Care Costs (care + cost)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Care Costs

  • health care cost
  • medical care cost


  • Selected Abstracts


    Health Care Costs of Seriously Mentally Ill Patients Enrolled in Enhanced Treatment

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ORTHOPSYCHIATRY, Issue 3 2002
    Andrea M. Hegedus PhD
    Patients with psychosis (N = 866) were recruited into enhanced or standard Veterans Administration (VA) treatment. Enhanced programs, previously shown to be more effective, were less costly than VA standard care. Adjusted costs fell from $32,000,$55,000 (for the 1st year) to $20,000,$36,000 (for the 4th year). Costs were associated positively with schizophrenia, living in the Northeast region of the United States, and poorer baseline functioning. [source]


    Americans' Views of Health Care Costs, Access, and Quality

    THE MILBANK QUARTERLY, Issue 4 2006
    ROBERT J. BLENDON
    For more than two decades, polls have shown that Americans are dissatisfied with their current health care system. However, the public's views on how to change the current system are more conflicted than often suggested by individual poll results. At the same time, Americans are both dissatisfied with the current health care system and relatively satisfied with their own health care arrangements. As a result of the conflict between these views and the public's distrust of government, there often is a wide gap between the public's support for a set of principles concerning what needs to be done about the overall problems facing the nation's health care system and their support for specific policies designed to achieve those goals. [source]


    Cost-effectiveness of primary cytology and HPV DNA cervical screening

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CANCER, Issue 2 2008
    Peter Bistoletti
    Abstract Because cost-effectiveness of different cervical cytology screening strategies with and without human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing is unclear, we used a Markov model to estimate life expectancy and health care cost per woman during the remaining lifetime for 4 screening strategies: (i) cervical cytology screening at age 32, 35, 38, 41, 44, 47, 50, 55 and 60, (ii) same strategy with addition of testing for HPV DNA persistence at age 32, (iii) screening with combined cytology and testing for HPV DNA persistence at age 32, 41 and 50, iv) no screening. Input data were derived from population-based screening registries, health-service costs and from a population-based HPV screening trial. Impact of parameter uncertainty was addressed using probabilistic multivariate sensitivity analysis. Cytology screening between 32 and 60 years of age in 3,5 year intervals increased life expectancy and life-time costs were reduced from 533 to 248 US Dollars per woman compared to no screening. Addition of HPV DNA testing, at age 32 increased costs from 248 to 284 US Dollars without benefit on life expectancy. Screening with both cytology and HPV DNA testing, at ages 32, 41 and 50 reduced costs from 248 to 210 US Dollars with slightly increased life expectancy. In conclusion, population-based, organized cervical cytology screening between ages 32 to 60 is highly cost-efficient for cervical cancer prevention. If screening intervals are increased to at least 9 years, combined cytology and HPV DNA screening appeared to be still more effective and less costly. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Estimation of health-care costs for work-related injuries in the Mexican Institute of social security

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL MEDICINE, Issue 3 2009
    Fernando Carlos-Rivera MScE
    Abstract Background Data on the economic consequences of occupational injuries is scarce in developing countries which prevents the recognition of their economic and social consequences. This study assess the direct heath care costs of work-related accidents in the Mexican Institute of Social Security, the largest health care institution in Latin America, which covered 12,735,856 workers and their families in 2005. Methods We estimated the cost of treatment for 295,594 officially reported occupational injuries nation wide. A group of medical experts devised treatment algorithms to quantify resource utilization for occupational injuries to which unit costs were applied. Total costs were estimated as the product of the cost per illness and the severity weighted incidence of occupational accidents. Results Occupational injury rate was 2.9 per 100 workers. Average medical care cost per case was $2,059 USD. The total cost of the health care of officially recognized injured workers was $753,420,222 USD. If injury rate is corrected for underreporting, the cost for formal injured workers is 791,216,460. If the same costs are applied for informal workers, approximately half of the working population in Mexico, the cost of healthcare for occupational injuries is about 1% of the gross domestic product. Conclusions Health care costs of occupational accidents are similar to the economic direct expenditures to compensate death and disability in the social security system in Mexico. However, indirect costs might be as important as direct costs. Am. J. Ind. Med. 52:195,201, 2009. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    The projected health care burden of Type 2 diabetes in the UK from 2000 to 2060

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 2002
    A. Bagust
    Abstract Aims/hypothesis To predict the incidence and prevalence of Type 2 diabetes in the UK, the trends in the levels of diabetes-related complications, and the associated health care costs for the period 2000,60. Methods An established epidemiological and economic model of the long-term complications and health care costs of Type 2 diabetes was applied to UK population projections from 2000 to 2060. The model was used to calculate the incidence and prevalence of Type 2 diabetes, the caseloads and population burden for diabetes-related complications, and annual NHS health care costs for Type 2 diabetes over this time period. Results The total UK population will not increase by more than 3% at any time in the next 60 years. However, the population over 30 will increase by a maximum of 11% by 2030. Due to population ageing, in 2036 there will be approximately 20% more cases of Type 2 diabetes than in 2000. Cases of diabetes-related complications will increase rapidly to peak 20,30% above present levels between 2035 and 2045, before showing a modest decline. The cost of health care for patients with Type 2 diabetes rises by up to 25% during this period, but because of reductions in the economically active age groups, the relative economic burden of the disease can be expected to increase by 40,50%. Conclusion/interpretation In the next 30 years Type 2 diabetes will present a serious clinical and financial challenge to the UK NHS. [source]


