Caryophyllene

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Terms modified by Caryophyllene

  • caryophyllene oxide

  • Selected Abstracts


    BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF BORAGE (BORAGO OFFICINALIS L.) SEEDS

    JOURNAL OF FOOD BIOCHEMISTRY, Issue 3 2009
    BAYA MHAMDI
    ABSTRACT Gas chromatography,mass spectrometry analysis of seed Borago officinalis essential oil (EO) revealed the presence of 16 volatile components. ,-Caryophyllene (26%) and p-cymene-8-ol (19.7%) represented the major components, while nonadecane (0.7%) and hexanol (0.7%) were the minor ones. The EO composition was characterized by higher abundance of oxygenated monoterpenes (27.7%), followed by sesquiterpenes (26%). Fatty acid composition showed the predominance of linoleic (35.4%), oleic (24.2%) and ,-linolenic (20.4%) acids. Polyphenols were analyzed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography after acid hydrolysis of phenolic acid esters. Six phenolic acids were identified in seed extract and rosmarinic acid was the predominant one with 1.65 mg/g dry matter weight equivalent to 33% of total phenolic acids. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Borage (Borago officinalis L.) is of great interest because of its medicinal and nutritional properties. In fact, thanks to its characteristic composition in fatty acids, particularly high levels of gamma-linolenic acid in its seed oil, borage has gained importance. The potent consumers of this medicinal plant are hypertensive and hypercholesterolemic people. Borage consumption is also recommended for people suffering from rheumatism and eczema. Unfortunately, the knowledge about antioxidative/antiradical properties of borage is very scanty. So, recently, an extensive investigation was focused on the antioxidant properties of borage extracts. These extracts showed excellent antioxidant properties and their effects were attributed to their phenolic constituents. These antioxidants can be concentrated, either as crude extracts or individual phenolic compounds, to be used in highly unsaturated oils such as marine oils. Furthermore, borage consumption has been reported as a possible gastric cancer protective factor. [source]


    Volatile organic compounds: a potential direct long-distance mechanism for antagonistic action of Fusarium oxysporum strain MSA 35

    ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, Issue 4 2009
    Daniela Minerdi
    Summary Fusarium oxysporum MSA 35 [wild-type (WT) strain] is an antagonistic Fusarium that lives in association with a consortium of bacteria belonging to the genera Serratia, Achromobacter, Bacillus and Stenotrophomonas in an Italian soil suppressive to Fusarium wilt. Typing experiments and virulence tests provided evidence that the F. oxysporum isolate when cured of the bacterial symbionts [the cured (CU) form], is pathogenic, causing wilt symptoms identical to those caused by F. oxysporum f. sp. lactucae. Here, we demonstrate that small volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from the WT strain negatively influence the mycelial growth of different formae speciales of F. oxysporum. Furthermore, these VOCs repress gene expression of two putative virulence genes in F. oxysporum lactucae strain Fuslat10, a fungus against which the WT strain MSA 35 has antagonistic activity. The VOC profile of the WT and CU fungus shows different compositions. Sesquiterpenes, mainly caryophyllene, were present in the headspace only of WT MSA 35. No sesquiterpenes were found in the volatiles of ectosymbiotic Serratia sp. strain DM1 and Achromobacter sp. strain MM1. Bacterial volatiles had no effects on the growth of the different ff. spp. of F. oxysporum examined. Hyphae grown with VOC from WT F. oxysporum f. sp. lactucae strain MSA 35 were hydrophobic whereas those grown without VOCs were not, suggesting a correlation between the presence of volatiles in the atmosphere and the phenotype of the mycelium. This is the first report of VOC production by antagonistic F. oxysporum MSA 35 and their effects on pathogenic F. oxysporum. The results obtained in this work led us to propose a new potential direct long-distance mechanism for antagonism by F. oxysporum MSA 35 mediated by VOCs. Antagonism could be the consequence of both reduction of pathogen mycelial growth and inhibition of pathogen virulence gene expression. [source]


    Chemical composition of essential oils from aerial parts of Cinnamomum malabatrum (Burman f.) Bercht & Presl.

