Cartilage Degeneration (cartilage + degeneration)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Functional consequences of cartilage degeneration in the equine metacarpophalangeal joint: quantitative assessment of cartilage stiffness

Summary Reasons for performing study: No quantitative data currently exist on the relationship of the occurrence of cartilage degeneration and changes in site-specific biomechanical properties in the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint in the horse. Objectives: To gain insight into the biomechanical consequences of cartilage deterioration at 2 differently loaded sites on the proximal articular surface of the proximal phalanx (P1). Hypothesis: Static and dynamic stiffness of articular cartilage decreases significantly in degenerated cartilage. Methods: Cartilage degeneration index (CDI) values were measured at the lateral dorsal margin (Site 1), lateral central fovea (Site 2) and entire joint surface of P1 (CDIP1) in 30 horses. Group 1 contained joints without (CDIP1 values <25%, n = 22) and Group 2 joints with (CDIP1 values >25%, n = 8) signs of cartilage degeneration. Cartilage thickness at Sites 1 and 2 was measured using ultrasonic and needle-probe techniques. Osteochondral plugs were drilled out from Sites 1 and 2 and subsequently tested biomechanically in indentation geometry. Young's modulus at equilibrium and dynamic modulus were determined. Results: Cartilage thickness values were not significantly different between the 2 groups and sites. Young's modulus at Site 1 was significantly higher in Group 1 than in Group 2; at Site 2, the difference was not significant. Dynamic modulus values were significantly higher in Group 1 than in Group 2 at both sites. Conclusions: Degenerative cartilage changes are clearly related to loss of stiffness of the tissue. Absolute changes in cartilage integrity in terms of CDI are greatest at the joint margin, but concomitant changes are also present at the centre, with a comparable decrease of the biomechanical moduli at the 2 sites. Therefore, significant cartilage degradation at the joint margin not only reflects local deterioration of biomechanical properties, but is also indicative of the functional quality in the centre. Potential relevance: These findings may be important for improving prognostication and developing preventative measures. [source]

Evaluation of a magnetic resonance biomarker of osteoarthritis disease progression: doxycycline slows tibial cartilage loss in the Dunkin Hartley guinea pig

Jonathan Bowyer
Summary The objective was to assess the effect of doxycycline treatment on a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) biomarker of cartilage volume loss, and on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity in a guinea pig osteoarthritis model. Guinea pigs (9 months old) were dosed with vehicle or doxycycline, 0.6, 3.0 mg/kg/day for 66 days. Fat-suppressed 3D gradient-echo MRI of the left knee was acquired pre- and post dosing. Change in medial tibial plateau (MTP) cartilage volume (MT.VC) was determined using image analysis. At termination, MTP cartilage was removed from knees and proteolytic MMP activity determined using a fluorescent peptide substrate assay. Vehicle-treated animals lost 20.5% (95% CI mean 25.6,15.1) MT.VC. The doxycycline (0.6 mg/kg/day) group lost 8.6% (P < 0.05, 95% CI 20.6 to ,5.3) whilst the 3.0 mg/kg/day group lost 10.0% (P < 0.05, 95% CI 13.9,6.0%). Endogenous levels of active MMPs were below limits of detection in all samples. However, doxycycline treatment ablated amino phenyl mercuric acid activated MMP-13 and MMP-8 levels, reduced MMP-9 levels by 65% and MMP-1 levels by 24%. Doxycycline treatment resulted in partial protection from MT.VC loss and was associated with complete reduction in MMP-13 and MMP-8, and partial reduction in MMP-9 activity. These data imply a role of MMPs in cartilage degeneration but incomplete protection suggests that additional doxycycline insensitive mechanisms are important in this model. The protective effect of doxycycline correlates with the clinical finding of lessened joint space narrowing, strengthens the utility of this animal model in identifying disease-modifying osteoarthritic drugs and supports the use of MRI biomarkers of cartilage loss. [source]

Medial meniscus posterior root attachment injury and degeneration: MRI findings

AO Jones
Summary The posterior root attachment of the medial meniscus is readily identifiable on MRI. Unless specifically reviewed, injuries involving this structure may be overlooked. Significant meniscal root pathology may cause functional incompetence of the meniscus, with consequent early onset cartilage degeneration and osteoarthritis. This review article emphasizes the importance of positive identification of an intact meniscal root and illustrates the known association of meniscal root injury or tear with medial extrusion of the medial meniscus by greater than 3 mm beyond the joint margin. [source]