    Resource consumption and costs in Dutch patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 3 2002
    Results from 29 general practices
    Abstract Aims The aims of this study were to estimate the costs incurred by Dutch patients with Type 2 diabetes, examine which patient and/or treatment characteristics are associated with costs, and estimate the medical and non-medical costs of patients with Type 2 diabetes in The Netherlands. Methods Twenty-nine Dutch general practitioners provided information on all Type 2 diabetes patients in their practice (n = 1371), information on demography, clinical characteristics, treatment type, the presence of complications and the type and amount of medical consumption during the previous 6 months. Medical costs were analysed using multivariate linear regression. Estimates of costs seen in The Netherlands were based on these results plus information from other sources regarding costs of end-stage renal disease, appliances, travel and productivity loss. Results Although only 9% of patients were hospitalized within the previous 6 months, hospitalization costs represented one-third of the medical costs, drug costs 40% and ambulatory costs 26%. Patients using insulin, patients with macrovascular complications only or in combination with microvascular complications incurred higher medical costs than other patients. Age and hyperlipidaemia were also positively related to medical costs. When these results were combined with other data sources, we estimated that patients with Type 2 diabetes are responsible for £365 500 000 (1 271 000 000 guilders) or 3.4% of the relevant parts of health care costs in 1998. The non-medical costs (travel costs, productivity costs) are limited: 52 500 000 (183 000 000 guilders). Conclusions Independent determinants of the medical costs of Type 2 diabetes in The Netherlands include age, complications, insulin use and hyperlipidaemia. Diabet. Med. 19, 246,253 (2002) [source]


    Is Vancouver Canada's supervised injection facility cost-saving?

    ADDICTION, Issue 8 2010
    Steven D. Pinkerton
    ABSTRACT Objective To determine whether Vancouver's Insite supervised injection facility and syringe exchange programs are cost-saving,that is, are the savings due to averted HIV-related medical care costs sufficient to offset Insite's operating costs? Methods The analyses examined the impact of Insite's programs for a single year. Mathematical models were used to calculate the number of additional HIV infections that would be expected if Insite were closed. The life-time HIV-related medical costs associated with these additional infections were compared to the annual operating costs of the Insite facility. Results If Insite were closed, the annual number of incident HIV infections among Vancouver IDU would be expected to increase from 179.3 to 262.8. These 83.5 preventable infections are associated with $17.6 million (Canadian) in life-time HIV-related medical care costs, greatly exceeding Insite's operating costs, which are approximately $3 million per year. Conclusions Insite's safe injection facility and syringe exchange program substantially reduce the incidence of HIV infection within Vancouver's IDU community. The associated savings in averted HIV-related medical care costs are more than sufficient to offset Insite's operating costs. [source]


    Individuals receiving addiction treatment: are medical costs of their family members reduced?

    ADDICTION, Issue 7 2010
    Constance Weisner
    ABSTRACT Aims To examine whether alcohol and other drug (AOD) treatment is related to reduced medical costs of family members. Design Using the administrative databases of a private, integrated health plan, we matched AOD treatment patients with health plan members without AOD disorders on age, gender and utilization, identifying family members of each group. Setting Kaiser Permanente Northern California. Participants Family members of abstinent and non-abstinent AOD treatment patients and control family members. Measurements We measured abstinence at 1 year post-intake and examined health care costs per member-month of family members of AOD patients and of controls through 5 years. We used generalized estimating equation methods to examine differences in average medical cost per member-month for each year, between family members of abstinent and non-abstinent AOD patients and controls. We used multilevel models to examine 4-year cost trajectories, controlling for pre-intake cost, age, gender and family size. Results AOD patients' family members had significantly higher costs and more psychiatric and medical conditions than controls in the pre-treatment year. At 2,5 years, each year family members of AOD patients abstinent at 1 year had similar average per member-month medical costs to controls (e.g. difference at year 5 = $2.63; P > 0.82), whereas costs for family members of non-abstinent patients were higher (e.g. difference at year 5 = $35.59; P = 0.06). Family members of AOD patients not abstinent at 1 year, had a trajectory of increasing medical cost (slope = $10.32; P = 0.03) relative to controls. Conclusions Successful AOD treatment is related to medical cost reductions for family members, which may be considered a proxy for their improved health. [source]


    If you try to stop smoking, should we pay for it?

