Cartilage Growth (cartilage + growth)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Collagen orientation in periosteum and perichondrium is aligned with preferential directions of tissue growth

JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC RESEARCH, Issue 9 2008
Jasper Foolen
Abstract A feedback mechanism between different tissues in a growing bone is thought to determine the bone's morphogenesis. Cartilage growth strains the surrounding tissues, eliciting alterations of its matrix, which in turn, creates anisotropic stresses, guiding directionality of cartilage growth. The purpose of this study was to evaluate this hypothesis by determining whether collagen fiber directions in the perichondrium and periosteum align with the preferential directions of long bone growth. Tibiotarsi from chicken embryos across developmental stages were scanned using optical projection tomography (OPT) to assess preferential directions of growth at characteristic sites in perichondrium and periosteum. Quantified morphometric data were compared with two-photon laser-scanning microscopy images of the three-dimensional collagen network in these fibrous tissues. The diaphyseal periosteum contained longitudinally oriented collagen fibers that aligned with the preferential growth direction. Longitudinal growth at both metaphyses was twice the circumferential growth. This concurred with well-developed circumferential fibers, which covered and were partly interwoven with a dominant network of longitudinally oriented fibers in the outer layer of the perichondrium/periosteum at the metaphysis. Toward both articulations, the collagen network of the epiphyseal surface was randomly oriented, and growth was approximately biaxial. These findings support the hypothesis that the anisotropic architecture of the collagen network, detected in periosteum and perichondrium, concurs with the assessed growth directions. 2008 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 26:1263,1268, 2008 [source]


Thyroid Hormones Promote Chondrocyte Differentiation in Mouse ATDC5 Cells and Stimulate Endochondral Ossification in Fetal Mouse Tibias Through Iodothyronine Deiodinases in the Growth Plate,

JOURNAL OF BONE AND MINERAL RESEARCH, Issue 3 2002
Masako Miura
Abstract Thyroid hormones (THs), 3,3,,5-triiodo- L -thyronine (T3) and L -thyroxine (T4), are important for the normal development of the growth plate (GP); congenital TH deficiency leads to severe dwarfism. In mouse chondrogenic cell line, ATDC5, T3 enhanced differentiation and increased Alizarin red staining, but did not affect Alcian blue staining. In organ-cultured mouse tibias, THs stimulated the cartilage growth, especially in the hypertrophic zone. Interestingly, T4 was as equally potent as T3 in organ-cultured tibias, which suggests that T4 is metabolized locally to T3, because T4 is a prohormone and must be converted to T3 for its activity. Two enzymes catalyze the conversion; type I deiodinase (D1) and type II deiodinase (D2). D1 has a ubiquitous distribution and D2, with a high affinity for T4, is present where the maintenance of intracellular T3 concentration is critical. Messenger RNAs (mRNAs) for D1 and D2 were detected in neonatal mouse tibias and ATDC5 cells. The enzyme activity was unaffected by the D1 inhibitor 6-propyl-2-thiouracil, suggesting that D2 mainly catalyzes the reaction. D2 mRNA was detected in differentiated ATDC5 cells. In organ-cultured mouse tibias, D2 activity was greater at later stages. In contrast, thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) were expressed in neonatal mouse tibias and ATDC5 cells, but their expression levels in ATDC5 cells were stable throughout the culture periods. Therefore, increased T3 production at later stages by D2 is likely to contribute to the preferential effects of THs in the terminal differentiation of GP. This article is the first to show that T4 is activated locally in GP and enhances the understanding of TH effects in GP. [source]


Collagen orientation in periosteum and perichondrium is aligned with preferential directions of tissue growth

JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC RESEARCH, Issue 9 2008
Jasper Foolen
Abstract A feedback mechanism between different tissues in a growing bone is thought to determine the bone's morphogenesis. Cartilage growth strains the surrounding tissues, eliciting alterations of its matrix, which in turn, creates anisotropic stresses, guiding directionality of cartilage growth. The purpose of this study was to evaluate this hypothesis by determining whether collagen fiber directions in the perichondrium and periosteum align with the preferential directions of long bone growth. Tibiotarsi from chicken embryos across developmental stages were scanned using optical projection tomography (OPT) to assess preferential directions of growth at characteristic sites in perichondrium and periosteum. Quantified morphometric data were compared with two-photon laser-scanning microscopy images of the three-dimensional collagen network in these fibrous tissues. The diaphyseal periosteum contained longitudinally oriented collagen fibers that aligned with the preferential growth direction. Longitudinal growth at both metaphyses was twice the circumferential growth. This concurred with well-developed circumferential fibers, which covered and were partly interwoven with a dominant network of longitudinally oriented fibers in the outer layer of the perichondrium/periosteum at the metaphysis. Toward both articulations, the collagen network of the epiphyseal surface was randomly oriented, and growth was approximately biaxial. These findings support the hypothesis that the anisotropic architecture of the collagen network, detected in periosteum and perichondrium, concurs with the assessed growth directions. 2008 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 26:1263,1268, 2008 [source]


Bone morphogenetic proteins in tissue engineering: the road from laboratory to clinic, part II (BMP delivery)

JOURNAL OF TISSUE ENGINEERING AND REGENERATIVE MEDICINE, Issue 2-3 2008
P. C. Bessa
Abstract Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are cytokines with a strong effect on bone and cartilage growth and with important roles during embryonic patterning and early skeletal formation. BMPs have promising potential for clinical bone and cartilage repair, working as powerful bone-inducing components in diverse tissue-engineering products. Synthetic polymers, natural origin polymers, inorganic materials and composites may be used as carriers for the delivery of BMPs. Carriers range from nanoparticles to complex three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds, membranes for tissue-guided regeneration, biomimetic surfaces and smart thermosensitive hydrogels. Current clinical uses include spinal fusion, healing of long bone defects and craniofacial and periodontal applications, amongst others. BMP-2 and BMP-7 have recently received approval by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for specific clinical cases, delivered in absorbable collagen sponges. Considering the expanding number of publications in the field of BMPs, there are prospects of a brilliant future in the field of regenerative medicine of bone and cartilage with the use of BMPs. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]