Replacement of the medial tibial plateau by a metallic implant in a goat model

Roel J.H. Custers
Abstract The purposes of the present study were to explore the surgical possibilities for replacement of the medial tibial plateau by a metallic implant in a large animal model and to examine the implications for the opposing cartilage. In six goats, the medial tibial plateau of the right knee was replaced by a cobalt,chromium implant, using polymethylmethacrylate bone cement for fixation. The unoperated left knee served as a control. At 26 weeks after surgery, the animals were killed, and the joints evaluated macroscopically. Cartilage quality was analyzed macroscopically and histologically. Glycosaminoglycan content, synthesis, and release were measured in tissue and medium. All animals were able to move and load the knees without any limitations. Macroscopic articular evaluation scores showed worsening 26 weeks after inserting the implant (p,<,0.05). Macroscopic and histologic scores showed more cartilage degeneration of the opposing medial femoral condyle in the experimental knee compared to the control knee (p,<,0.05). Higher glycosaminoglycan synthesis was measured at the medial femoral condyle cartilage in the experimental knees (p,<,0.05). This study shows that the medial tibial plateau can be successfully replaced by a cobalt,chromium implant in a large animal model. However, considerable femoral cartilage degeneration of the medial femoral condyle was induced, suggesting that care must be taken introducing hemiarthroplasty devices in a human clinical setting for the treatment of postmeniscectomy cartilage degeneration of the medial tibial plateau. 2009 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 28:429,435, 2010 [source]

N -acetylcysteine prevents nitric oxide-induced chondrocyte apoptosis and cartilage degeneration in an experimental model of osteoarthritis

Shuji Nakagawa
Abstract We investigated whether N -acetylcysteine (NAC), a precursor of glutathione, could protect rabbit articular chondrocytes against nitric oxide (NO)-induced apoptosis and could prevent cartilage destruction in an experimental model of osteoarthritis (OA) in rats. Isolated chondrocytes were treated with various concentrations of NAC (0,2 mM). Apoptosis was induced by 0.75 mM sodium nitroprusside (SNP) dehydrate, which produces NO. Cell viability was assessed by MTT assay, while apoptosis was evaluated by Hoechst 33342 and TUNEL staining. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutathione levels were measured, and expression of p53 and caspase-3 were determined by Western blotting. To determine whether intraarticular injection of NAC prevents cartilage destruction in vivo, cartilage samples of an OA model were subjected to H&E, Safranin O, and TUNEL staining. NAC prevented NO-induced apoptosis, ROS overproduction, p53 up-regulation, and caspase-3 activation. The protective effects of NAC were significantly blocked by buthionine sulfoximine, a glutathione synthetase inhibitor, indicating that the apoptosis-preventing activity of NAC was mediated by glutathione. Using a rat model of experimentally induced OA, we found that NAC also significantly prevented cartilage destruction and chondrocyte apoptosis in vivo. These results indicate that NAC inhibits NO-induced apoptosis of chondrocytes through glutathione in vitro, and inhibits chondrocyte apoptosis and articular cartilage degeneration in vivo. 2009 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 28:156,163, 2010 [source]

High-resolution imaging of progressive articular cartilage degeneration

Samuel B. Adams Jr
Abstract The objective of this study was to develop and verify a new technique for monitoring the progression of osteoarthritis (OA) by combining a rat model with the imaging modality optical coherence tomography (OCT). Time-sequential, in vivo, OCT imaging was performed on the left femoral condyles of 12 Wistar rats following sodium,iodoacetic acid-induced OA progression. The right femoral condyles (untreated) were also imaged and served as controls. Imaging was performed on days 0, 10, 20, 30, and 60 with an OCT system capable of acquiring images at four frames per second and an axial resolution of 5 m. Progressive changes were analyzed using an OA scoring system. OCT successfully identified progressive cartilage degeneration as well as alteration of the cartilage/bone interface. Significant changes to both of these structures were observed in the sodium,iodoacetic acid-injected condyles. Structural changes detected with OCT were confirmed histologically. OCT in combination with a well-known model used in arthritis research represents a powerful tool for following degenerative joint disease progression in a given animal by detecting changes to the cartilage/bone interface and articular cartilage. 2006 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res [source]

Detection of changes in articular cartilage proteoglycan by T1, magnetic resonance imaging

Andrew J. Wheaton
Abstract The purpose of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of T1, -weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to quantitatively measure changes in proteoglycan content in cartilage. The T1, MRI technique was implemented in an in vivo porcine animal model with rapidly induced cytokine-mediated cartilage degeneration. Six pigs were given an intra-articular injection of recombinant porcine interleukin-1, (IL-1,) into the knee joint before imaging to induce changes in cartilage via matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) induction. The induction of MMPs by IL-1 was used since it has been extensively studied in many systems and is known to create conditions that mimic in part characteristics similar to those of osteoarthritis. The contralateral knee joint was given a saline injection to serve as an internal control. T1, -weighted MRI was performed on a 4 T whole-body clinical scanner employing a 2D fast spin-echo-based T1, imaging sequence. T1, relaxation parameter maps were computed from the T1, -weighted image series. The average T1, relaxation rate, R1, (1/T1,) of the IL-1,-treated patellae was measured to be on average 25% lower than that of saline-injected patellae indicating a loss of proteoglycan. There was an average reduction of 49% in fixed charge density, measured via sodium MRI, of the IL-1,-treated patellae relative to control corroborating the loss of proteoglycan. The effects of IL-1,, primarily loss of PG, were confirmed by histological and immunochemical findings. The results from this study demonstrate that R1, is able to track proteoglycan content in vivo. 2004 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [source]

Hyaluronan suppressed nitric oxide production in the meniscus and synovium of rabbit osteoarthritis model