    ADDICTION, Issue 6 2010
    The cost, utility of reimbursing smoking cessation support in the Netherlands
    ABSTRACT Background Smoking cessation can be encouraged by reimbursing the costs of smoking cessation support (SCS). The short-term efficiency of reimbursement has been evaluated previously. However, a thorough estimate of the long-term cost,utility is lacking. Objectives To evaluate long-term effects of reimbursement of SCS. Methods Results from a randomized controlled trial were extrapolated to long-term outcomes in terms of health care costs and (quality adjusted) life years (QALY) gained, using the Chronic Disease Model. Our first scenario was no reimbursement. In a second scenario, the short-term cessation rates from the trial were extrapolated directly. Sensitivity analyses were based on the trial's confidence intervals. In the third scenario the additional use of SCS as found in the trial was combined with cessation rates from international meta-analyses. Results Intervention costs per QALY gained compared to the reference scenario were approximately ,1200 extrapolating the trial effects directly, and ,4200 when combining the trial's use of SCS with the cessation rates from the literature. Taking all health care effects into account, even costs in life years gained, resulted in an estimated incremental cost,utility of ,4500 and ,7400, respectively. In both scenarios costs per QALY remained below ,16 000 in sensitivity analyses using a life-time horizon. Conclusions Extrapolating the higher use of SCS due to reimbursement led to more successful quitters and a gain in life years and QALYs. Accounting for overheads, administration costs and the costs of SCS, these health gains could be obtained at relatively low cost, even when including costs in life years gained. Hence, reimbursement of SCS seems to be cost-effective from a health care perspective. [source]


    The cost-effectiveness of antidepressants for smoking cessation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients

    ADDICTION, Issue 12 2009
    Constant P. Van Schayck
    ABSTRACT Objectives In healthy smokers, antidepressants can double the odds of cessation. Because of its four times lower costs and comparable efficacy in healthy smokers, nortriptyline appears to be favourable compared to bupropion. We assessed which of both drugs was most effective and cost-effective in stopping smoking after 1 year compared with placebo among smokers at risk or with existing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods A total of 255 participants, aged 30,70 years, received smoking cessation counselling and were assigned bupropion, nortriptyline or placebo randomly for 12 weeks. Prolonged abstinence from smoking was defined as a participant's report of no cigarettes from week 4 to week 52, validated by urinary cotinine. Costs were calculated using a societal perspective and uncertainty was assessed using the bootstrap method. Results The prolonged abstinence rate was 20.9% with bupropion, 20.0% with nortriptyline and 13.5% with placebo. The differences between bupropion and placebo [relative risk (RR) = 1.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.8,3.0] and between nortriptyline and placebo (RR = 1.5; 95% CI 0.8,2.9) were not significant. Severity of airway obstruction did not influence abstinence significantly. Societal costs were ,1368 (2.5th,97.5th percentile 193,5260) with bupropion, ,1906 (2.5th,97.5th 120,17 761) with nortriptyline and ,1212 (2.5th,97.5th 96,6602) with placebo. Were society willing to pay more than ,2000 for a quitter, bupropion was most likely to be cost-effective. Conclusions Bupropion and nortriptyline seem to be equally effective, but bupropion appears to be more cost-effective when compared to placebo and nortriptyline. This impression holds using only health care costs. As the cost-effectiveness analyses concern some uncertainties, the results should be interpreted with care and future studies are needed to replicate the findings. [source]


    Linking opioid-dependent hospital patients to drug treatment: health care use and costs 6 months after randomization

    ADDICTION, Issue 12 2006
    Paul G. Barnett
    ABSTRACT Aims To conduct an economic evaluation of the first 6 months' trial of treatment vouchers and case management for opioid-dependent hospital patients. Design Randomized clinical trial and evaluation of administrative data. Setting Emergency department, wound clinic, in-patient units and methadone clinic in a large urban public hospital. Participants The study randomized 126 opioid-dependent drug users seeking medical care. Interventions Participants were randomized among four groups. These received vouchers for 6 months of methadone treatment, 6 months of case management, both these interventions, or usual care. Findings During the first 6 months of this study, 90% of those randomized to vouchers alone enrolled in methadone maintenance, significantly more than the 44% enrollment in those randomized to case management without vouchers (P < 0.001). The direct costs of substance abuse treatment, including case management, was $4040 for those who received vouchers, $4177 for those assigned to case management and $5277 for those who received the combination of both interventions. After 3 months, the vouchers alone group used less heroin than the case management alone group. The difference was not significant at 6 months. There were no significant differences in other health care costs in the 6 months following randomization. Conclusion Vouchers were slightly more effective but no more costly than case management during the initial 6 months of the study. Vouchers were as effective and less costly than the combination of case management and vouchers. The finding that vouchers dominate is tempered by the possibility that case management may lower medical care costs. [source]


    Prevalence and cost of nonadherence with antiepileptic drugs in an adult managed care population

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 3 2008
    Keith L. Davis
    Summary Purpose: This study assessed the extent of refill nonadherence with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and the potential association between AED nonadherence and health care costs in an adult-managed care population. Methods: Retrospective claims from the PharMetrics database were analyzed. Inclusion criteria were: age ,21, epilepsy diagnosis between January 01, 2000 and March 12, 2005, ,2 AED prescriptions, and continuous health plan enrollment for ,6 months prior to and ,12 months following AED initiation. Adherence was evaluated using the medication possession ratio (MPR). Patients with an MPR <0.8 were classified as nonadherent. Multivariate regression was used to assess the effect of AED nonadherence on annualized cost outcomes. Regression covariates included patient demographics, Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), and follow-up duration. Results: Among patients meeting all inclusion criteria (N = 10,892), 58% were female, mean age was 44 years, mean CCI was 0.94, and mean follow-up was 27 months. Mean MPR was 0.78 and 39% of patients were nonadherent. AED nonadherence was associated with an increased likelihood of hospitalization (odds ratio [OR]= 1.110, p = 0.013) and emergency room (ER) admission (OR = 1.479, p < 0.0001), as well as increased inpatient and ER costs of $1,799 and $260 (both p = 0.001), respectively, per patient per year. Outpatient and other ancillary costs were not significantly affected by nonadherence. A large net positive effect of nonadherence on total annual health care costs remained (+$1,466, p = 0.034) despite an offset from reduced prescription drug intake. Discussion: Adherence with AEDs among adult epilepsy patients is suboptimal and nonadherence appears to be associated with increased health care costs. Efforts to promote AED adherence may lead to cost savings for managed care systems. [source]