    FLAVOUR AND FRAGRANCE JOURNAL, Issue 1 2009
    N. K. Leela
    Abstract The constituents of the essential oils of leaf, petiole, shoot and terminal shoot of Cinnamomum malabatrum were determined by GC and GC,MS. Thirty-nine compounds, constituting 95% of the oil, were identified in the leaves. Major constituents of the leaf oil were (E)-caryophyllene (28.6%), (E)-cinnamyl acetate (15.1%), bicyclogermacrene (14.4%) and benzyl benzoate (8.5%). Twenty-eight compounds, representing 98% and 97% of the oil, were identified in the petioles and shoots, respectively, whereas in the oil of the terminal shoots 34 compounds, accounting for 97%, were identified. The essential oils of the petioles, shoots and terminal shoots were dominated by linalool (77.8,79.4%). This is the first report of the essential oil constituents of C. malabatrum. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    The chemical composition of essential oils and lipophilic extracts of Silphium integrifolium Michx. and S. trifoliatum L. leaves

    FLAVOUR AND FRAGRANCE JOURNAL, Issue 3 2008
    Rados, aw Kowalski
    Abstract The research presented in this paper revealed that secretory ducts in leaf stalks and main nerves of leaf blades of S. integrifolium and S. trifoliatum were of schizogenic origin and were present in varied number around vascular bundles. GC,FID and GC,MS analyses of essential oils and lipophilic extracts made from leaves collected from tested Silphium species in 1999,2001 and 2007 indicated that sesquiterpene compounds were the main constituents: germacrene D, ,- caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide and silphiperfol-6-en-5-one. Only the oil and extracts from S. integrifolium contained significant amounts of allo -aromadendr-9-ene (8.5 4.2% in oil achieved in 1999,2001, as well as 3.7 0.1% and 5.7 0.3 g/ml, respectively in essential oil and extract (1:10) from 2007). Besides volatile compounds, sterols such as , -sitosterol and stigmasterol as well as triterpene alcohols (,- amyrine and , -amyrine), higher alkanes, free fatty acids and their derivatives along with vitamin E were present in tested lipophilic extracts. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Composition of essential oil, concrete, absolute, wax and headspace volatiles of Murrarya paniculata (Linn.) Jack flowers

    FLAVOUR AND FRAGRANCE JOURNAL, Issue 5 2007
    P. K. Rout
    Abstract Murraya paniculata (Linn) Jack, syn. M. exotica Linn., commonly known as orange jessamine, is grown in gardens for its large clusters of fragrant flowers. Distillation of the fresh flowers in water furnished the essential oil in 0.027% yield. Extraction of the fresh flowers with pentane afforded the concrete (0.78%). Precipitating the waxes from the concrete with methanol gave absolute (0.62%). The chemical composition of essential oil, concrete, absolute and wax were analysed by GC and GC,MS. The components of essential oil in significant amounts were , -elemene (1.4%), (E)-caryophyllene (3.6%), germacrene D (2.7%), (E)-nerolidol (25.7%), benzyl benzoate (8.1%), phenyl ethyl benzoate (8.0%) and manool (18.7%). The major components in the concrete and absolute, respectively, were phenyl ethyl alcohol (2.9%, 3.0%), indole (0.8%, 1.0%), (E)-nerolidol (6.5%, 7.0%), benzyl benzoate (5.0%, 6.5%), phenyl ethyl benzoate (8.0%, 8.6%) and manool (25.2%, 27.9%). The methanol-insoluble wax contained (E)-nerolidol (2.6%), manool (9.4%) and most of the fatty acids/esters. The composition of the volatile components in the headspace emitted by flowers still on the branch (live flowers) and also by the picked flowers was determined by HS,SPME on a PDMS fibre and these results are also presented. The major components found in the headspace were linalool, indole, (E)-caryophyllene, germacrene D, bicyclogermacrene and (E,E)- , -farnesene. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Chemical composition of the essential oil from Vernonia scorpioides (Asteraceae)

    FLAVOUR AND FRAGRANCE JOURNAL, Issue 4 2007
    Maria Rose Jane R. Albuquerque
    Abstract The essential oil from aerial parts of Vernonia scorpiodes was obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus. Qualitative and quantitative analysis were performed by GC,FID and GC,MS, respectively. A total of 18 compounds, representing 95.3% of the total volatile content, were identified. The major components found were , -caryophyllene (30.6%), germacrene D (27.3%), and bicyclogermacrene (8.5%). Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Volatile components of Thymus vulgaris L. from wild-growing and cultivated plants in Jordan