Kenji Takahashi
Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in cartilage degeneration, and NO donors induce meniscus degeneration and synovium inflammation. This study evaluated the effect of intraarticular injections of hyaluronan (HA) on NO production in meniscus and synovium using an experimental osteoarthritis (OA) model. Thirty-six New Zealand white rabbits underwent unilateral anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT), and were divided into three groups. Four weeks after ACLT, the HA group started to receive intraarticular HA injections once a week for 5 weeks; the vehicle group started to receive the carrier of HA; and the no injection group, no treatment. All ACLT knees were harvested at the 9th week. Meniscus and synovium sections were examined by immunohistochemistry for nitrotyrosine. The pieces of these two tissues were cultured for 24 h. Culture supernatants were analyzed for nitrite concentration. The amount of NO produced by the meniscus was much larger than that produced by the synovium. NO productions in the meniscus and synovium of the HA group were significantly lower than those of the other groups. The results suggest that the inhibition of NO production in meniscus and synovium might be a part of the mechanism of the therapeutic effect of HA on OA. 2001 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. [source]

T1, MRI quantification of arthroscopically confirmed cartilage degeneration

Walter R. T. Witschey
Abstract Nine asymptomatic subjects and six patients underwent T1, MRI to determine whether Outerbridge grade 1 or 2 cartilage degeneration observed during arthroscopy could be detected noninvasively. MRI was performed 2-3 months postarthroscopy, using sagittal T1 -weighted and axial and coronal T1, MRI, from which spatial T1, relaxation maps were calculated from segmented T1 -weighted images. Median T1, relaxation times of patients with arthroscopically documented cartilage degeneration and asymptomatic subjects were significantly different (P < 0.001), and median T1, exceeded asymptomatic articular cartilage median T1, by 2.5 to 9.2 ms. In eight observations of mild cartilage degeneration at arthroscopy (Outerbridge grades 1 and 2), mean compartment T1, was elevated in five, but in all observations, large foci of increased T1, were observed. It was determined that T1, could detect some, but not all, Outerbridge grade 1 and 2 cartilage degeneration but that a larger patient population is needed to determine the sensitivity to these changes. Magn Reson Med 63:1376,1382, 2010. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Cartilage degradation biomarkers predict efficacy of a novel, highly selective matrix metalloproteinase 13 inhibitor in a dog model of osteoarthritis: Confirmation by multivariate analysis that modulation of type ii collagen and aggrecan degradation peptides parallels pathologic changes

Steven Settle
Objective To demonstrate that the novel highly selective matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP-13) inhibitor PF152 reduces joint lesions in adult dogs with osteoarthritis (OA) and decreases biomarkers of cartilage degradation. Methods The potency and selectivity of PF152 were evaluated in vitro using 16 MMPs, TACE, and ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5, as well as ex vivo in human cartilage explants. In vivo effects were evaluated at 3 concentrations in mature beagles with partial medial meniscectomy. Gross and histologic changes in the femorotibial joints were evaluated using various measures of cartilage degeneration. Biomarkers of cartilage turnover were examined in serum, urine, or synovial fluid. Results were analyzed individually and in combination using multivariate analysis. Results The potent and selective MMP-13 inhibitor PF152 decreased human cartilage degradation ex vivo in a dose-dependent manner. PF152 treatment of dogs with OA reduced cartilage lesions and decreased biomarkers of type II collagen (type II collagen neoepitope) and aggrecan (peptides ending in ARGN or AGEG) degradation. The dose required for significant inhibition varied with the measure used, but multivariate analysis of 6 gross and histologic measures indicated that all doses differed significantly from vehicle but not from each other. Combined analysis of cartilage degradation markers showed similar results. Conclusion This highly selective MMP-13 inhibitor exhibits chondroprotective effects in mature animals. Biomarkers of cartilage degradation, when evaluated in combination, parallel the joint structural changes induced by the MMP-13 inhibitor. These data support the potential therapeutic value of selective MMP-13 inhibitors and the use of a set of appropriate biomarkers to predict efficacy in OA clinical trials. [source]

Attenuation of osteoarthritis progression by reduction of discoidin domain receptor 2 in mice

Lin Xu
Objective To investigate whether the reduction of discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR-2), a cell membrane tyrosine kinase receptor for native type II collagen, attenuates the progression of articular cartilage degeneration in mouse models of osteoarthritis (OA). Methods Double-heterozygous (type XI collagen,deficient [Col11a1+/,] and Ddr2 -deficient [Ddr2+/,]) mutant mice were generated. Knee joints of Ddr2+/, mice were subjected to microsurgical destabilization of the medial meniscus. Conditions of the articular cartilage from the knee joints of the double-heterozygous mutant and surgically treated mice were examined by histology, evaluated using a modified Mankin scoring system, and characterized by immunohistochemistry. Results The rate of progressive degeneration in knee joints was dramatically reduced in the double-heterozygous mutant mice compared with that in the type XI collagen,deficient mice. The progression in the double-heterozygous mutant mice was delayed by ,6 months. Following surgical destabilization of the medial meniscus, the progressive degeneration toward OA was dramatically delayed in the Ddr2+/, mice compared with that in their wild-type littermates. The articular cartilage damage present in the knee joints of the mice was directly correlated with the expression profiles of DDR-2 and matrix metalloproteinase 13. Conclusion Reduction of DDR-2 expression attenuates the articular cartilage degeneration of knee joints induced either by type XI collagen deficiency or by surgical destabilization of the medial meniscus. [source]