    RESEARCH REPORT Alcoholism treatment and medical care costs from Project MATCH

    ADDICTION, Issue 7 2000
    Harold D. Holder
    Aims. This paper examines the costs of medical care prior to and following initiation of alcoholism treatment as part of a study of patient matching to treatment modality. Design Longitudinal study with pre- and post-treatment initiation. Measurements. The total medical care costs for inpatient and outpatient treatment for patients participating over a span of 3 years post-treatment. Setting. Three treatment sites at two of the nine Project MATCH locations (Milwaukee, WI and Providence, RI). Participants. Two hundred and seventy-nine patients. Intervention. Patients were randomly assigned to one of three treatment modalities: a 12-session cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), a four-session motivational enhancement therapy (MET) or a 12-session Twelve-Step facilitation (TSF) treatment over 12 weeks. Findings. Total medical care costs declined from pre- to post-treatment overall and for each modality. Matching effects independent of clinical prognosis showed that MET has potential for medical-care cost-savings. However, patients with poor prognostic characteristics (alcohol dependence, psychiatric severity and/or social network support for drinking) have better cost-savings potential with CBT and/or TSF., Conclusions. Matching variables have significant importance in increasing the potential for medical-care cost-reductions following alcoholism treatment. [source]


    Orthopaedic surgery in severe bleeding disorders: a low-volume, high-cost procedure

    HAEMOPHILIA, Issue 6 2002
    V. Mishra
    Summary. As more and more nations are scrutinizing their health care costs, attention has been focused on high-cost low-density disease. Assessment of actual total cost of care for haemophilia and its positive outcome becomes essential to justify support for these patients. In this study, we assessed hospital cost and diagnosis-related group (DRG) reimbursement for patients undergoing elective orthopaedic surgical procedures from May 1999 to December 1999. Hospital cost was assessed by a prospective microcost-analysis method. To identify real hospital costs, we performed registration of preoperative phase, operative phase and 1-year follow-up costs. Hospital cost included personnel costs and costs for clinical and laboratory procedures, blood products, prosthetic implants, coagulation factor concentrates and drugs. These data were compared with hospital DRG reimbursement. We included nine consecutive patients, with a mean age 38 years (19,54 years) who had had 10 major orthopaedic surgical procedures performed during the study period. Six patients had haemophilia A, two had haemophilia B and one had factor VII deficiency. Data analysis showed a mean cost of US$ 54 201 (range US$ 25 795,105 479; 1US$ = 8.5 NOK). The average actual hospital revenue (50% DRG reimbursement + income related to length of stay) was $4730 (range $ 1 308,13 601). Our study confirms that orthopaedic surgery in patients with severe bleeding disorders puts the hospital to a considerable expense. Activity-based financing, as used in Norway, does not provide a proper reimbursement for this part of the haemophilia care. [source]


    Health and social care costs for young adults with epilepsy in the UK

    HEALTH & SOCIAL CARE IN THE COMMUNITY, Issue 5 2010
    Jennifer Beecham PhD
    Abstract Maintaining contact with services will help improve clinical and social outcomes as children with epilepsy move into their adult lives. This study has collated evidence on the extent to which young adults with epilepsy are supported by health and social care services posttransition, and the costs of such support. UK prevalence and service use data were taken from policy and research literature, as well as national data sets and reports. Costs were attached to these data to arrive at agency and overall total costs. There are approximately 42 000 young adults (18,25 years) with epilepsy costing the UK health and social care budgets £715.3 million per annum, on average £17 000 per young adult with epilepsy. A further £61 million falls to the social security budget. Most young adults with epilepsy will rarely use these services, but those with additional health needs have high and often long-term support needs, including supported accommodation and personal care. Current resources used by these young adults are summarised but deficits in service availability can mean long waiting times and sub-optimal treatment. Young adults also want more support to help them take advantage of education and employment opportunities and more information about managing the impacts of epilepsy on their lives. Improving services will cost money, but has the potential to lead to better outcomes for young adults. [source]


    The Cost-Effectiveness of Independent Housing for the Chronically Mentally Ill: Do Housing and Neighborhood Features Matter?