    FLAVOUR AND FRAGRANCE JOURNAL, Issue 4 2007
    M. Hudaib
    Abstract The composition of the essential oil hydrodistilled from the aerial parts of Thymus vulgaris L. grown in Jordan has been determined by GC and GC,MS. Variations in oil composition and yield between cultivated and wild-growing plants collected from different localities, at different altitudes, have been also evaluated. Higher oil yields were observed in plants growing wild (3.7,5.6% of dried material) than in cultivated plants (1.1,2.0%), and those collected from the Mshaqar region, in the middle of Jordan and at the highest altitude, were the richest in oil (,5.4%). Generally, the oil was characterized by marked levels of phenolic monoterpenoids (mainly thymol and carvacrol) in the range 70.8,89.0%. High levels of the monoterpenoid hydrocarbons p -cymene (3.4,8.2%) and , -terpinene (1.6,7.7%) were also observed. Other major components were 1,8-cineole (up to 2.1%), , -thujone (up to 1.2%), camphor (up to 1.1%) and , -caryophyllene (0.2,2.8%). With the exception of plants growing wild in the Ramtha region, in the far north of Jordan, carvacrol was found as the principal phenol of all other oils (50.6,86.1%) and was dominant (>85%) in wild plant oils. The oil from Ramtha was characterized by the highest level of thymol (,63.8%) as the dominant phenol and was most abundant in p -cymene (8.2%), 1,8-cineole (2.1%) and , -terpinene (7.7%). In addition to assigning carvacrol or thymol chemotypes to the plant, the high content of active monoterpenoid phenols strongly suggests a potential use of Jordanian thyme oil in cough products and antimicrobial,herbal drug combinations. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Essential oils and a novel polyacetylene from Eryngium yuccifolium Michaux. (Apiaceae),

    FLAVOUR AND FRAGRANCE JOURNAL, Issue 6 2006
    Nahla Ayoub
    Abstract The essential oils of Eryngium yuccifolium Michaux. (Apiaceae) were isolated from the leaves, stalks and roots by hydrodistillation. Analysis of the oils by GC and GC,MS revealed that the leaves oil contained 49 compounds, of which germacrene D (18.3%), terpinolene (17.8%), bicyclogermacrene (8.8%), , -pinene (7.6%), -caryophyllene (6.2%) and falcarinol (9.6%) were found to be the major constituents. In addition, 40 compounds were identified from the stalk oil, among which, germacrene D (38.4%), , -amorphene (12.2%), bicyclogermacrene (10.1%), bicyclosesquiphellandrene (3.4%) and falcarinol (3.2%) were the major components. The roots oil was found to contain 25 compounds, of which, terpinolene (25.8%), trans - , -bergamotene (18.6%) and the benzaldehyde 2,3,6-trimethylbenzaldehyde (13.9%), were the major constituents. Yuccifolol (nonadeca-1,11-diene-4,6,8-triyne-3,10-diol), a novel polyacetylene, was isolated and identified from the hexane:ether extract of the aerial parts, together with the known polyacetylenes, falcarinone [heptadeca-1,9-(Z)-dien-4,6-diyn-3-one], falcarinol (heptadeca-1,9-dien-4,6-diyn-3-ol) and heptadeca-1,8-diene-4,6-diyne-3,9-diol. The chemical structures of these constituents were established by NMR (DEPT, COSY, HMQC and HMBC) as well as HRESI,MS analysis. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Volatile constituents of Dorema aucheri Boiss., Seseli libanotis (L.) W. D. Koch var. armeniacum Bordz. and Conium maculatum L. three Umbelliferae herbs growing wild in Iran

    FLAVOUR AND FRAGRANCE JOURNAL, Issue 5 2006
    Shiva Masoudi
    Abstract The composition of the essential oils from three Umbelliferae species of Iran,Dorema aucheri Boiss., which is endemic to Iran, Seseli libanotis (L.) W. D. Koch var. armeniacum Bordz. and Conium maculatum L.,obtained by hydrodistillation were analyzed by GC and GC[sol ]MS. , -Eudesmol (31.2%) and , -cadinene (10.9%) were the main components among the 35 constituents characterized in Dorema aucheri, representing 89.2% of the total components detected. Twenty-five compound were identified in the oil of Seseli libanotis, repesenting 90.6% of the total oil with acorenone (35.5%) as the major constituents. The oil of Conium maculatum was characterized by higher amount of germacrene D (46.1%), , -caryophyllene (15.3%) and (E,E)- , -farnesene (10.1%) among the 17 components comprising 91.0% of the total oil detected. All oils were richer in sesquiterpenes than monoterpenes. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Flavour volatiles of flowers and stalks of Murraya koenigii L.

