Cartilaginous Fish (cartilaginous + fish)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Expression of individual immunoglobulin genes occurs in an unusual system consisting of multiple independent loci

Abstract Humoral immunity is effected through the rearrangement of immunoglobulin (Ig) genes in individual somatic cells committed to the B,lymphocyte lineage. Haplotype or allelic exclusion restricts B,lymphocytes to the expression of a single Ig receptor that can sustain further somatic modification. In most species, a specific Ig chain is encoded at a single genetic locus. However, in cartilaginous fish, hundreds of independent Ig heavy- (IgH) and Ig light-chain (IgL) gene loci are present, many of which are joined in the germ line. Ig gene transcripts have been amplified from single peripheral blood lymphocytes isolated from the clearnose skate (Raja eglanteria) using reverse-transcription PCR, and a single productive IgH transcript was detected in the majority of cells analyzed. Similarly, only a single IgL transcript was detected in over half of the individual cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that a mechanism for haplotype exclusion arose early in the evolution of antibody diversity and is independent of a single genetic locus. [source]

Novel polysialogangliosides of skate brain

FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 16 2000
Structural determination of tetra, hexasialogangliosides with a NeuAc-GalNAc linkage, penta
The gangliosides in the brain of a cartilaginous fish, skate (Bathyraja smirnovi), have been isolated and characterized by means of methylation analysis, antibody binding, enzymatic hydrolysis and MALDI-TOF MS. In addition to gangliosides with known structures (GM2, fucosyl-GM1, GD3, GD2, GT3 and GT2), five polysialogangliosides were isolated and characterized as having the following structures. (1) IV3NeuAc, III6NeuAc, II3NeuAc-Gg4Cer; (2) IV3NeuAc2, III6NeuAc, II3NeuAc-Gg4Cer; (3) IV3NeuAc, III6NeuAc, II3NeuAc2 -Gg4Cer; (4) IV3NeuAc, III6NeuAc, II3NeuAc3 -Gg4Cer; and (5) IV3NeuAc2, III6NeuAc, II3NeuAc3 -Gg4Cer. These structures are ,hybrid-type' which comprise combinations of ,-series and either a, b or c-series structures. Three gangliosides (2), (4) and (5), were novel. The main features of the ganglioside composition of skate brain were an abundance of gangliotriaosyl species, a lack of gangliotetraosyl species (except fucosyl-GM1), and an abundance of hybrid-types. These characteristics closely resemble those in shark brain which we reported previously [Nakamura, K., Tamai, Y. & Kasama, T. (1997) Neurochem. Int.30, 593,604]. Two of the hybrid-type gangliosides (1) and (4), were examined for their neuritogenic activity toward cultured neuronal cells (Neuro-2A), and were found to have more potent activity than nonhybrid-type gangliosides such as GM1. [source]

Purification of Matrix Gla Protein From a Marine Teleost Fish, Argyrosomus regius: Calcified Cartilage and Not Bone as the Primary Site of MGP Accumulation in Fish,

DC Simes
Abstract Matrix Gla protein (MGP) belongs to the family of vitamin K-dependent, Gla-containing proteins, and in mammals, birds, and Xenopus, its mRNA was previously detected in extracts of bone, cartilage, and soft tissues (mainly heart and kidney), whereas the protein was found to accumulate mainly in bone. However, at that time, it was not evaluated if this accumulation originated from protein synthesized in cartilage or in bone cells because both coexist in skeletal structures of higher vertebrates and Xenopus. Later reports showed that MGP also accumulated in costal calcified cartilage as well as at sites of heart valves and arterial calcification. Interestingly, MGP was also found to accumulate in vertebra of shark, a cartilaginous fish. However, to date, no information is available on sites of MGP expression or accumulation in teleost fishes, the ancestors of terrestrial vertebrates, who have in their skeleton mineralized structures with both bone and calcified cartilage. To analyze MGP structure and function in bony fish, MGP was acid-extracted from the mineralized matrix of either bone tissue (vertebra) or calcified cartilage (branchial arches) from the bony fish, Argyrosomus regius,, separated from the mineral phase by dialysis, and purified by Sephacryl S-100 chromatography. No MGP was recovered from bone tissue, whereas a protein peak corresponding to the MGP position in this type of gel filtration was obtained from an extract of branchial arches, rich in calcified cartilage. MGP was identified by N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis, and the resulting protein sequence was used to design specific oligonucleotides suitable to amplify the corresponding DNA by a mixture of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and 5,rapid amplification of cDNA (RACE)-PCR. In parallel, ArBGP (bone Gla protein, osteocalcin) was also identified in the same fish, and its complementary DNA cloned by an identical procedure. Tissue distribution/accumulation was analyzed by Northern blot, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry. In mineralized tissues, the MGP gene was predominantly expressed in cartilage from branchial arches, with no expression detected in the different types of bone analyzed, whereas BGP mRNA was located in bone tissue as expected. Accordingly, the MGP protein was found to accumulate, by immunohistochemical analysis, mainly in the extracellular matrix of calcified cartilage. In soft tissues, MGP mRNA was mainly expressed in heart but in situ hybridization, indicated that cells expressing the MGP gene were located in the bulbus arteriosus and aortic wall, rich in smooth muscle and endothelial cells, whereas no expression was detected in the striated muscle myocardial fibers of the ventricle. These results show that in marine teleost fish, as in mammals, the MGP gene is expressed in cartilage, heart, and kidney tissues, but in contrast with results obtained in Xenopus and higher vertebrates, the protein does not accumulate in vertebra of non-osteocytic teleost fish, but only in calcified cartilage. In addition, our results also indicate that the presence of MGP mRNA in heart tissue is due, at least in fish, to the expression of the MGP gene in only two specific cell types, smooth muscle and endothelial cells, whereas no expression was found in the striated muscle fibers of the ventricle. In light of these results and recent information on expression of MGP gene in these same cell types in mammalian aorta, it is likely that the levels of MGP mRNA previously detected in Xenopus, birds, and mammalian heart tissue may be restricted toregions rich in smooth muscle and endothelial cells. Our results also emphasize the need to re-evaluate which cell types are involved in MGP gene expression in other soft tissues and bring further evidence that fish are a valuable model system to study MGP gene expression and regulation. [source]

Recombinant shark natural antibodies to thyroglobulin

Samuel F. Schluter
Abstract As cartilaginous fish are the vertebrates most distal from man to produce antibodies, fundamental information regarding conservation and variation of the antigen binding site should be gained by comparing the properties of antibodies directed against the same antigen from the two species. Since monoclonal cell lines cannot be generated using shark B cells, we isolated antigen binding recombinant single chain Fv antibodies (scFv) comprising of the complete variable regions from shark light and heavy chains. Thyroglobulin was used as the selecting antigen as both sharks and humans express natural antibodies to mammalian thyroglobulin in the absence of purposeful immunization. We report that recombinant sandbar shark (Carcharhinus plumbeus) scFvs that bind bovine thyroglobulin consist of heavy chain variable regions (VH) homologous to those of the human VHIII subset and light chain variable regions (VL) homologous to those of the human V,6 subgroup. The homology within the frameworks is sufficient to enable the building of three-dimensional models of the shark VH/VL structure using established human structures as templates. In natural antibodies of both species, the major variability lies in the third complementarity determining region (CDR3) of both VH and VL. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]