    HEALTH SERVICES RESEARCH, Issue 5 2004
    Joseph Harkness
    Objective. To determine the effects of housing and neighborhood features on residential instability and the costs of mental health services for individuals with chronic mental illness (CMI). Data Sources. Medicaid and service provider data on the mental health service utilization of 670 individuals with CMI between 1988 and 1993 were combined with primary data on housing attributes and costs, as well as census data on neighborhood characteristics. Study participants were living in independent housing units developed under the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Program on Chronic Mental Illness in four of nine demonstration cities between 1988 and 1993. Study Design. Participants were assigned on a first-come, first-served basis to housing units as they became available for occupancy after renovation by the housing providers. Multivariate statistical models are used to examine the relationship between features of the residential environment and three outcomes that were measured during the participant's occupancy in a study property: residential instability, community-based service costs, and hospital-based service costs. To assess cost-effectiveness, the mental health care cost savings associated with some residential features are compared with the cost of providing housing with these features. Data Collection/Extraction Methods. Health service utilization data were obtained from Medicaid and from state and local departments of mental health. Non-mental-health services, substance abuse services, and pharmaceuticals were screened out. Principal Findings. Study participants living in newer and properly maintained buildings had lower mental health care costs and residential instability. Buildings with a richer set of amenity features, neighborhoods with no outward signs of physical deterioration, and neighborhoods with newer housing stock were also associated with reduced mental health care costs. Study participants were more residentially stable in buildings with fewer units and where a greater proportion of tenants were other individuals with CMI. Mental health care costs and residential instability tend to be reduced in neighborhoods with many nonresidential land uses and a higher proportion of renters. Mixed-race neighborhoods are associated with reduced probability of mental health hospitalization, but they also are associated with much higher hospitalization costs if hospitalized. The degree of income mixing in the neighborhood has no effect. Conclusions. Several of the key findings are consistent with theoretical expectations that higher-quality housing and neighborhoods lead to better mental health outcomes among individuals with CMI. The mental health care cost savings associated with these favorable features far outweigh the costs of developing and operating properties with them. Support for the hypothesis that "diverse-disorganized" neighborhoods are more accepting of individuals with CMI and, hence, associated with better mental health outcomes, is mixed. [source]


    Evaluation of the Effect of a Consumer-Driven Health Plan on Medical Care Expenditures and Utilization

    HEALTH SERVICES RESEARCH, Issue 4p2 2004
    Stephen T. Parente§
    Objective. To compare medical care costs and utilization in a consumer-driven health plan (CDHP) to other health insurance plans. Study Design. We examine claims and employee demographic data from one large employer that adopted a CDHP in 2001. A quasi-experimental pre,post design is used to assign employees to three cohorts: (1) enrolled in a health maintenance organization (HMO) from 2000 to 2002, (2) enrolled in a preferred provider organization (PPO) from 2000 to 2002, or (3) enrolled in a CDHP in 2001 and 2002, after previously enrolling in either an HMO or PPO in 2000. Using this approach we estimate a difference-in-difference regression model for expenditure and utilization measures to identify the impact of CDHP. Principal Findings. By 2002, the CDHP cohort experienced lower total expenditures than the PPO cohort but higher expenditures than the HMO cohort. Physician visits and pharmaceutical use and costs were lower in the CDHP cohort compared to the other groups. Hospital costs and admission rates for CDHP enrollees, as well as total physician expenditures, were significantly higher than for enrollees in the HMO and PPO plans. Conclusions. An early evaluation of CDHP expenditures and utilization reveals that the new health plan is a viable alternative to existing health plan designs. Enrollees in the CDHP have lower total expenditures than PPO enrollees, but higher utilization of resource-intensive hospital admissions after an initially favorable selection. [source]


    Intercenter variation in initial management of children with Crohn's disease

    INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES, Issue 7 2007
    Michael D. Kappelman MD
    Abstract Background: Variation in care is a ubiquitous feature of medical practice and may lead to significant differences in health care costs, quality, and outcomes. We undertook this study to determine the extent of intercenter variation in the initial management of children newly diagnosed with Crohn's disease. Methods: We analyzed the utilization of 5 classes of medication (immunomodulators, prednisone, antibiotics, 5-aminosalicylates, and infliximab) among 311 children with newly diagnosed Crohn's disease followed at 10 North American pediatric gastroenterology centers. Multivariate logistic regression was used to compare the utilization rate of each class of medication at each of the 10 centers, adjusting for potential confounders including patient age, sex, race, disease severity, and anatomic location of disease. Results: Median utilization of each class of medication was: immunomodulators, 56% (range 29%,97%); prednisone, 78% (range 32%,88%); antibiotics, 29% (range 11%,68%); 5-aminosalicylates, 63.5% (range 18%,92%); and infliximab, 7.5% (range 3%,21%). Each of these treatments showed statistically significant intercenter variation in utilization (P < 0.001 for immunomodulators, prednisone, antibiotics, and 5-ASA; P = 0.02 for infliximab). After adjusting for the demographic and clinical factors listed above, intercenter variation remained significant; however, the low utilization of infliximab precluded multivariate analysis. Conclusions: Widespread intercenter variation in the medical management of newly diagnosed children with Crohn's disease was observed, even after adjusting for possible differences in case mix between institutions. This variation may lead to unintended differences in health care costs and outcomes. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2007) [source]


    Alzheimer's disease in the UK: comparative evidence on cost of illness and volume of health services research funding