Prevention of cartilage degeneration and restoration of chondroprotection by lubricin tribosupplementation in the rat following anterior cruciate ligament transection

Gregory D. Jay
Objective To investigate whether cartilage degeneration is prevented or minimized following intraarticular injections of lubricin derived from human synoviocytes in culture, recombinant human PRG4 (rhPRG4), or human synovial fluid (SF) in a rat model of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Methods Unilateral ACL transection (ACLT) was performed in Lewis rats (n = 45). Nine animals were left untreated. The remaining rats were given intraarticular injections (50 ,l/injection) of either phosphate buffered saline (PBS) (n = 9), human synoviocyte lubricin (200 ,g/ml; n = 9), rhPRG4 (200 ,g/ml; n = 9), or human SF lubricin (200 ,g/ml; n = 9) twice weekly beginning on day 7 after injury. Joints were harvested on day 32 after injury. Histologic analysis was performed using Safranin O,fast green staining, and articular cartilage degeneration was graded using the Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI),modified Mankin criteria. Histologic specimens were immunoprobed for lubricin and sulfated glycosaminoglycans. A 24-hour urine collection was performed on days 17 and 29 postinjury, and urinary C-terminal telopeptide of type II collagen (CTX-II) levels were measured. Results Treatment with human synoviocyte lubricin resulted in significantly lower OARSI scores for cartilage degeneration compared with no treatment or PBS treatment (P < 0.05). Increased immunostaining for lubricin in the superficial zone chondrocytes and on the surface of cartilage was observed in lubricin-treated, but not untreated or PBS-treated, joints. On day 17, urinary CTX-II levels in human synoviocyte lubricin, and human SF lubricin,treated animals were significantly lower than those in untreated animals (P = 0.005 and P = 0.002, respectively) and in PBS-treated animals (P = 0.002 and P < 0.001, respectively). Conclusion After treatment with any of the 3 types of lubricin evaluated in this study, a reduction in cartilage damage following ACLT was evident, combined with a reduction in type II collagen degradation. Our findings indicate that intraarticular lubricin injection following an ACL injury may be beneficial in retarding the degeneration of cartilage and the development of posttraumatic OA. [source]

Clinical optical coherence tomography of early articular cartilage degeneration in patients with degenerative meniscal tears

Constance R. Chu
Objective Quantitative and nondestructive methods for clinical diagnosis and staging of articular cartilage degeneration are important to the evaluation of potential disease-modifying treatments in osteoarthritis (OA). Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a novel imaging technology that can generate microscopic-resolution cross-sectional images of articular cartilage in near real-time. This study tested the hypotheses that OCT can be used clinically to identify early cartilage degeneration and that OCT findings correlate with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T2 values and arthroscopy results. Methods Patients undergoing arthroscopy for degenerative meniscal tears were recruited under Institutional Review Board,approved protocols. Thirty consecutive subjects completing preoperative 3.0T MRI, arthroscopy, and intraoperative OCT comprised the study group. Qualitative and quantitative OCT results and MRI T2 values were compared with modified Outerbridge cartilage degeneration scores (0,4 scale) assigned at arthroscopy. Results Arthroscopic grades showed cartilage abnormality in 23 of the 30 patients. OCT grades were abnormal in 28 of the 30 patients. Both qualitative and quantitative OCT strongly correlated with the arthroscopy results (P = 0.004 and P = 0.0002, respectively, by Kruskal-Wallis test). Neither the superficial nor the deep cartilage T2 values correlated with the arthroscopy results. The quantitative OCT results correlated with the T2 values in the superficial cartilage (Pearson's r = 0.39, P = 0.03). Conclusion These data show that OCT can be used clinically to provide qualitative and quantitative assessments of early articular cartilage degeneration that strongly correlate with arthroscopy results. The correlation between the quantitative OCT values and T2 values for the superficial cartilage further supports the utility of OCT as a clinical research tool, providing quantifiable microscopic resolution data on the articular cartilage structure. New technologies for nondestructive quantitative assessment of human articular cartilage degeneration may facilitate the development of strategies to delay or prevent the onset of OA. [source]

Comparative analysis of gene expression profiles between primary knee osteoarthritis and an osteoarthritis endemic to Northwestern China, Kashin-Beck disease