    FLAVOUR AND FRAGRANCE JOURNAL, Issue 4 2006
    S. G. Walde
    Abstract The volatiles of fresh leaf stalks and flowers of Murraya koenigii (curry leaf plant), grown in Hyderabad, India, were isolated by simultaneous distillation and extraction method and analysed by GC,MS. Thirty-one components were identified in the leaf stalk oil, constituting 88.1% of the volatile oil. The major components were the mono- and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (66.7%), of which the major ones were , -pinene (24.2%), , -pinene (6.9%), , -phellandrene (7.3%) and , -copaene (8.9%). In addition, the oil had nine oxygenated monoterpenes (14.2%) and four sesquiterpene alcohols (8.1%). In the flower oil, 24 components were identified, constituting 91.8% of the volatile oil. Here, too, the major constituents were mono- and sesquiterpenes (87%), of which cis -ocimene (34.1%), , -pinene (19.1%), , -terpinene (6.7%) and , -caryophyllene (9.5%) were predominant. It also contained seven oxygenated monoterpenes and three oxygenated sesquiterpenes, constituting 4.7% of the oil. The larger number of oxygenated mono- and sesquiterpenes present appear to be responsible for the intense odour associated with the stalk and flower parts of Murraya koenigii as compared to the leaf. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    The essential oil composition of Acroptilon repens (L.) DC. of Turkish origin

    FLAVOUR AND FRAGRANCE JOURNAL, Issue 3 2006
    Zeynep Tunalier
    Abstract The composition of essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of Russian knapweed [Acroptilon repens (L.) DC.] (Asteraceae) was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Seventy-two components were identified in the essential oil of Acroptilon repens (L.) DC. Major constituents of the essential oil were , -copaene (22.8%), , -caryophyllene (9.5%), germacrene D (9.0%), , -cubebene (7.9%) and caryophyllene oxide (6.4%). Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Pluchea arabica from Oman

    FLAVOUR AND FRAGRANCE JOURNAL, Issue 3 2006
    Fakhr Eldin O. Suliman
    Abstract Fresh twigs of Pluchea arabica (Boiss) Qaiser & Lack (Compositae) were steam-distilled and the essential oil obtained was analysed by GC,MS. Forty-four components were identified, accounting for 93.2% of the total components detected. The major constituents were , -cadinol (26.8%), 9-(1-methylethylidene)-bicyclo[6.1.0]nonane (10.8%), caryophyllene oxide (10.0%), methyleugenol (9.2%) and , -caryophyllene (6.9%). The essential oil of P. arabica was active against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213), Candida albicans (ATCC 10231) and Bacillus subtilis when tested against seven organisms. The oil was found to be less fragrant than Ocimum forskaoli oil in an odour test. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Essential oils composition of Stachys byzantina, S. inflata, S. lavandulifolia and S. laxa from Iran

    FLAVOUR AND FRAGRANCE JOURNAL, Issue 2 2006
    Katayoun Morteza-Semnani
    Abstract The essential oils of the dried flowering aerial parts of Stachys byzantina, Stachys inflata, Stachys lavandulifolia and Stachys laxa (Labiatae) collected from the suburb of Behshahr, Mazandaran province (north of Iran), in May 2003, were isolated by hydrodistillation and analysed by means of GC and GC,MS. The major components of S. byzantina oil were piperitenone (9.9%), 6,10,14-trimethyl pentadecan-2-one (6.4%), and n -tricosane (6.4%). The main constituents of S. inflata oil were hexadecanoic acid (9.1%), germacrene D (8.9%), , -pinene (5.8%) and bicyclogermacrene (5.1%). The major compounds of S. lavandulifolia oil were 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone (9.3%), , -pinene (7.9%) and hexadecanoic acid (5.2%). The main components of S. laxa oil were germacrene D (17.1%), 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone (12.3%), 7- epi - , -selinene (8.3%), bicyclogermacrene (6.7%), , -caryophyllene (6.2%) and , -pinene (5.9%). Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Chemical composition and biological activities of the essential oils of Salvia canariensis