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GERIATRIC PSYCHIATRY, Issue 12 2001
    Ana Lowin
    Abstract Objective To review the economic cost of Alzheimer's disease, to determine the level of research expenditure directed at this illness and to make comparisons with cancer, stroke and heart disease. Method A literature search of cost-of-illness studies was conducted and major funders of research were contacted. Cost-of-illness estimates were updated and adjusted to enable comparability across the four disease areas. Results The direct costs of Alzheimer's disease were estimated to be between £7.06 billion and £14.93 billion, which was substantially greater than stroke (£3.2 billion), heart disease (£4.05 billion) and cancer (£1.6 billion excluding informal care costs). Research expenditure on Alzheimer's disease was 57% of that on stroke, 10% of that on heart disease and 3% of that on cancer. Discussion Alzheimer's disease imposes a high economic burden. However, spending on research is disproportionately low compared with spending on other major illnesses. In the light of these two findings we recommend further discussion of the distribution of public funding for research into this disease. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Changing medical doctor productivity and its affecting factors in rural China

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HEALTH PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT, Issue 2 2004
    Tim Martineau
    Abstract Using the data collected from the health facility-based survey, part of the national health service survey conducted in 1993 and 1998, this paper tries to examine changes in labour productivity among the county-level hospitals and township health centres in rural China, and to analyse factors affecting the changes. The results presented in the paper show that the average number of outpatient visits per doctor per day and the average number of inpatient days per doctor per day declined significantly over the period from 1986 to 1997. The main factors resulting in the reduction of productivity are associated with the increase of inappropriate staff recruitment in these health facilities, the significant decline of rural population covered by health insurance, particularly rural cooperative medical schemes (CMS), and the rapid rise of health care costs. The latter two factors also have brought about a reduction in the use of these health facilities by the rural population. The paper suggests that the government should tighten up the entrance of health and non-health staff into the rural health sector and develop effective measures aimed to avoid providing pervasive financial incentives to the over-provision of services and over-use of drugs. In addition, other measures that help to increase the demand for health services, such as the establishment of rural health insurance, should be considered seriously. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Modelling lifetime QALYs and health care costs from different drinking patterns over time: a Markov model

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF METHODS IN PSYCHIATRIC RESEARCH, Issue 2 2010
    Carolina Barbosa
    Abstract The negative health consequences of alcohol use and its treatment account for significant health care expenditure worldwide. Long-term modelling techniques are developed in this paper to establish a link between drinking patterns, health consequences and alcohol treatment effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. The overall change in health related quality and quantity of life which results from changes in health-related behaviour is estimated. Specifically, a probabilistic lifetime Markov model is presented where alcohol consumption in grams of alcohol per day and drinking history are used for the categorization of patients into four Markov states. Utility weights are assigned to each drinking state using EQ-5D scores. Mortality and morbidity estimates are state, gender and age specific, and are alcohol-related and non-alcohol-related. The methodology is tested in a case study. This represents a major development in the techniques traditionally used in alcohol economic models, in which short-term costs and outcomes are assessed, omitting potential longer term cost savings and improvements in health related quality of life. Assumptions and implications of the approach are discussed. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Effect of a water-based no-sting, protective barrier formulation and a solvent-containing similar formulation on skin protection from medical adhesive trauma

    INTERNATIONAL WOUND JOURNAL, Issue 1 2009
    Ronald J Shannon
    Abstract Trauma to the skin from repeated removal of adhesive-based medical products can cause pain, anxiety, risk of secondary infections and additional health care costs. Skin barrier formulations are used to protect the integrity from such trauma. However, not all formulations are equally protective. We report the results of a randomised controlled study comparing a solvent-free (SF) formulation and a solvent-containing (SC) formulation to the skin of 12 healthy volunteers aged 18,55 years. Treatments were applied at baseline to two of the four test sites on the back of each subject and repeated for 5 days. Measurements of pain, discomfort, erythema and skin water loss were taken 24 hours after each application. The SF formulation is associated with lower mean scores for erythema (day 5, P < 0·05) and lower values for transepidermal water loss (day 5, P < 0·05) and redness (days 4 and 5, P < 0·05) when compared with either no treatment or daily treatment with a SC formulation. There were no significant differences between subject responses when pain on application of the test formulation or discomfort associated with removal of the medical adhesive tapes were rated. We conclude that a SF formulation provides better security against adhesive-derived skin trauma than a SC formulation. [source]


    Cost Analysis of the Geriatric Resources for Assessment and Care of Elders Care Management Intervention

    JOURNAL OF AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, Issue 8 2009
    Steven R. Counsell MD
    OBJECTIVES: To provide, from the healthcare delivery system perspective, a cost analysis of the Geriatric Resources for Assessment and Care of Elders (GRACE) intervention, which is effective in improving quality of care and outcomes. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial with physicians as the unit of randomization. SETTING: Community-based primary care health centers. PARTICIPANTS: Nine hundred fifty-one low-income seniors aged 65 and older; 474 participated in the intervention and 477 in usual care. INTERVENTION: Home-based care management for 2 years by a nurse practitioner and social worker who collaborated with the primary care physician and a geriatrics interdisciplinary team and were guided by 12 care protocols for common geriatric conditions. MEASUREMENTS: Chronic and preventive care costs, acute care costs, and total costs in the full sample (n=951) and predefined high-risk (n=226) and low-risk (n=725) groups. RESULTS: Mean 2-year total costs for intervention patients were not significantly different from those for usual care patients in the full sample ($14,348 vs $11,834; P=.20) and high-risk group ($17,713 vs $18,776; P=.38). In the high-risk group, increases in chronic and preventive care costs were offset by reductions in acute care costs, and the intervention was cost saving during the postintervention, or third, year ($5,088 vs $6,575; P<.001). Mean 2-year total costs were higher in the low-risk group ($13,307 vs $9,654; P=.01). CONCLUSION: In patients at high risk of hospitalization, the GRACE intervention is cost neutral from the healthcare delivery system perspective. A cost-effectiveness analysis is needed to guide decisions about implementation in low-risk patients. [source]