Chen Duan
Objective To investigate the differences in gene expression profiles of adult articular cartilage from patients with Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) versus those with primary knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods The messenger RNA expression profiles of articular cartilage from patients with KBD, diagnosed according to the clinical criteria for KBD in China, were compared with those of cartilage from patients with OA, diagnosed according to the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities OA Index. Total RNA was isolated separately from 4 pairs of the KBD and OA cartilage samples, and the expression profiles were evaluated by Agilent 444k Whole Human Genome density oligonucleotide microarray analysis. The microarray data for selected transcripts were confirmed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription,polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification. Results For 1.2 104 transcripts, corresponding to 58.4% of the expressed transcripts, 2-fold changes in differential expression were revealed. Expression levels higher in KBD than in OA samples were observed in a mean SD 6,439 1,041 (14.6 2.4%) of the transcripts, and expression levels were lower in KBD than in OA samples in 6,147 1,222 (14.2 2.8%) of the transcripts. After application of the selection criteria, 1.85% of the differentially expressed genes (P < 0.001 between groups) were detected. These included 233 genes, of which 195 (0.4%) were expressed at higher levels and 38 (0.08%) were expressed at lower levels in KBD than in OA cartilage. Comparisons of the quantitative RT-PCR data supported the validity of our microarray data. Conclusion Differences between KBD and OA cartilage exhibited a similar pattern among all 4 of the pairs examined, indicating the presence of disease mechanisms, mainly chondrocyte matrix metabolism, cartilage degeneration, and apoptosis induction pathways, which contribute to cartilage destruction in KBD. [source]

Combined role of type IX collagen and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein in cartilage matrix assembly: Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein counteracts type IX collagen,induced limitation of cartilage collagen fibril growth in mouse chondrocyte cultures

K. Blumbach
Objective Defects in the assembly and composition of cartilage extracellular matrix are likely to result in impaired matrix integrity and increased susceptibility to cartilage degeneration. The aim of this study was to determine the functional interaction of the collagen fibril,associated proteins type IX collagen and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) during cartilage matrix formation. Methods Primary chondrocytes from mice deficient in type IX collagen and COMP (double-deficient) were cultured in monolayer or alginate beads. Anchorage of matrix proteins, proteoglycan and collagen content, collagen crosslinks, matrix metalloproteinase activity, and mechanical properties of the matrix were measured. Electron microscopy was used to study the formation of fibrillar structures. Results In cartilage lacking both type IX collagen and COMP, matrilin 3 showed decreased matrix anchorage. Less matrilin 3 was deposited in the matrix of double-deficient chondrocytes, while larger amounts were secreted into the medium. Proteoglycans were less well retained in the matrix formed in alginate cultures, while collagen deposition was not significantly affected. Electron microscopy revealed similar cartilage collagen fibril diameters in the cultures of double-deficient and wild-type chondrocytes. In contrast, a larger fibril diameter was observed in the matrix of chondrocytes deficient in only type IX collagen. Conclusion Our results show that type IX collagen and COMP are involved in matrix assembly by mediating the anchorage and regulating the distribution of other matrix macromolecules such as proteoglycans and matrilins and have counteracting effects on collagen fibril growth. Loss of type IX collagen and COMP leads to matrix aberrations that may make cartilage more susceptible to degeneration. [source]

Role of p53 in human chondrocyte apoptosis in response to shear strain

Shingo Hashimoto
Objective Chondrocyte apoptosis plays an important role in cartilage degeneration in osteoarthritis (OA), and mechanical injury to cartilage induces chondrocyte apoptosis. In response to DNA damage, p53 expression is up-regulated, transcription activity is increased, and apoptosis signals are initiated. The p53-regulated apoptosis-inducing protein 1 (p53AIP-1) is one of the p53-regulated genes, and is activated in response to DNA damage. This study was undertaken to analyze p53 function after induction of apoptosis by shear strain in chondrocytes. Methods OA cartilage samples were obtained from subjects undergoing total knee replacement surgery, and normal cartilage samples were obtained from subjects undergoing surgery for femoral neck fracture. Chondrocytes were isolated from human cartilage and cultured. Expression of p53 and p53AIP in chondrocytes was detected by reverse transcriptase,polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Shear strain was introduced in normal human knee chondrocytes. To explore p53 function, normal human knee chondrocytes were pretreated with pifithrin-, or p53 small interfering RNA (siRNA) before induction of shear strain. Chondrocyte apoptosis was detected by expression of cleaved caspase 9 with Western blotting and TUNEL staining. Expression of p53 and p53AIP-1 was analyzed by Western blotting. Results OA and normal chondrocytes expressed p53. OA chondrocytes showed much higher expression of p53 and p53AIP-1 than did normal chondrocytes. TUNEL-positive cells and expression of p53, p53AIP-1, and cleaved caspase 9 were increased by shear strain, but chondrocyte apoptosis was suppressed after pretreatment with pifithrin-, or p53 siRNA. Conclusion Our findings indicate that p53 and p53AIP-1 play important roles in human chondrocyte apoptosis. Down-regulation of p53 expression prevents cartilage from undergoing apoptosis introduced by shear strain. [source]

Down-regulation of cathepsin K in synovium leads to progression of osteoarthritis in rabbits

Daisuke Takahashi
Objective The hypothesis of this study was that synovial factors playing a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA) and thus gene expression in the synovium would be altered at the initial stage of OA. The aims of this study were to identify the candidate genes in synovium related to OA initiation, to evaluate cartilage degeneration after knockdown of the gene using small interfering RNA (siRNA) gene silencing in the knee joints at the initial stage of OA, and to determine the potential role of the knocked-down gene in OA initiation. Methods Genes overexpressed in synovium at the initial stage of disease in a rabbit model of anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT),induced OA were identified using the suppression subtractive hybridization technique and differential screening. Candidate gene expression in the synovium of the knees of rabbits with OA was manipulated with electroporation-assisted siRNA transduction 4 times before and after operation. Four weeks after surgery, histologic analysis was performed. Results Cathepsin K gene and protein expression was significantly up-regulated in synovium at the initial stage of OA in rabbits. Down-regulation of cathepsin K in synovium at the initial stage of OA significantly accelerated cartilage degeneration. Conclusion These results indicate that cathepsin K plays a protective role in cartilage degeneration at the initial stage of OA. We believe that the current results obtained from models of the early phase of OA will provide useful information for developing a novel strategy to prevent disease progression. [source]

