Cartilage Damage (cartilage + damage)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Connective tissue growth factor/CCN2 overexpression in mouse synovial lining results in transient fibrosis and cartilage damage

ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM, Issue 5 2006
E. N. Blaney Davidson
Objective Characteristics of osteoarthritis (OA) include cartilage damage, fibrosis, and osteophyte formation. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF; also known as CCN2), is found in high levels in OA chondrocytes and is frequently involved in fibrosis, bone formation, and cartilage repair. The present study was therefore undertaken to investigate the potential role of CTGF in OA pathophysiology. Methods We transfected the synovial lining of mouse knee joints with a recombinant adenovirus expressing human CTGF and measured synovial fibrosis and proteoglycan content in cartilage on days 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28. Messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in synovium and cartilage was measured on days 3, 7, and 21. Results CTGF induced synovial fibrosis, as indicated by accumulation of extracellular matrix and an increase in procollagen type I,positive cells. The fibrosis reached a maximum on day 7 and had reversed by day 28. Levels of mRNA for matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP-3), MMP-13, ADAMTS-4, ADAMTS-5, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1), and transforming growth factor , were elevated in the fibrotic tissue. TIMP-1 expression was elevated on day 3, while expression of other genes did not increase until day 7 or later. CTGF induced proteoglycan depletion in cartilage as early as day 1. Maximal depletion was observed on days 3,7. Cartilage damage was reduced by day 28. A high level of MMP-3 mRNA expression was found in cartilage. CTGF overexpression did not induce osteophyte formation. Conclusion CTGF induces transient fibrosis that is reversible within 28 days. Overexpression of CTGF in knee joints results in reversible cartilage damage, induced either by the high CTGF levels or via factors produced by the CTGF-induced fibrotic tissue. [source]


Cytotoxic T lymphocytes recognize and lyse chondrocytes under inflammatory, but not non-inflammatory conditions

IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 1 2003
E. Suzanne Cohen
Summary The human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I allele HLA-B27 is strongly associated with seronegative spondyloarthropathies including ankylosing spondylitis and reactive arthritis. Although of unknown aetiology, one hypothesis suggests that a cytotoxic T cell (CTL) response against a self-antigen at sites of inflammation, such as entheses or joints may be involved. The chondrocyte is one of the major specialized cell types found both in articular cartilage and cartilaginous entheses and therefore is a possible source of such an antigen. CTL recognition of these cells is a potential mechanism for inflammation and cartilage damage, both through direct lysis of chondrocytes and the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor and interferon-, (IFN-,). We test the feasibility of this hypothesis by examining the ability of chondrocytes to present antigen to CTL in vitro. Chondrocytes isolated from the ribcages of mice did not constitutively express detectable levels of MHC class I by fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis. In addition, they were resistant to lysis by alloreactive and influenza A virus nucleoprotein (NP)-specific CTL. However, treatment of chondrocytes with IFN-, up-regulated MHC class I expression and rendered the cells susceptible to lysis by CTL. Similarly, IFN-,-treated chondrocytes infected with influenza A virus were recognized by NP-specific CTL, though with variable efficiency. Thus, we suggest that under certain circumstances CTL-mediated lysis of chondrocytes is potentially a potent mechanism for cartilage damage in vivo, but that low levels of MHC class I on healthy chondrocytes protects from immune recognition in health. [source]


Comparison of cobalt chromium, ceramic and pyrocarbon hemiprostheses in a rabbit model: Ceramic leads to more cartilage damage than cobalt chromium

JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL MATERIALS RESEARCH, Issue 2 2008
Martin Jung
Abstract Cartilage wear after hemiarthroplasty remains a problem in orthopedic surgery. The main cause of cartilage wear, apart from incongruency of the joint partners, is generally considered to be the tribology of the material surfaces. This study evaluates in 27 rabbits the degree of cartilage wear of the tibia plateau after hemiarthroplasty with proximal interphalangeal prostheses made of three different materials [cobalt chromium (CoCr), pyrocarbon (PyCa), and ceramic (Cer)]. Three months after hemiarthroplasty, the articulating tibial cartilage was histomorphologically examined and degenerative damage was graded using the modified Mankin score. The mechanical capacity of the cartilage was assessed by stress relaxation testing. The biomechanical properties of the cartilage were significantly superior in the CoCr group as compared with the Cer group (p < 0.03), indicating less damage to the articulating cartilage surface. The Mankin score showed significantly lower values in the CoCr compared with Cer group (p = 0.011), whereas no differences were found between PyCa and CoCr or PyCa and Cer. In contrast to earlier reports, in this hemiarthroplasty model, the CoCr alloy showed less cartilage damage than a ceramic surface. Further, in vivo experiments are necessary to elucidate the controversial issue of the most suitable material for hemiarthroplasty. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2008 [source]


The effects of graft width and graft laxity on the outcome of caprine anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC RESEARCH, Issue 2 2002
J. F. Cummings
We studied how initial graft size and initial graft laxity affected the biomechanics of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction at six months. Sixteen goats had bilateral reconstructions staged eight weeks apart. Autografts 4 and 7 mm wide were taken from the central patellar tendon (PT). Lax grafts were created by adding 4 mm slack to the graft before fixing. We reconstructed each joint using a combination of width and laxity treatments. Both factors were changed for the contralateral joint and all combinations appeared with equal frequency. At six months we measured the joint extension limit, anterior,posterior (AP) translation, and osteoarthritic changes. The grafts were then tested to failure to determine their mechanical properties. After six months the difference in initial treatments had disappeared: there was no difference in graft cross-section due to the different initial widths and there was no difference in joint AP translation due to the initial graft laxity. We did observe that wide grafts were associated with a block to extension, decreased joint AP translation, and increased articular cartilage damage and osteophyte formation. While AP translation was reduced, it was correlated with decreased extension, possibly indicating an increase in scar tissue formation rather than a more functional graft. Neither graft width nor graft laxity produced differences in any graft mechanical properties. This suggests that the use of larger grafts to prevent increased AP translation has undesirable complications. Ultimately, we conclude that neither of these surgical treatments strongly affects the biomechanical result of caprine ACL reconstruction. © 2002 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. [source]


Synovial fluid biomarker levels predict articular cartilage damage following complete medial meniscectomy in the canine knee

JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC RESEARCH, Issue 1 2002
Cathy S. Carlson
The purposes of this study were to document the histological changes present in the tibial plateaus 12 weeks after complete medial meniscectomy in dogs and to determine if synovial lavage fluid biomarker levels are predictive of the severity of joint damage. Twelve adult dogs underwent complete unilateral medial meniscectomy and synovial lavage fluid biomarker levels, including cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), keratan sulfate (5D4), 3B3(,), and 3B3(+), were measured serially at 4-week intervals. The dogs were euthanized 12 weeks after surgery and each medial and lateral tibial plateau from the meniscectomized and contralateral knees was graded histologically. Histological data were analyzed using principal components analysis, which resulted in 4 factors that explained 70% of the variation in the data. Factor 2 (weighted most heavily by subchondral bone thickness) and Factor 3 (representative of articular cartilage damage) were significantly affected by compartmental site (P < 0.01 for both). Both of these factors were highest in the medial tibial plateau of the meniscectomized knee, and Factor 3 was significantly higher in this site than in the medial tibial plateau of the contralateral knee (P < 0.01). Peak levels of all 4 synovial lavage fluid biomarkers occurred at 4 weeks post-meniscectomy and 4-week minus baseline levels of all biomarkers were significantly correlated with the Factor 3 scores. This study demonstrates that significant articular cartilage damage occurs relatively quickly following complete medial meniscectomy in dogs and establishes the content and criterion validity for these synovial fluid lavage biomarkers in canine meniscectomy as surrogate measures of articular cartilage damage. © 2002 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. [source]


Delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (dGEMRIC) of hip joint cartilage in femoroacetabular impingement (FAI): Are pre- and postcontrast imaging both necessary?