    Healthcare Utilization of Elderly Persons Hospitalized After a Noninjurious Fall in a Swiss Academic Medical Center

    JOURNAL OF AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, Issue 6 2006
    Laurence Seematter-Bagnoud MD
    OBJECTIVES: To determine the risk of hospital readmission, nursing home admission, and death, as well as health services utilization over a 6-month follow-up, in community-dwelling elderly persons hospitalized after a noninjurious fall. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study with 6-month follow-up. SETTING: Swiss academic medical center. PARTICIPANTS: Six hundred ninety persons aged 75 and older hospitalized through the emergency department. MEASUREMENTS: Data on demographics and medical, physical, social, and mental status were collected upon admission. Follow-up data were collected from the state centralized billing system (hospital and nursing home admission) and proxies (death). RESULTS: Seventy patients (10%) were hospitalized after a noninjurious fall. Fallers had shorter hospital stays (median 4 vs 8 days, P<.001) and were more frequently discharged to rehabilitation or respite care than nonfallers. During follow-up, fallers were more likely to be institutionalized (adjusted hazard ratio=1.82, 95% confidence interval=1.03,3.19, P=.04) independent of comorbidity and functional and mental status. Overall institutional costs (averaged per day of follow-up) were similar for both groups ($138.5 vs $148.7, P=.66), but fallers had lower hospital costs and significantly higher rehabilitation and long-term care costs ($55.5 vs $24.1, P<.001), even after adjustment for comorbidity, living situation, and functional and cognitive status. CONCLUSION: Elderly patients hospitalized after a noninjurious fall were twice as likely to be institutionalized as those admitted for other medical conditions and had higher intermediate and long-term care services utilization during follow-up, independent of functional and health status. These results provide direction for interventions needed to delay or prevent institutionalization and reduce subsequent costs. [source]


    Costs and Insurance Coverage Associated with Permanent Mechanical Cardiac Assist/Replacement Devices in the United States

    JOURNAL OF CARDIAC SURGERY, Issue 4 2001
    Roger W. Evans Ph.D.
    Each year over 50,000 persons in the United States could potentially benefit from some form of permanent cardiac replacement or assistance. Approximately 7000 of these persons get on the waiting list for a transplant, and 2300 are transplanted. About 2000 patints are reportedly exposed to a mechanical cardiac assist device, most often as a bridge to transplant. The majority of persons who might benefit from cardiac replacement are never referred for treatment and, thus, the number of deaths on the waiting list is a misleading indicator of access to transplantation and overall patient mortality. The total economic burden associated with coronary artery disease and congestive heart failure now exceeds $140 billion each year, with approximately $700 million directly spent on heart transplant procedures alone. If a viable total artificial heart is devised to replace a failed heart, or a ventriular assist system to permanently assist a failing heart, direct aggregate expenditures alone are likely to be somewhere between $5.4 and $24.0 billion annually. Based on individual patient care costs, as well as aggregate national expenditures, insurers will be reluctant to pay for the permanent use of such devices, even though cost is reportedly not a consideration in coverage decisions. Today, medical benefits and added value are concepts that will shape the coverage determination process, as will increasingly liberal policies regarding payment for treatment costs in relationship to clinical trials. Nonetheless, resource allocation and rationing decisions loom large as strange "characters at play" on an international economic "stage," while being "directed" by worldwide health care needs. [source]


    ASH Position Paper: Adherence and Persistence With Taking Medication to Control High Blood Pressure

    JOURNAL OF CLINICAL HYPERTENSION, Issue 10 2010
    Martha N. Hill RN
    J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2010;12:757-764. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Nonadherence and poor or no persistence in taking antihypertensive medications results in uncontrolled high blood pressure, poor clinical outcomes, and preventable health care costs. Factors associated with nonadherence are multilevel and relate not only to the patient, but also to the provider, health care system, health care organization, and community. National guideline committees have called for more aggressive approaches to implement strategies known to improve adherence and technologies known to enable changes at the systems level, including improved communication among providers and patients. Improvements in adherence and persistence are likely to be achieved by supporting patient self-management, a team approach to patient care, technology-supported office practice systems, better methods to measure adherence, and less clinical inertia. Integrating high blood pressure control into health care policies that emphasize and improve prevention and management of chronic illness remains a challenge. Four strategies are proposed: focusing on clinical outcomes; empowering informed, activated patients; developing prepared proactive practice teams; and advocating for health care policy reform. With hypertension remaining the most common reason for office visits, the time is now. [source]