    FLAVOUR AND FRAGRANCE JOURNAL, Issue 1 2006
    M. C. Garca Vallejo
    Abstract Comparative studies of the chemical composition of steam-distilled essential oils from cultivated Salvia canariensis, collected at different seasons of the year, were studied. The essential oils were analysed by gas chomatography,mass spectrometry: the major components were bornyl acetate (17.8,28.6%), , -caryophyllene (12.7,30.2%), , -pinene (4.6,9.5%) and viridiflorol (13.9,17.3%) in all samples. The essential oils were evaluated for antimicrobial and cytostatic activities and enzymatic inhibitions of xanthine oxidase, , -glucosidase and , -glucuronidase. Concerning the antimicrobial and cytotoxic tests, the oils showed interesting activities towards different Gram-positive bacteria (MIC 45,35 g[sol ]ml), but had no effect against eukaryotic cells. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Composition and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil of Triumfetta rhomboidea Jacq.

    FLAVOUR AND FRAGRANCE JOURNAL, Issue 1 2006
    J. P. Mevy
    Abstract The essential oil of the aerial parts of Triumfetta rhomboidea was analysed by GC and GC-MS and assayed for its antibacterial and antifungal activities. The main constituents identified were trans - , -caryophyllene (22.4%), kessane (14%) and caryophyllene oxide (13%). The antimicrobial tests showed a mild activity against Escherichia coli and Enterococcus hirae. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Chemical composition of essential oil from Acroptilon repens (L.) DC

    FLAVOUR AND FRAGRANCE JOURNAL, Issue 6 2005
    M. Mirza
    Abstract A sample of essential oil obtained from aerial parts of Acroptilon repens (L.) DC. (Asteraceae) was examined by GC and GC/MS. Thirteen compounds were identified representing about 99.7% of the oil, with caryophyllene oxide (54.7%), , -copaene (14.8%) and , -caryophyllene (12.1%) as major constituents. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Volatile composition of the laksa plant (Polygonum hydropiper L.), a potential source of green note aroma compounds

    FLAVOUR AND FRAGRANCE JOURNAL, Issue 5 2005
    J. Jiang
    Abstract Volatile compounds were extracted from laksa plant (Polygonum hydropiper L.) by three isolation techniques,dynamic headspace sampling, simultaneous distillation and extraction (SDE) and liquid,liquid extraction with dichloromethane (DCM). In the GC,MS analysis of the volatile extracts, a total of 46 compounds were identi,ed, including 14 carbonyls, 14 alcohols, 10 hydrocarbons, four esters, two furans, one acid and one base. Carbonyls (aldehydes/ketones) and alcohols are the predominant classes of volatile compounds, accounting for almost 90% (or above) of the total volatiles extracted from the plant. The major compounds include dodecanal (3,40%), (E)-2-hexenal (20,35%), decanal (4,22%), (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol (4,31%), hexanal (1.7,5.1%) and , -caryophyllene (1.7,2.3%). Signi,cantly high levels of both (E)-2-hexenal (leaf aldehyde) and (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol (leaf alcohol) may make the weed plant become a potential source of green note aroma componds. More (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol was found in the stem while more (E)-2-hexenal was detected in the leaf. The laksa stem appeared to contain more decanal and dodecanal but less esters than the leaf. Different isolation techniques produced volatile extracts with different proportions of the major volatile components. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Essential oil composition of Salvia palaestina Benth. from Iran

    FLAVOUR AND FRAGRANCE JOURNAL, Issue 5 2005
    P. Salehi
    Abstract The chemical composition of the essential oil of Salvia palaestina Benth. growing wild in Iran, was examined by GC and GC,MS. 60 components, representing 91.7% of the total oil, were characterized. The main components were germacrene D (14.0%), , -bisabolene (11.9%), 1- epi -cubenol (9.8%), decanal (7.0%), , -caryophyllene (6.1%) and isobornyl butanoate (5.8%). Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Chemical composition of essential oils of two Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit leaves from Nigeria