A new class of potent matrix metalloproteinase 13 inhibitors for potential treatment of osteoarthritis: Evidence of histologic and clinical efficacy without musculoskeletal toxicity in rat models

Vijaykumar M. Baragi
Objective Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have long been considered excellent targets for osteoarthritis (OA) treatment. However, clinical utility of broad-spectrum MMP inhibitors developed for this purpose has been restricted by dose-limiting musculoskeletal side effects observed in humans. This study was undertaken to identify a new class of potent and selective MMP-13 inhibitors that would provide histologic and clinical efficacy without musculoskeletal toxicity. Methods Selectivity assays were developed using catalytic domains of human MMPs. Freshly isolated bovine articular cartilage or human OA cartilage was used in in vitro cartilage degradation assays. The rat model of monoiodoacetate (MIA),induced OA was implemented for assessing the effects of MMP-13 inhibitors on cartilage degradation and joint pain. The surgical medial meniscus tear model in rats was used to evaluate the chondroprotective ability of MMP-13 inhibitors in a chronic disease model of OA. The rat model of musculoskeletal side effects (MSS) was used to assess whether selective MMP-13 inhibitors have the joint toxicity associated with broad-spectrum MMP inhibitors. Results A number of non,hydroxamic acid,containing compounds that showed a high degree of potency for MMP-13 and selectivity against other MMPs were designed and synthesized. Steady-state kinetics experiments and Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis of rate versus substrate concentration with one such compound, ALS 1-0635, indicated linear, noncompetitive inhibition, and Dixon plot analysis from competition studies with a zinc chelator (acetoxyhydroxamic acid) and ALS 1-0635 demonstrated nonexclusive binding. ALS 1-0635 inhibited bovine articular cartilage degradation in a dose-dependent manner (48.7% and 87.1% at 500 nM and 5,000 nM, respectively) and was effective in inhibiting interleukin-1,, and oncostatin M,induced C1,C2 release in human OA cartilage cultures. ALS 1-0635 modulated cartilage damage in the rat MIA model (mean SEM damage score 1.3 0.3, versus 2.2 0.4 in vehicle-treated animals). Most significantly, when treated twice daily with oral ALS 1-0635, rats with surgically induced medial meniscus tear exhibited histologic evidence of chondroprotection and reduced cartilage degeneration, without observable musculoskeletal toxicity. Conclusion The compounds investigated in this study represent a novel class of MMP-13 inhibitors. They are mechanistically distinct from previously reported broad-spectrum MMP inhibitors and do not exhibit the problems previously associated with these inhibitors, including selectivity, poor pharmacokinetics, and MSS liability. MMP-13 inhibitors exert chondroprotective effects and can potentially modulate joint pain, and are, therefore, uniquely suited as potential disease-modifying osteoarthritis drugs. [source]

Prevention of cartilage degeneration in a rat model of osteoarthritis by intraarticular treatment with recombinant lubricin

Carl R. Flannery
Objective Lubricin, also referred to as superficial zone protein and PRG4, is a synovial glycoprotein that supplies a friction-resistant, antiadhesive coating to the surfaces of articular cartilage, thereby protecting against arthritis-associated tissue wear and degradation. This study was undertaken to generate and characterize a novel recombinant lubricin protein construct, LUB:1, and to evaluate its therapeutic efficacy following intraarticular delivery in a rat model of osteoarthritis (OA). Methods Binding and localization of LUB:1 to cartilage surfaces was assessed by immunohistochemistry. The cartilage-lubricating properties of LUB:1 were determined using a custom friction testing apparatus. A cell-binding assay was performed to quantify the ability of LUB:1 to prevent cell adhesion. Efficacy studies were conducted in a rat meniscal tear model of OA. One week after the surgical induction of OA, LUB:1 or phosphate buffered saline vehicle was administered by intraarticular injection for 4 weeks, with dosing intervals of either once per week or 3 times per week. OA pathology scores were determined by histologic analysis. Results LUB:1 was shown to bind effectively to cartilage surfaces, and facilitated both cartilage boundary lubrication and inhibition of synovial cell adhesion. Treatment of rat knee joints with LUB:1 resulted in significant disease-modifying, chondroprotective effects during the progression of OA, by markedly reducing cartilage degeneration and structural damage. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate the potential use of recombinant lubricin molecules in novel biotherapeutic approaches to the treatment of OA and associated cartilage abnormalities. [source]

Effect of interleukin-1, on osteogenic protein 1,induced signaling in adult human articular chondrocytes

