially, studies were reviewed for inclusion by pairs of principal investigators. Authorship of articles was not concealed from the reviewers. Next, the methodological quality of included articles was assessed independently by groups of three or more principal investigators and clinicians using a checklist. All 20 studies that were accepted met minimum set criteria, but few passed without some methodological concern. Data extraction, To meet the requirements of the Joanna Briggs Institute, reasons for acceptance and non-acceptance at each phase were clearly documented. An assessment protocol and report form was developed for each of the three phases of review. The first form was created to record investigators' evaluations of studies included in the initial review. Those studies that failed to meet strict inclusion criteria were excluded at this point. A second form was designed to facilitate an in-depth critique of epidemiological study methodology. The checklist was pilot tested and adjustments were made before reviewers were trained in its use. When reviewers could not agree on an assessment, it was passed to additional reviewers and discussed until a consensus was reached. At this stage, studies other than cohort, case,control and randomised controlled trials were excluded. Issues of clarification were also addressed at this point. The final phase was that of integration. This phase, undertaken by the principal investigators, was assisted by the production of data extraction tables. Through a process of trial and error, a framework was formulated that adequately summarised the key elements of the studies. This information was tabulated under the following headings: authors/setting, design, exposure/outcome, confounders controlled, analysis and main findings. Results, With regard to the breast-feeding outcome, 10 studies met the inclusion criteria, comprising two randomised controlled trials and eight cohort studies. The research was conducted between 1995 and 2003 in a wide variety of settings involving research participants from diverse socioeconomic and cultural backgrounds. Information regarding exposure and outcome status, and potential confounding factors was obtained from: antenatal and postnatal records; interviews before discharge from obstetric/midwifery care; post-discharge interviews; and post-discharge postal and telephone surveys. Both the level of contact and the frequency of contact with the informant, the child's mother, differed widely. Pacifier use was defined and measured inconsistently, possibly because few studies were initiated expressly to investigate its relationship with breast-feeding. Completeness of follow-up was addressed, but missing data were not uniformly identified and explained. When comparisons were made between participants and non-participants there was some evidence of differential loss and a bias towards families in higher socioeconomic groups. Multivariate analysis was undertaken in the majority of studies, with some including a large number of sociodemographic, obstetric and infant covariates and others including just maternal age and education. As might be expected given the inconsistency of definition and measurement, the relationship between pacifier use and breast-feeding was expressed in many different ways and a meta-analysis was not appropriate. In summary, only one study did not report a negative association between pacifier use and breast-feeding duration or exclusivity. Results indicate an increase in risk for a reduced overall duration of breast-feeding from 20% to almost threefold. The data suggest that very infrequent use may not have any overall negative impact on breast-feeding outcomes. Six sudden infant death syndrome case,control studies met the criteria for inclusion. The research was conducted with information gathered between 1984 and 1999 in Norway, UK, New Zealand, the Netherlands and USA. Exposure information was obtained from a variety of sources including: hospital and antenatal records, death scene investigation, and interview and questionnaire. Information for cases was sought within 2 days after death, within 2,4 weeks after death and in one study between 3 and 11 years after death. Information for controls was sought from as early as 4 days of a nominated sudden infant death syndrome case, to between 1 and 7 weeks from the case date, and again in one study some 3,11 years later. In the majority of the studies case ascertainment was determined by post-mortem. Pacifier use was again defined and measured somewhat inconsistently. All studies controlled for confounding factors by matching and/or using multivariate analysis. Generally, antenatal and postnatal factors, as well as infant care practices, and maternal, family and socioeconomic issues were considered. All five studies reporting multivariate results found significantly fewer sudden infant death syndrome cases used a pacifier compared with controls. That is, pacifier use was associated with a reduced incidence of sudden infant death syndrome. These results indicate that the risk of sudden infant death syndrome for infants who did not use a pacifier in the last or reference sleep was at least twice, and possibly five times, that of infants who did use a pacifier. Three studies reported a moderately sized positive association between pacifier use and a variety of infections. Conversely, one study found no positive association between pacifier use at 15 months of age and a range of infections experienced between the ages of 6 and 18 months. Given the limited number of studies available and the variability of results, no meaningful conclusions could be drawn. Five cohort studies and one case,control study focused on the relationship between pacifier use and dental malocclusion. Not one of these studies reported a measure of association, such as an estimate of relative risk. It was therefore not possible to include these studies in the final review. Implications for practice, It is intended that this review be used as the basis of a ,best practice guideline', to make health professionals aware of the research evidence concerning these health and developmental consequences of pacifier use, because parents need clear information on which they can base child care decisions. With regard to the association between pacifier use and infection and dental malocclusion it was found that, due to the paucity of epidemiological studies, no meaningful conclusion can be drawn. There is clearly a need for more epidemiological research with regard to these two outcomes. The evidence for a relationship between pacifier use and sudden infant death syndrome is consistent, while the exact mechanism of the effect is not well understood. As to breast-feeding, research evidence shows that pacifier use in infancy is associated with a shorter duration and non-exclusivity. It is plausible that pacifier use causes babies to breast-feed less, but a causal relationship has not been irrefutably proven. Because breast-feeding confers an important advantage on all children and the incidence of sudden infant death syndrome is very low, it is recommended that health professionals generally advise parents against pacifier use, while taking into account individual circumstances. [source]

    Children in Foster Care: A Nursing Perspective on Research, Policy, and Child Health Issues