    FLAVOUR AND FRAGRANCE JOURNAL, Issue 5 2005
    Adeolu O. Eshilokun
    Abstract The essential oils of the leaves of Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit collected from two different sources were isolated by hydrodistillation. The oils were analysed by GC and GC_MS; 36 constituents were identified in the oil of sample collected from the campus of Lagos State University (LASU), while 33 constituents were identified in the oil of sample from Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU). , -Pinene (13.6%), sabinene (13.2%), p -cymene (11.7%), terpinen-4-ol (9.8%) and terpinolene (6.3%) were the major monoterpenes in the LASU oil sample, while sabinene (30.0%), terpinen-4-ol (11.4%), terpinolene (5.6%), 1,8-cineole (5.2%), , -pinene (4.4%) and , -terpinene (4.2%) were the main monoterpenes in the OAU oil sample. , -caryophyllene (5.1_5.9%) and trans - , -bergamotene (1.6_5.2%) represented the major sesquiterpenes in both oils. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Chemical composition of the essential oils of Marrubium parvi,orum Fisch.

    FLAVOUR AND FRAGRANCE JOURNAL, Issue 3 2005
    & C. A. Mey., Marrubium vulgare L. from Iran
    Abstract The composition of essential oil samples obtained by hydrodistillation of the aerial parts of Marrubium parvi,orum Fisch. & C. A. Mey. and Marrubium vulgare L. (family Lamiaceae), were investigated by GC and GC,MS. Fifty-one components in the oil of M. parvi,orum, representing 96.8% of the total oil, and 34 components in the oil of M. vulgare, representing 95.1% of the total oil, were identi,ed. Both essential oils were characterized by a high amount of sesqiterpenes (77.8% and 82.5%, respectively) with bicyclogermacrene (26.3%), germacrene D (21.5%) and , -caryophyllene (15.6%) as the major constituents of M. parvi,orum, and , -bisabolene (25.4%), , -caryophyllene (11.6%), germacrene D (9.7%) and E - , -farnesene (8.3%) as the major component of M. vulgare. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    The essential oil of Anemia tomentosa (Savigny) Sw. var. anthriscifolia (Schrad.) Mickel

    FLAVOUR AND FRAGRANCE JOURNAL, Issue 6 2004
    Hector R Juliani
    Abstract The essential oil composition of the aerial parts of Anemia tomentosa var. anthriscifolia (Anemiaceae) was characterized by GC,MS. Total volatile oil yield extracted by steam distillation was 0.2% dry weight basis. The volatile oil was composed mainly of sesquiterpenes (75%, as the relative percentage of the total essential oil) with lower amounts of monoterpenes (15%); no phenylpropanoids were detected. The sesquiterpenes were composed mainly of oxygenated components (67%), including , -bisabolol (51%), spathulenol (1%), caryophyllene oxide (3%), , -bisaboloxide (1%) and 14-hydroxy-9-epi-(E)-caryophyllene (1%). The monoterpenes were dominated by neral (5%) and geranial (7%), with lower amounts of , -pinene, camphene, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, 1,8-cineole and pinocarveol. This is the ,rst report of the essential oil accumulation (0.2%) and volatile composition in the aromatic fern A. tomentosa. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    The variation of antioxidant activities and chemical composition of essential oils of Teucrium orientale L. var. orientale during harvesting stages

    FLAVOUR AND FRAGRANCE JOURNAL, Issue 5 2004
    Ali Yildirim
    Abstract The aerial parts of Teucrium orientale L. var. orientale were collected at the budding, ,owering and vegetative stages. In the each stage, essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and steam distillation. The chemical compositions of the essential oils were analysed by GC and GC,MS; 43 different compounds were determined in total, and more than 96% of the essential oils were identi,ed by GC and GC,MS. They contain mainly linalool, , -caryophyllene, 3-octanol, phytol, , -bourbonene and germacrene D. Among the steam distillation oils, the highest 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity was found at the budding stage and the lowest at the vegetative stage. At all stages, the DPPH radical scavenging activities of hydrodistillation oils were markedly lower than those of steam distillation oils. Steam distillation oils of the budding and ,owering stages showed the highest antioxidant activities. However, steam distillation oils of the vegetative stage in two doses (200 and 400 g) did not show antioxidant activities (p > 0.05, between these and control). None of the hydrodistillation oils showed detectable antioxidant activity. In contrast, in the presence of 400 g hydrodistillation oils of ,owering stage, prooxidant activity was found in the linoleic acid emulsion. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    The components and anticancer activity of the volatile oil from Streblus asper