Amel M. Elshaier
Objective Two major receptor-activated Smad (R-Smad) signaling pathways, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and MAPK, were examined in a model of interleukin-1, (IL-1,),induced cartilage degeneration to investigate the effect of IL-1, on osteogenic protein 1 (OP-1) signaling in adult human articular chondrocytes. Methods Chondrocytes from the ankles of 26 normal human donors were cultured in high-density monolayers in serum-free medium. The effect of IL-1, on BMP receptors was studied by reverse transcription,polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometry. Phosphorylation of R-Smads was tested in cells treated with IL-1, (10 ng/ml), OP-1 (100 ng/ml), or the combination of IL-1, and OP-1. Cell lysates were analyzed by Western blotting with polyclonal antibodies against 2 R-Smad phosphorylation sites (BMP- and MAPK-mediated) or with total, nonphosphorylated R-Smad as a control. To identify which MAPKs play a role in IL-1, activation of the linker region, chondrocytes were preincubated with specific MAPK inhibitors (PD98059 for MAP/ERK, SP600125 for JNK, and SB203580 for p38). Results IL-1, reduced the number of activin receptor,like kinase 2 (ALK-2) and ALK-3 receptors, inhibited expression of Smad1 and Smad6, delayed and prematurely terminated the onset of OP-1,mediated R-Smad phosphorylation, and affected nuclear translocation of R-Smad/Smad4 complexes. The alternative phosphorylation of R-Smad in the linker region via the MAPK pathway (primarily p38 and JNK) was observed to be a possible mechanism through which IL-1, offsets OP-1 signaling and the response to OP-1. Conversely, OP-1 was found to directly inhibit phosphorylation of p38. Conclusion These findings describe new mechanisms of the crosstalk between OP-1 and IL-1, in chondrocytes. The study also identifies potential targets for therapeutic interventions in the treatment of cartilage-degenerative processes. [source]

Histopathologic changes at "synovio,entheseal complexes" suggesting a novel mechanism for synovitis in osteoarthritis and spondylarthritis

Michael Benjamin
Objective To determine the extent to which different entheses form part of a "synovio,entheseal complex" (SEC) and whether such SECs are commonly associated with the presence of inflammatory cells and evidence of enthesis microdamage. Methods Specimens from 49 cadaveric entheses were processed for histologic study, and all soft tissue components of the entheses or enthesis organs were examined. To exclude articular cartilage degeneration as a triggering factor for synovitis, the selected entheses included 17 that were not immediately adjacent to such cartilage. Results An SEC was present at 82% of entheses. These included 47% of the attachments not adjacent to articular cartilage, where the synovium was that of bursae or tendon sheaths. One or more of a wide variety of degenerative changes were noted on the soft tissue side of every enthesis; the most common changes were cell clustering and/or fissuring (in 76% of entheses). Synovial villus formation or inflammatory cell infiltration was seen in 85% of entheses, and in 73% of attachments there were also inflammatory cells in the enthesis organ itself. The changes included synovial invasion (pannus formation) of the enthesis. Conclusion Entheses are frequently juxtaposed to synovium, thus forming SECs. They are also often associated with both degenerative and inflammatory changes, and the latter may involve the immediately adjacent synovium. These findings suggest a novel mechanism by which synovitis could develop in both degenerative joint disease and spondylarthritis. [source]

Hsp90 mediates insulin-like growth factor 1 and interleukin-1, signaling in an age-dependent manner in equine articular chondrocytes

Amber K. Boehm
Objective Many metabolic processes in chondrocytes thought to contribute to age-related changes in the extracellular matrix are influenced by known roles of Hsp90. Age-related decreases in the level of Hsp90 have been documented in numerous cell types and could contribute to cartilage degeneration. The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of age and Hsp90 in insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and interleukin-1, (IL-1,) signaling in chondrocytes. Methods Levels of Hsp90 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein, with respect to age, were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blot analysis, respectively. The Hsp90 inhibitor geldanamycin (50 nM, 100 nM, or 500 nM) was used to assess age-related responses to Hsp90 with concurrent IGF-1 or IL-1, stimulation of chondrocytes. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to measure COL2A1 and matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP13) gene expression; Western blot analysis was performed to determine the phosphorylation status of p42/44 and Akt/protein kinase B. Results The effects of Hsp90 inhibition with geldanamycin were concentration dependent. Inhibition of Hsp90 with 100 nM or 500 nM geldanamycin blocked IGF-1,induced cell proliferation, Akt and p42/44 activation, and COL2A1 expression. Basal and IL-1,,induced up-regulation of MMP13 mRNA was blocked by all concentrations of geldanamycin tested. Gain-of-function assays with Hsp90 resulted in increased expression of MMP13 mRNA. Conclusion These results suggest that Hsp90 is involved in opposing signaling pathways of cartilage homeostasis, and that catabolic responses are more sensitive to Hsp90 inhibition than are anabolic responses. Further studies are needed to determine the role of Hsp90 inhibition in osteoarthritis in order to assess its potential as a therapeutic target. [source]

Indentation testing of human cartilage: Sensitivity to articular surface degeneration

