Care Community (care + community)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Does the Emergency Exception from Informed Consent Process Protect Research Subjects?

Nicole M. Delorio MD
Abstract Although subject protection is the cornerstone of medical ethics, when considered in the context of research using emergency exception from informed consent, its success is debatable. The participants of a breakout session at the 2005 Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference discussed the issues surrounding subject protection and advanced the following recommendations. 1) There are no outcome measures that define "protection"; therefore, it is not currently known whether or not subjects are protected under the current rules. 2) Care must be taken to protect not only the individual from harm during research but also to protect society from unregulated research in other countries and an inability to appropriately advance medical knowledge. 3) Some surrogate markers/methods of protection whose efficacies are debatable include data safety monitoring board activity, the community consultation and public notification (CC/PN) process, and institutional review board approval. 4) Minimal-risk studies should be held to different standards of protection than those that involve more significant risk to the subject. 5) A handful of studies have been published regarding community consultation and notification, and the majority are case studies. Those that are specifically designed to discover the most successful methods are hindered by a lack of formal outcomes measures and tend to have negative results. 6) Follow-up data from the CC/PN process should be disclosed to the Food and Drug Administration and incorporated into study designs. 7) Focus groups and/or random-digit dialing have been suggested as promising methods for fulfilling the CC/PN requirements. 8) Studies need to be funded and performed that formally investigate the best means of CC/PN. 9) More funding for this research should be a priority in the emergency medicine and critical care communities. More data regarding terminated studies should be made available to the research community. 10) Quantifiable markers of success for CC/PN must be validated so that research may determine the most successful methods. 11) Data regarding subjects' and family members' experiences with exception from informed consent studies need to be obtained. [source]

Teaching Culturally Appropriate Care: A Review of Educational Models and Methods

Cherri Hobgood MD
Abstract The disparities in health care and health outcomes between the majority population and cultural and racial minorities in the United States are a problem that likely is influenced by the lack of culturally competent care. Emergency medicine and other primary-care specialties remain on the front lines of this struggle because of the nature of their open-door practice. To provide culturally appropriate care, health care providers must recognize the factors impeding cultural awareness, seek to understand the biases and traditions in medical education potentially fueling this phenomenon, and create a health care community that is open to individuals' otherness, thus leading to better communication of ideas and information between patients and their health care providers. This article highlights the rationale for and current problems in teaching cultural competency and examines several different models implemented to teach and promote cultural competency along the continuum of emergency medicine learners. However, the literature addressing the true efficacy of such programs in leading to long-lasting change and improvement in minority patients' clinical outcomes remains insufficient. [source]

Understanding Surge Capacity: Essential Elements

Donna F. Barbisch RN
As economic forces have reduced immediately available resources, the need to surge to meet patient care needs that exceed expectations has become an increasing challenge to the health care community. The potential patient care needs projected by pandemic influenza and bioterrorism catapulted medical surge to a critical capability in the list of national priorities, making it front-page news. Proposals to improve surge capacity are abundant; however, surge capacity is poorly defined and there is little evidence-based comprehensive planning. There are no validated measures of effectiveness to assess the efficacy of interventions. Before implementing programs and processes to manage surge capacity, it is imperative to validate assumptions and define the underlying components of surge. The functional components of health care and what is needed to rapidly increase capacity must be identified by all involved. Appropriate resources must be put into place to support planning factors. Using well-grounded scientific principles, the health care community can develop comprehensive programs to prioritize activities and link the necessary resources. Building seamless surge capacity will minimize loss and optimize outcomes regardless of the degree to which patient care needs exceed capability. [source]

rFVIIa, for acute rebleeding of a cerebral cavernous malformation

K. Engelhardt
Recurrent bleeding episodes of cavernomas especially in the brainstem can cause progressive neurological deficits. Therefore brainstem cavernomas are still a therapeutic dilemma and a treatment challenge for the neuro critical care community. We report a 39-year-old woman with spontaneous ataxia diplopia and vomiting, who has been treated for multiple intracerebral cavernomas during the last 10 years. A cerebral computed tomography (cCT) revealed a re-bleeding cavernoma in the left cerebral peduncle with consecutive obstructive hydrocephalus. As a result of the difficult anatomical location, no surgical approach was possible. As an off-label treatment, recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) was administered to prevent possible further bleeding and especially further sequelae. The patient recovered well and no adverse events and especially no further bleeding of the cavernoma were observed. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the safe and successful use of rFVIIa to treat re-bleeding episodes in cavernomas. Further clinical studies are needed to specify the future potential of rFVIIa. [source]

Does Team Training Work?

Principles for Health Care
Abstract Teamwork is integral to a working environment conducive to patient safety and care. Team training is one methodology designed to equip team members with the competencies necessary for optimizing teamwork. There is evidence of team training's effectiveness in highly complex and dynamic work environments, such as aviation and health care. However, most quantitative evaluations of training do not offer any insight into the actual reasons why, how, and when team training is effective. To address this gap in understanding, and to provide guidance for members of the health care community interested in implementing team training programs, this article presents both quantitative results and a specific qualitative review and content analysis of team training implemented in health care. Based on this review, we offer eight evidence-based principles for effective planning, implementation, and evaluation of team training programs specific to health care. [source]