    Mary Margaret GottesmanArticle first published online: 23 FEB 200
    ISSUES AND PURPOSE. To examine the roles of public policy and poverty on the rising number of children in family foster care, and to examine the impact of different types of family foster care on children's well-being. CONCLUSIONS. Recent changes in welfare legislation increase the likelihood of family poverty, with a subsequent increase in the number of children in out-of-home care. Greater emphasis needs to be placed on preventing entry into out-of-home care, improving the quality of foster care, and giving children a voice in care decisions. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS. Nurses have important roles to play in the prevention of family dissolution, the design of healthcare delivery systems for children in foster care, in evaluating and educating all types of foster families, and as advocates in legal and legislative proceedings. [source]

    Parent's involvement in decisions when their child is admitted to hospital with suspected shunt malfunction: study protocol

    Joanna Smith
    Abstract Title., Parent's involvement in decisions when their child is admitted to hospital with suspected shunt malfunction: study protocol. Aim., This paper outlines the protocol for a study aimed at exploring parent's involvement during professional,parent interactions and decisions about their child's care in the context of suspected shunt malfunction. Background., Hydrocephalus is a long-term condition treated primarily by the insertion of a shunt that diverts fluid from the brain to another body compartment. Shunts frequently malfunction, and parents of children with shunted hydrocephalus are responsible for recognizing and responding to shunt complications. Parents feel that interactions with professionals when they seek healthcare advice for their child do always not encourage active participation in care decisions. Methods., The study design is based on qualitative methodologies: a combination of conversation analysis applied to consultation recordings of professional,parent interactions when a child is admitted to hospital with suspected shunt malfunction, and semi-structured follow-up interviews with the same participants within 2 weeks of the consultation. Participants., This is a prospective study and participants will be purposefully selected. Parents of children who have been admitted to hospital with suspected shunt malfunction and healthcare professionals responsible for the initial assessment of the child will be invited to participate. Discussion., The study will identify how decisions about a child's care are negotiated between parents and healthcare professionals at key stages of the care pathway. In addition, examining interactions between healthcare professionals and parents may identify approaches that support or hinder parents in contributing to the decision-making processes when they seek advice from healthcare professionals. [source]

    The nature of advocacy vs. paternalism in nursing: clarifying the ,thin line'

    Meg Zomorodi
    Abstract Title.,The nature of advocacy vs. paternalism in nursing: clarifying the ,thin line'. Aim., This paper is an exploration of the concepts of advocacy and paternalism in nursing and discusses the thin line between the two. Background., Nurses are involved in care more than any other healthcare professionals and they play a central role in advocating for patients and families. It is difficult to obtain a clear definition of advocacy, yet the concepts of advocacy and paternalism must be compared, contrasted, and discussed extensively. In many situations, only a thin line distinguishes advocacy from paternalism. Data sources., A literature search was conducted using PubMed and CINAHL databases (2000,2008) as well as a library catalogue for texts. Discussion., Four case stories were described in order to discuss the ,thin line' between advocacy and paternalism and develop communication strategies to eliminate ambiguity. Weighing the ethical principles of beneficence and autonomy helps to clarify advocacy and paternalism and provides an avenue for discussion among nurses practicing in a variety of settings. Implications for nursing., Advocacy and paternalism should be discussed at interdisciplinary rounds, and taken into consideration when making patient care decisions. It is difficult to clarify advocacy vs. paternalism, but strategies such as knowing the patient, clarifying information, and educating all involved are initial steps in distinguishing advocacy from paternalism. Conclusion., Truly ,knowing' patients, their life experiences, values, beliefs and wishes can help clarify the ,thin line' and gain a grasp of these difficult to distinguish theoretical concepts. [source]

    Systematic reviews: gatekeepers of nursing knowledge

    David Evans BN, DipN
    ,,The past few decades have seen a considerable increase in the number of available health care products and interventions. This growth has been matched by a similar expansion in the health care literature. As a result of these factors, the demand for evidence to support practice is growing, but finding the best evidence is becoming increasingly difficult. ,,In response, the use of systematic reviews is increasing and they are starting to replace the primary research as the basis for health care decisions. ,,To date, these reviews have focused predominantly on effectiveness and so have been limited to randomized controlled trials. As a result of this, the interpretive, observational and descriptive research methods that are utilized by nursing have commonly been either excluded from the review or are classified as ,low level' evidence. ,,To address this, nursing must participate in the development of systematic review methods that better answer the questions posed by the profession. [source]

    A guide to economic evaluation: Methods for cost-effectiveness analysis of person-level data

    Jeffrey S. Hoch
    The authors introduce economic evaluation with particular attention to cost-effectiveness analysis. They begin by establishing why health care decisions should be guided by economics. They then explore different types of economic evaluations. To illustrate how to conduct and evaluate a cost-effectiveness analysis, a hypothetical study about the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder with psychotherapy versus pharmacotherapy is considered. The authors conclude with recommendations for increasing the strength and relevance of economic evaluations. [source]

    Constructing a patient education system: A performance technology project

    Edith E. Bell
    The purpose of the patient education system described here was to distribute patient education material to and within medical practices managed by a small medical practice management company. The belief was that patient education opportunities improved health care outcomes and increased patient participation in health care decisions and compliance with health care plans. This tool reinforced medical practices' commitment to having patients participate actively in their treatment, differentiated them from other practices, and contributed to the generation of new patients. [source]