Won C. Bae
Objective To determine, for clinical indentation testing of human articular cartilage, the effects of aging and degeneration on indentation stiffness and traditional indices of cartilage degeneration; the relationship between indentation stiffness and indices of degeneration; and the sensitivity and specificity of indentation stiffness to cartilage degeneration. Methods Osteochondral cores from femoral condyles of cadaveric human donors were harvested. Samples were distributed into experimental groups based on donor age (young [20,39 years], middle [40,59 years], and old [,60 years]), and a macroscopic articular surface appearance that was either normal or mildly degenerate, without deep erosion. Samples were analyzed for indentation stiffness, cartilage thickness, India ink staining (quantitated as the reflected light score), and Mankin-Shapiro histopathology score. Results Indentation stiffness, India ink staining, and the histopathology score each varied markedly between normal-sample and degenerate-sample groups but varied relatively little between normal samples obtained from different age groups. A decrease in indentation stiffness (softening) correlated with a decrease in the reflectance score and an increase in the overall histopathology score, especially the surface irregularity component of the histopathology score. Receiver operating characteristic analysis suggested that the indentation testing could accurately detect cartilage degeneration as indicated by macroscopic appearance, India ink staining, and histopathology score. Conclusion The indentation stiffness of the normal to mildly degenerate samples tested in this study was sensitive to mild degeneration at the articular surface and was insensitive to changes associated with normal aging or to slight variations in cartilage thickness. This suggests that indentation testing may be a useful clinical tool for the evaluation of early-stage degenerative changes in articular cartilage. [source]

Gene deletion of either interleukin-1,, interleukin-1,,converting enzyme, inducible nitric oxide synthase, or stromelysin 1 accelerates the development of knee osteoarthritis in mice after surgical transection of the medial collateral ligament and partial medial meniscectomy

Kristen M. Clements
Objective To investigate the development of osteoarthritis (OA) after transection of the medial collateral ligament and partial medial meniscectomy in mice in which genes encoding either interleukin-1, (IL-1,), IL-1,,converting enzyme (ICE), stromelysin 1, or inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were deleted. Methods Sectioning of the medial collateral ligament and partial medial meniscectomy were performed on right knee joints of wild-type and knockout mice. Left joints served as unoperated controls. Serial histologic sections were obtained from throughout the whole joint of both knees 4 days or 1, 2, 3, or 4 weeks after surgery. Sections were graded for OA lesions on a scale of 0,6 and were assessed for breakdown of tibial cartilage matrix proteoglycan (aggrecan) and type II collagen by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and aggrecanases with immunohistochemistry studies using anti-VDIPEN, anti-NITEGE, and Col2-3/4Cshort neoepitope antibodies. Proteoglycan depletion was assessed by Alcian blue staining and chondrocyte cell death, with the TUNEL technique. Results All knockout mice showed accelerated development of OA lesions in the medial tibial cartilage after surgery, compared with wild-type mice. ICE-, iNOS-, and particularly IL-1,,knockout mice developed OA lesions in the lateral cartilage of unoperated limbs. Development of focal histopathologic lesions was accompanied by increased levels of MMP-, aggrecanase-, and collagenase-generated cleavage neoepitopes in areas around lesions, while nonlesional areas showed no change in immunostaining. Extensive cell death was also detected by TUNEL staining in focal areas around lesions. Conclusion We postulate that deletion of each of these genes, which encode molecules capable of producing degenerative changes in cartilage, leads to changes in the homeostatic controls regulating the balance between anabolism and catabolism, favoring accelerated cartilage degeneration. These observations suggest that these genes may play important regulatory roles in maintaining normal homeostasis in articular cartilage matrix turnover. [source]

Can serum biomarker assays measure the progression of cartilage degeneration in osteoarthritis?

A. Robin Poole
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A radiologic and histologic study of the os peroneum: Prevalence, morphology, and relationship to degenerative joint disease of the foot and ankle in a cadaveric sample

C. Muehleman
Abstract The present study investigated the prevalence of an os peroneum (OP, a sesamoid bone) in a cadaveric sample and its relationship to the shape of the cuboid tuberosity, and cartilage degeneration at the cuboid tuberosity and in regional joints within the foot (first metatarsophalangeal and calcaneocuboid) and ankle. The fibularis longus tendon of 33 embalmed human cadavers (mean age 81 years) were obtained from the anatomy laboratory. Nineteen of 64 tendons (30%) displayed an OP both radiographically and histologically. The os peronei ranged in size from small spicules to prominent masses: mean area 2.48 mm2 (left) and 2.70 mm2 (right). Histologically, the os peronei were cancellous bone, the largest occupying most of the tendon at the point of contact with the cuboid tuberosity. Fibrocartilage was present at their borders, merging with dense regular fibrous tissue and peritenon. The talocrural, calcaneocuboid, and first metatarsophalangeal joints were examined for cartilage integrity and osteophytes based on an earlier suggestion that there may be an association between degenerative joint disease and endochondral bone formation. There was no statistical correlation between presence of an OP with any of the following parameters: age, gender, body size, cartilage degeneration, or osteophytes within any of the joints examined. Therefore, the presence of an OP does not appear to be associated with increased endochondral ossification or degenerative joint disease. This study does not preclude the possibility that sesamoid bone formation may be associated with biomechanical functions within the foot; thus, future studies may be warranted. Clin. Anat. 22:747,754, 2009. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]