MAGNETIC RESONANCE IN MEDICINE, Issue 6 2009
Bernd Bittersohl
Abstract The purpose of this study was to assess if delayed gadolinium MRI of cartilage using postcontrast T1 (T1Gd) is sufficient for evaluating cartilage damage in femoroacetabular impingement without using noncontrast values (T10). T1Gd and ,R1 (1/T1Gd , 1/T10) that include noncontrast T1 measurements were studied in two grades of osteoarthritis and in a control group of asymptomatic young-adult volunteers. Differences between T1Gd and ,R1 values for femoroacetabular impingement patients and volunteers were compared. There was a very high correlation between T1Gd and ,R1 in all study groups. In the study cohort with Tonnis grade 0, correlation (r) was ,0.95 and ,0.89 with Tonnis grade 1 and ,0.88 in asymptomatic volunteers, being statistically significant (P < 0.001) for all groups. For both T1Gd and ,R1, a statistically significant difference was noted between patients and control group. Significant difference was also noted for both T1Gd and ,R1 between the patients with Tonnis grade 0 osteoarthritis and those with grade 1 changes. Our results prove a linear correlation between T1Gd and ,R1, suggesting that T1Gd assessment is sufficient for the clinical utility of delayed gadolinium MRI of cartilage in this setting and additional time-consuming T10 evaluation may not be needed. Magn Reson Med, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Gene therapy for cartilage defects

THE JOURNAL OF GENE MEDICINE, Issue 12 2005
Magali Cucchiarini
Abstract Focal defects of articular cartilage are an unsolved problem in clinical orthopaedics. These lesions do not heal spontaneously and no treatment leads to complete and durable cartilage regeneration. Although the concept of gene therapy for cartilage damage appears elegant and straightforward, current research indicates that an adaptation of gene transfer techniques to the problem of a circumscribed cartilage defect is required in order to successfully implement this approach. In particular, the localised delivery into the defect of therapeutic gene constructs is desirable. Current strategies aim at inducing chondrogenic pathways in the repair tissue that fills such defects. These include the stimulation of chondrocyte proliferation, maturation, and matrix synthesis via direct or cell transplantation-mediated approaches. Among the most studied candidates, polypeptide growth factors have shown promise to enhance the structural quality of the repair tissue. A better understanding of the basic scientific aspects of cartilage defect repair, together with the identification of additional molecular targets and the development of improved gene-delivery techniques, may allow a clinical translation of gene therapy for cartilage defects. The first experimental steps provide reason for cautious optimism. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Mammalian target of rapamycin signaling is crucial for joint destruction in experimental arthritis and is activated in osteoclasts from patients with rheumatoid arthritis

ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM, Issue 8 2010
Daniel Cejka
Objective Activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is important for immune cell activation and bone metabolism. To date, the contribution of mTOR signaling to joint inflammation and structural bone and cartilage damage is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of inhibiting mTOR as a treatment of inflammatory arthritis. Methods Human tumor necrosis factor,transgenic mice in which inflammatory arthritis was developing were treated with 2 different mTOR inhibitors, sirolimus or everolimus. The effects of treatment on clinical disease activity, inflammation, and localized joint and cartilage destruction were studied. In addition, the effects of mTOR inhibition on osteoclast survival and expression of key molecules of osteoclast function were analyzed in vitro. Moreover, synovial tissue from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) was assessed for activation of the mTOR pathway. Results Inhibition of mTOR by sirolimus or everolimus reduced synovial osteoclast formation and protected against local bone erosions and cartilage loss. Clinical signs of arthritis improved after mTOR inhibition, and histologic evaluation showed a decrease in synovitis. In vitro, mTOR inhibition down-regulated the expression of digestive enzymes and led to osteoclast apoptosis. Moreover, mTOR signaling was shown to be active in the synovial membrane of patients with RA, particularly in synovial osteoclasts. Conclusion Signaling through mTOR is an important link between synovitis and structural damage in inflammatory arthritis. Current pharmacologic inhibitors of mTOR could be effective in protecting joints against structural damage. [source]


