Care Activities (care + activity)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Care Activities

  • patient care activity

  • Selected Abstracts

    Patients' subjective symptoms, quality of life and intake of food during the recovery period 3 and 12 months after upper gastrointestinal surgery

    U. OLSSON rnt, phd student
    Few studies describe patients' quality of life and their experienced symptoms during the recovery period after having undergone upper gastrointestinal surgery at 3 and 12 months. The aims of this study were to explore patients' quality of life and symptoms preoperatively and at 3 and 12 months following upper gastrointestinal surgery and to describe and compare patients' experiences of appetite, food intake, weight changes, tiredness and sleeping patterns. A descriptive and comparative quantitative design was used. Three instruments were used: the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale, the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire and the Eating Dysfunction Scale. A questionnaire was used to investigate symptoms such as mood, appetite, sleep, activities and well-being. Twenty-four patients were included in the study. The major results were that anxiety levels and global health status decreased and that patients felt more disappointed after 12 months compared with after 3 months. Four patients at 3 months after surgery and eight patients at 12 months regained their weight compared with the situation before surgery. The contribution of nursing care activities focusing on the importance of food intake and the patients' current and historical medical records in relation to their health status should continue to be examined and researched over a longer period of time. [source]

    Symbolization and emotional engagement in mothers' reports of child care activities

    Christopher Christian
    Abstract This study examines differences in mothers' emotional connection to their children as represented in narratives concerning a range of everyday parenting activities and interactions. First time mothers were interviewed over a period of approximately the first two years of their children's lives, using a semi-structured Parenting Function Interview (PFI), developed for purposes of this research. The new computerized Referential Activity (RA) measure, the Weighted Referential Activity Dictionary (WRAD), was applied to the interview transcripts. Significant differences in RA, representing differences in the symbolizing process and emotional engagement in particular parent,child activities, were found between mothers, and also according to child care topic. On average, mothers' RA was highest for topics of bathing, bedtime and pleasurable events, and lowest for angry and difficult moments. Themes of feeding were relatively low in RA for three of the four mothers, and reports of frightening events showed significantly higher RA than themes of anger for all mothers. Clinical implications of profiles of the mothers' emotional engagement in different topic areas are discussed. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Health care insurance in Japan: Beyond a binary vision of State and family

    Kusuto Nato
    Abstract Despite significant regional diversity in household structures and the existence of community solidarity in Japan, caring for elderly dependent persons has traditionally been considered an exclusively family, and female, responsibility. However, as a result of socio-demographic changes during the second half of the twentieth century, a public system of health care insurance was introduced in 2000. The objective of this development was to "socialize" family and female care activities. This article presents a critical analysis of Japan's health care insurance system and the context that gave rise to its introduction. An important issue is whether the system meets the needs of the elderly and their carers (family and non-family). A further issue is whether the system can take account of regional diversity, diversity in household situations (above and beyond financial concerns), and societal values and beliefs. The article concludes by arguing that demographic ageing presents a societal requirement for the ongoing adjustment of behaviour patterns and living arrangements. [source]

    Nursing home care: whodunit?

    Aggie TG Paulus PhD
    Aims and objectives., (1) To analyse and compare (changes and differences in) activity profiles of various types of nursing home care. (2) To assess the impact of integrated care on these activity profiles. Background., Because of an ongoing introduction of integrated nursing home care, caregivers increasingly have to co-ordinate their activities, engage into interprofessional relationships and take over each other's tasks. Consequently, activity profiles [i.e. combinations of (contributions to) care activities and the roles that perform them] are expected to change. Design/methods., At three measurement points in the period 1999,2003, caregivers (in 18 different roles) recorded and listed direct and indirect care activities. A total of 41 335 lists were analysed to derive activity profiles of traditional, transitional and integrated nursing home care in the Netherlands. Results., Traditional, transitional and integrated care shared some comparable activity profiles. Integrated care differed from the other types with respect to the contribution of the geriatric nurse, recreational activities supervisor, nutrition assistant, household assistant and nursing assistant to activities such as extra care, handling food and club activities. Contrary to the other roles, the licensed practical nurse contributed to (almost) all activities in all types of care. Conclusions., Nursing home care has several recurring activity profiles. These profiles are the same in all types of nursing home care. The introduction of integrated care implies that particular profiles have to be added to these profiles. As a generalist, the licensed practical nurse seems to play a key role in all activity profiles. Relevance to clinical practice., Because of demographic and financial pressures, integrated care for older people becomes increasingly important. By addressing the impact of integrated care on activity profiles, this paper provides information on how new types of care can be delivered in the most effective manner. [source]