    Reporting a research project on the potential of aged care nurse practitioners in the Australian Capital Territory

    JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NURSING, Issue 2 2009
    Paul Arbon
    Aim., This paper reports a project investigating the potential role of the nurse practitioner in aged care across residential, community and acute care venues in the Australian Capital Territory. Background., Australia, like many other countries, faces unprecedented challenges in the provision of health care. Escalating health care costs, an ageing population, increasing prevalence of comorbidities and chronic illnesses, inefficient health care delivery, changing models of health care and shifting professional role boundaries are factors that have contributed to the development of advanced practice roles for nursing. Design., This was a mixed methods study using multiple data sources. Methods., Student aged care nurse practitioners were examined across the continuum of care in the acute, community and residential aged care settings. The potential role of the nurse practitioner in these areas was evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively to identify a model of care to enhance the delivery of efficient and effective health care. Results., The project findings have demonstrated that there is potential for significant improvement in client outcomes arising from a transboundary aged care nurse practitioner model. The improved outcomes are associated with a decrease in acute hospital admissions for residential care clients, timely intervention for a range of common conditions and strengthened multidisciplinary approaches to care provision for older people. Conclusions., Overall the project findings strongly support the potential of a transboundary aged care nurse practitioner role. This role would focus on skilled assessment, timely assessment and intervention, brokering around access to care and clinical leadership and education for nurses. Relevance to clinical practice., This paper offers further evidence of support for the role of nurse practitioners in complementing existing health services and improving delivery of care. [source]


    A randomized controlled trial of a community nurse-supported hospital discharge programme in older patients with chronic heart failure

    JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NURSING, Issue 1 2008
    Timothy Kwok MD
    Aims and objectives., To evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a community nurse-supported hospital discharge programme in preventing hospital re-admissions, improving functional status and handicap of older patients with chronic heart failure. Design., Randomized controlled trial; 105 hospitalized patients aged 60 years or over with chronic heart failure and history of hospital admission(s) in previous year were randomly assigned into intervention group (n = 49) and control group (n = 56) for six months. Intervention group subjects received community nurse visits before discharge, within seven days of discharge, weekly for four weeks, then monthly. Community nurse liaised closely with a designated specialist in hospital and were accessible to subjects during normal working hours. Control and intervention group subjects were followed up in the same specialist medical clinics. Primary outcome was the rate of unplanned re-admission at six months. Secondary outcomes were number of unplanned re-admissions, six-minute walking distance, London Handicap Scale and public health care and personal care costs. Results., At sixth months, the re-admission rates were not significantly different (46 vs. 57% in control subjects, p = 0·233, Chi-square test). But the median number of re-admissions tended to lower in the intervention group (0 vs. 1 in control group, p = 0·057, Mann Whitney test). Intervention group subjects had less handicap in independence (median change 0 vs. 0·5 in control subjects, p = 0·002, Mann Whitney test), but there was no difference in six-minute walking distance. There was no significant group difference in median total public health care and personal care costs. Conclusion., Community nurse-supported post-discharge programme was effective in preserving independence and was probably effective in reducing the number of unplanned re-admissions. The cost benefits to public health care were not significant. Relevance to clinical practice., Older chronic heart failure patients are likely to benefit from post-discharge community nurse intervention programmes. More comprehensive health economic evaluation needs to be undertaken. [source]


    Integration and coordination of pain management in primary care

    JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 11 2006
    John D. Otis
    Pain is one of the most common symptoms reported to primary care providers and has significant implications for health care costs. The primary aim of this article is to describe and illustrate how to integrate the treatment of chronic pain in the primary care setting. First, we address the integration and coordination of care between mental health and primary care. We then present a typical case and discuss the patient's treatment, outcome, and prognosis. The article concludes with a discussion of issues that frequently arise when integrating psychological treatment for pain in primary care settings. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol: In Session 62: 1333,1343, 2006. [source]


    Impact of cost containment measures on medical liability

    JOURNAL OF EVALUATION IN CLINICAL PRACTICE, Issue 6 2006
    S. Callens PhD
    Abstract Rationale, Owing to the growing health care expenditure and the need to improve efficiency, public authorities have since the 1980s changed their policy with respect to health care. Financial pressures encouraged them to investigate methods to control health care costs. One recent method is the enactment of cost containment measures based on clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) that provide financial or administrative sanctions. Aims and objectives, This article describes the legal value of CPGs, the evolution towards cost containment measures based on CPGs, and finally the legal value of these new cost containment measures. It questions whether these measures may have an impact on the medical liability rules and it wants to open the debate on the legal value of these measures based vis-à-vis the professional autonomy of the physician and patients' rights on quality care. Methods, The research for this article is based on a comparative analysis of the legal literature and jurisprudence of a number of legal systems. Results and Conclusions, The article concludes that, as a result of the rising costs, it becomes increasingly difficult for a physician to balance his duty to take care on the one hand and his duty to control costs on the other. Maintaining a high standard of care towards patients becomes difficult. Consequently, one wonders whether the law should then allow the standard of care to be adjusted according to the available means. Until now, courts in a fault based system have not been willing to accept such an adjustment of the standard of care, but it might well be possible that this attitude will change in case of no-fault compensation systems. [source]