    FLAVOUR AND FRAGRANCE JOURNAL, Issue 5 2004
    Weerachai Phutdhawong
    Abstract The volatile oil from fresh leaves of Streblus asper Lour. was isolated by hydrodistillation and analysed through a combination of gas chromatography with FID (GC,FID) and gas chromatography,mass spectrometry (GC,MS). The essential oil was obtained in 0.005% yield as a brown liquid. The major constituents of the volatile oil of S. asper were phytol (45.1%), , -farnesene (6.4%), trans -farnesyl acetate (5.8%), caryophyllene (4.9%) and trans-trans-, -farnesene (2.0%). In addition, the volatile oil showed signi,cant anticancer activity (ED50 << 30 g/ml) from cytotoxicity primary screening tests with P388 (mouse lymphocytic leukaemia) cells but no signi,cant antioxidant activity (IC50 values of >>100 g/ml) in a DPPH radical scavenging assay. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Volatile oils from leaves and stem barks of Cedrela ,ssilis (Meliaceae): chemical composition and antibacterial activities

    FLAVOUR AND FRAGRANCE JOURNAL, Issue 5 2004
    Joo Henrique G. Lago
    Abstract The volatile oils from the leaves and stem barks of Cedrela ,ssilis were submitted to GC,MS analysis and separation by adsorption chromatography. The fractions were analysed by GC, 1H- and 13C-NMR as well as GC,MS. The major components found in the leaf oil were , -caryophyllene (26.3%) and bicyclogermacrene (34.6%), while in the stem bark oil the major compounds were , -bisabolene (10.9%) and globulol (10.9%). In an antibacterial assay, only the leaf oil was able to inhibit growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Eschorichia coli. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Volatile constituents of different organs of Psoralea bituminosa L.

    FLAVOUR AND FRAGRANCE JOURNAL, Issue 2 2004
    Alessandra Bertoli
    Abstract The essential oil and SPME samples of the leaves, ,owers and seeds of Psoralea bituminosa L. were analysed by GC and GC,MS. We have investigated also the presence of monoterpene or aliphatic alcohol glucosides. The essential oils showed both qualitative and quantitative differences. The main constituents of the leaf and the ,ower essential oils were caryophyllene (23% and 18%, respectively), , -farnesene (15% and 6%, respectively), and germacrene D (24% and 18%, respectively). Signi,cant amounts (7%) of the same compounds were also directed in the seed essential oil, but tricyclene (11%) and , -pinene (50%) were the most important constituents of this oil. The volatile fractions of remaining leaf aqueous extracts after treatment with , -glucosidase revealed qualitative differences in comparison with the composition of the corresponding essential oils, and high levels of 3-hexen-1-ol (37%) and 1-octen-3-ol (27%) were observed. The SPME analysis of the fresh leaves, ,owers and seeds of P. bituminosa con,rmed the qualitative composition of the volatile oils, even if we detected signi,cative differences in the percentage ratio between monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes in comparison with the oils, where sesquiterpenes were the main components. In fact the variation of the monoterpenes, tricyclene, , -pinene and camphene between the leaf oil and the corresponding headspace sample was remarkable: tricyclene increased from 0.1% to 8%, , -pinene from 0.1% to 16% and camphene from 0.3% to 10% in the SPME samples. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Chemical composition of the essential oils of Ageratum conyzoides L. occurring in south China

    FLAVOUR AND FRAGRANCE JOURNAL, Issue 1 2004
    Abu James Sundufu
    Abstract The essential oil isolated from the leaves and ,owers of Ageratum conyzoides L. were analysed by GC and GC,MS. The oil contained ageratochromene (precocene II, 25.89%); the sesquiterpene , -caryophyllene (23.79%); demethoxyageratochromene (precocene I, 14.76%) and some monoterpene hydrocarbons, with percentages of 2,5.5%. Comparative analysis with data from Cameroon, Ghana and Vietnam is also reported. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Composition and antifungal activity of essential oils isolated from Hypericum hyssopifolium and Hypericum heterophyllum