    A Work Sampling Study of Provider Activities in School-Based Health Centers

    Brian Mavis PhD
    ABSTRACT Background:, The purpose of this study was to describe provider activities in a convenience sample of School-Based Health Centers (SBHCs). The goal was to determine the relative proportion of time that clinic staff engaged in various patient care and non-patient care activities. Methods:, All provider staff at 4 urban SBHCs participated in this study; 2 were in elementary schools, 1 in a middle school, and 1 in a school with kindergarten through grade 8. The study examined provider activity from 6 days sampled at random from the school year. Participants were asked to document their activities in 15-minute intervals from 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. A structured recording form was used that included 35 activity categories. Results:, Overall, 1492 records were completed, accounting for 2708 coded activities. Almost half (48%) of all staff activities were coded as direct patient contact, with clinic operations the second largest category. Limited variations in activities were found across clinic sites and according to season. Conclusions:, A significant amount of provider activity was directed at the delivery of health care; direct patient care and clinic operations combined accounted for approximately 75% of clinic activity. Patient, classroom, and group education activities, as well as contacts with parents and school staff accounted for 20% of all clinic activity and represent important SBHC functions that other productivity measures such as billing data might not consistently track. Overall, the method was acceptable to professional staff as a means of tracking activity and was adaptable to meet their needs. [source]

    Using School Staff to Establish a Preventive Network of Care to Improve Elementary School Students' Control of Asthma

    Jean-Marie Bruzzese
    To address these problems, Columbia University and the New York City Department of Education and the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene undertook a randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of a comprehensive school-based asthma program. In this intervention, school nurses were trained to facilitate the establishment of a preventive network of care for children with asthma by coordinating communications and fostering relationships between families, PCPs, and school personnel. PCPs also received training regarding asthma management. There was limited support for this model. While case detection helped nurses identify additional students with asthma and nurses increased the amount of time spent on asthma-related tasks, PCPs did not change their medical management of asthma. Few improvements in health outcomes were achieved. Relative to controls, 12-months posttest intervention students had a reduction in activity limitations due to asthma (,35% vs ,9%, p < .05) and days with symptoms (26% vs 39%, p = .06). The intervention had no impact on the use of urgent health care services, school attendance, or caregiver's quality of life. There were also no improvements at 24-months postintervention. We faced many challenges related to case detection, training, and implementing preventive care activities, which may have hindered our success. We present these challenges, describe how we coped with them, and discuss the lessons we learned. (J Sch Health. 2006;76(6):307-312) [source]

    Evidence-Based Medicine and Neuromodulation

    NEUROMODULATION, Issue 3 2008
    John D. Loeser MD
    ABSTRACT Evidence-based medicine is gaining increasing penetrance in the United States. Neuromodulation providers need to know how to use this resource and how to get what we do appropriately evaluated and included in structured reviews and meta-analyses. Randomized clinical trials are not the only form of evidence for patient care activities; other, equally valid strategies are available and should be used for interventions that may preclude blinding and randomization. Those who determine payment are going to use evidence-based medicine to make decisions that may not be in the best interests of our patients or our profession. [source]

    Position statement on the role of health care assistants who are involved in direct patient care activities within critical care areas

    The British Association of Critical Care Nurses
    Summary ,Intensive care has developed as a speciality since the 1950s, and during this time, there have been major technological advances in health care provision, leading to a rapid expansion of all areas of critical care ,The ongoing problem in recruiting qualified nurses in general has affected, and continues to be a problem for, all aspects of critical care areas ,During the past decade, nursing practice has evolved, as qualified nurses have expanded their own scope of practice to develop a more responsive approach to the complex care needs of the critically ill patient ,The aim of this paper is to present the British Association of Critical Care Nurses (BACCN) position statement on the role of health care assistants involved in direct patient care activities, and to address some of the key work used to inform the development of the position statement [source]

    Rural Hospitals and the Adoption of Managed Care Strategies

    Shadi S. Saleh Ph.D
    ABSTRACT: This research examined the performance of rural hospitals engaged in different levels of managed care activities and identified factors related to performance and competition that affected rural hospitals' likelihood of pursuing managed care as a strategy. The sample studied consisted of 139 rural hospitals in Iowa and Nebraska. Results showed that a relatively high percentage of hospitals were engaged in managed care activities, mainly through contractual arrangements. The study found that high competition in the marketplace increased the likelihood of hospitals pursuing managed care strategies, while high demand markets had a negative association with the likelihood of pursuing a managed care strategy. No significant relationship was detected between poor performance and pursuing a managed care strategy. [source]

    Promoting Teamwork: An Event-based Approach to Simulation-based Teamwork Training for Emergency Medicine Residents