    FLAVOUR AND FRAGRANCE JOURNAL, Issue 1 2004
    A. Cakir
    Abstract The composition of the hydrodistilled essential oils obtained from the aerial parts of Hypericum hyssopifolium subsp. elongatum var. elongatum and H. heterophyllum Vent. were analysed by means of GC and GC,MS, and 66 compounds were determined in total. The oils showed remarkable differences in chemical composition. The oil of H. hyssopifolium, which is rich in monoterpenes, consists primarily of , -pinene (57.3%), , -pinene (9.0%), limonene (6.2%) and , -phellandrene (4.4%). The oil of H. heterophyllum was a complex mixture consisting mainly of sesquiterpenes (72.9% of the total oil). In this oil, isocaryophyllene (17.1%), , -pinene (11.6%), , -cadinene (9.5%), , -muurolene (8.2%), n -decane (5.8%), , -cadinene (5.5%) and , -caryophyllene (4.5%) were found to be major constituents. The two essential oils were tested for antifungal activity using microbial growth inhibition assays in vitro against 10 agricultural pathogenic fungi, which consisted of ,ve Fusarium species (F. oxysporum, F. culmorum, F. sambucinum, F. solani and F. acuminatum) and ,ve anastomosis groups of Rhizoctonia solani (AG-3, AG-4, AG-5, AG-9 and AG-11). In general, the oils showed moderate activity against several fungal species, viz F. acuminatum, AG-5 and AG-11. The most signi,cant results were obtained against AG-11 for H. heterophyllum oil. However, both oils increased the growth of some fungal species. In addition, the antifungal activity of 13 pure compounds identi,ed as major components in the essential oils of the Hypericum species studied were determined using microbial growth inhibition assays against the 10 fungal species mentioned above. Among these compounds, both , -caryophyllene oxide and , -terpineol were inhibitory to the growth of all fungi. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Neutral components from hexane extracts of Croton sellowii

    FLAVOUR AND FRAGRANCE JOURNAL, Issue 1 2004
    Sebastio F. Palmeira Jr
    Abstract Qualitative analyses by GC,FID and GC,MS of the neutral fractions from hexane extract of the leaves, stems and roots of Croton sellowii were carried out. Sesquiterpenoids, n -alkanes, aliphatic esters and aliphatic alcohols and alkyl benzene derivatives were identi,ed. Caryophyllene oxide (46.8%) and trans -caryophyllene (40.8%) were most abundant in the leaves, while caryophyllene oxide (26.5%) and cubenol (16.7%) were the main constituents in the stems. In the roots, besides mesitylene (15.2%), the sesquiterpenes , -(7.6%), , -(6.9%) and , -eudesmol (5.5%) were the most abundant components. All identi,ed constituents are described for the ,rst time in this species. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Essential oils from the buds of Betula spp. growing in Turkey,

    FLAVOUR AND FRAGRANCE JOURNAL, Issue 2 2003
    Betl Demirci
    Abstract The essential oils from buds of Betula browicziana A. Gner, B. litwinowii Doluch., B. medwediewii Regel, B. pendula Roth and B. recurvata V. Vassil. (Betulaceae) were either hydrodistilled using a Clevenger-type apparatus or were subjected to Likens,Nickerson simultaneous distillation,extraction (SDE) when the plant material amounts were insuf,cient. The resulting bud essential oils were analysed by GC,MS. Main components were detected as 14-hydroxy- , -caryophyllene (1) and 14-hydroxy-4,5-dihydro- , -caryophyllene (2) in all the oil samples. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Volatile constituents of the leaves and flowers of Hypericum triquetrifolium Turra,

    FLAVOUR AND FRAGRANCE JOURNAL, Issue 2 2003
    Alessandra Bertoli
    Abstract The ,ower and leaf oil of Hypericum triquetrifolium Turra (Guttiferae, Hypericoideae) from Calabria (Italy) were studied by GC and GC,MS. The major components identi,ed in each oil were n -nonane (8%, 15%), , -pinene (8%, 4%), , -pinene (13%, 10%), myrcene (16%, 5%), , -caryophyllene (5%, 11%), germacrene-D (10%, 13%), sabinene (13%, 3%) and caryophyllene oxide (5%, 12%) in the leaf and ,ower oils, respectively. The aerial parts of the same plant were also analysed by SPME. The SPME analysis showed higher yields of undecane (14%, 10%) and , -caryophyllene (14%, 10%) in comparison with the corresponding hydrodistillation oils, in addition to , -pinene, , -pinene, sabinene and myrcene, amounting to (9%, 6%), (7%, 4%), (1%, 9%), (1%, 10%) for the leaves and ,owers, respectively. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]