    Michael A. Rosen MA
    Abstract The growing complexity of patient care requires that emergency physicians (EPs) master not only knowledge and procedural skills, but also the ability to effectively communicate with patients and other care providers and to coordinate patient care activities. EPs must become good team players, and consequently an emergency medicine (EM) residency program must systematically train these skills. However, because teamwork-related competencies are relatively new considerations in health care, there is a gap in the methods available to accomplish this goal. This article outlines how teamwork training for residents can be accomplished by employing simulation-based training (SBT) techniques and contributes tools and strategies for designing structured learning experiences and measurement tools that are explicitly linked to targeted teamwork competencies and learning objectives. An event-based method is described and illustrative examples of scenario design and measurement tools are provided. [source]

    Parental care in response to natural variation in nest predation pressure in six sunfish (Centrarchidae: Teleostei) species

    S. J. Cooke
    Abstract,,, Parental care is an important, energetically costly component of the life history of many fishes. Despite this importance, little is known about how different species of fish vary parental care in response to natural nest predator burdens. In this study, underwater videography was used to quantify parental care activity of six species of syntopic nesting male centrarchid fishes in Lake Opinicon, Ontario, in response to natural predators. This approach was used to test the hypothesis that as offspring develop from eggs to wrigglers, parental care activity should decrease or remain static for fish guarding nests with low predator burden and increase for those with high predator burden, reflecting different external risks. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to derive common aeration and nest defence variables. Aeration and predator defence activity of the fish varied extensively among species. Parental care behaviours indicative of defence and vigilance (e.g., turning, departures, time away from nest, displays) tended to be highest for species that had the most predation attempts, although this was not entirely consistent. There was also a positive relationship between the defence PCA metric and attempted predation. Defence did not vary with stage of offspring development, although interactions between defence and developmental stage were noted for several species. A trade-off between aeration and defence was not observed. In fact, species that provide high levels of aeration also simultaneously provide high levels of defence. Stage-specific patterns of defence in this study were less apparent than those documented by studies using responses to staged predator intrusions making it unclear as to the extent that fish were responding to the level of the risk to offspring than to the value of the brood. Therefore, combined use of observational and experimental assessments of parental care investment may be most appropriate for refining current theoretical paradigms. [source]

    Triage, treat and transfer: reconceptualising a rural practice model,

    Elise Sullivan
    Aim., This article argues that the current model of emergency practice in rural Victorian hospitals, which relies heavily on visiting medical officers, needs to be reconceptualised if emergency services are to be supplied to rural communities. Background., Medical workforce shortages are manifesting in Victoria as a reduction in emergency care services from rural hospitals. The suggested alternative model of emergency care involves advancing nursing practice to enable a redistribution of clinical capacity across the health care team. Clinicians will need to work collaboratively and continuously negotiate their roles to meet the patient's and the clinical team's needs. Design., Systematic review. Methods., This article is based on a review of the Victorian and Australian literature on the subject of Victorian health services and policy, emergency care, collaboration, communication and rural nurse scope of practice and roles. Emergency care activity was drawn from data held in the Victorian Emergency Management Dataset and personal communications between one of the authors and hospital executives in a small selection of rural hospitals in Victoria. Results., The evidence reviewed suggests that the current emergency practice profile of rural hospitals in Victoria does not reflect the reconceptualised model of rural emergency practice. Instead, only a small proportion of non-urgent presentations is managed by nurses without medical support, and the data suggest that metropolitan nurses are more likely to manage without medical support than rural nurses. Conclusion., Reconceptualising rural emergency care in Victoria will require significantly greater investment in rural nurses' knowledge and skills to enable them to operate confidently at a more advanced level. Clinical teams that deliver emergency service in rural hospitals will be expected increasingly to work collaboratively and interprofessionally. Relevance to clinical practice., This article offers some directions for advancing nursing practice and strategies for improving interprofessional collaboration in the delivery of rural emergency care. [source]

    Developmental care in the UK: a developing initiative

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 11 2009
    K E StC Hamilton
    Abstract Aim:, To review developmental care over time in the UK. Methods:, Longitudinal study comprising two prospective observational studies of unit organization and developmental care activity collected in 2005 and 2008 in all UK neonatal units. Indices related to developmental care and an aggregated score are reported corresponding to year and level of care. Results:, In 2008, over 90% units had open visiting for parents and modified lighting and 80% modified noise, showing no change since 2005. Incubator cover usage increased from 75% to 95%. Rates of parental tube feeding dropped from 76% to 64% and kangaroo care increased from 50% to 80%. Proportions of units with developmental care personnel and staff trained in developmental care have almost doubled to 64% and 57%. Aggregated scores, reflecting eight basic indices of developmental care, were unchanged: the 2005 mean was 5.7 (SD = 1.5) and 6.2 (SD = 1.5) in 2008. Scores were significantly higher in larger units and in those with developmental care personnel or developmentally trained staff. Conclusion:, Despite a significant increase in developmental care skills and infrastructure, variable approaches persist, with limited improvements over time. These findings reflect a UK culture that is ambivalent towards developmental care, and enable comparison with other countries where developmental care is more fully supported. [source]