Ligament and bone pathologic abnormalities more frequent in neuropathic joint disease in comparison with degenerative arthritis of the foot and ankle: Implications for understanding rapidly progressive joint degeneration,

ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM, Issue 8 2010
Jill Halstead
Objective The variable disease progression of osteoarthritis (OA) and the basis for rapid joint deterioration in some subgroups of patients are poorly understood. To explore an anatomic basis for rapidly progressive OA, this observational study compared the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) patterns of disease between patients with neuropathic joint disease (NJD) and patients with degenerative arthritis of the ankle and foot. Methods MR images of the foot and ankle of patients with early NJD (n = 7) and patients with OA (n = 15) were assessed. The anonomized MR images were dichotomously scored by a musculoskeletal radiologist for the presence of the following abnormalities per bone (of a total of 14 bones): cartilage defects, bone cysts, bone marrow edema, fractures, joint debris, joint effusions, tendinopathy, tendinitis, and ligament tears. Results Although the degree of cartilage damage and joint cyst formation was comparable between the groups, the degree of ligament tears, or change in MRI signal intensity in the ligaments, was significantly greater in patients with NJD compared with patients with OA (median of 3 tears versus 0, of 14 total bones; P < 0.01). Moreover, in patients with early NJD compared with patients with OA, there was a significantly greater degree of diffuse bone marrow edema (median of 6.5 tarsal bones versus 2 adjacent bones, of 14 total bones; P < 0.01), a greater number of bone fractures (median 4 versus 0; P < 0.01), and more frequent bone debris (median 4.5 versus 0; P = 0.013). Conclusion This analysis of NJD in the foot and ankle shows the predominance of bone and ligament abnormalities in NJD compared with the pattern of involvement in OA. These findings highlight the importance of structures other than articular cartilage in OA of the ankle and foot, and suggest that rapid joint degeneration in NJD may be more ligamentogenic or osteogenic in nature. [source]


Prevention of cartilage degeneration and restoration of chondroprotection by lubricin tribosupplementation in the rat following anterior cruciate ligament transection

ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM, Issue 8 2010
Gregory D. Jay
Objective To investigate whether cartilage degeneration is prevented or minimized following intraarticular injections of lubricin derived from human synoviocytes in culture, recombinant human PRG4 (rhPRG4), or human synovial fluid (SF) in a rat model of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Methods Unilateral ACL transection (ACLT) was performed in Lewis rats (n = 45). Nine animals were left untreated. The remaining rats were given intraarticular injections (50 ,l/injection) of either phosphate buffered saline (PBS) (n = 9), human synoviocyte lubricin (200 ,g/ml; n = 9), rhPRG4 (200 ,g/ml; n = 9), or human SF lubricin (200 ,g/ml; n = 9) twice weekly beginning on day 7 after injury. Joints were harvested on day 32 after injury. Histologic analysis was performed using Safranin O,fast green staining, and articular cartilage degeneration was graded using the Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI),modified Mankin criteria. Histologic specimens were immunoprobed for lubricin and sulfated glycosaminoglycans. A 24-hour urine collection was performed on days 17 and 29 postinjury, and urinary C-terminal telopeptide of type II collagen (CTX-II) levels were measured. Results Treatment with human synoviocyte lubricin resulted in significantly lower OARSI scores for cartilage degeneration compared with no treatment or PBS treatment (P < 0.05). Increased immunostaining for lubricin in the superficial zone chondrocytes and on the surface of cartilage was observed in lubricin-treated, but not untreated or PBS-treated, joints. On day 17, urinary CTX-II levels in human synoviocyte lubricin, and human SF lubricin,treated animals were significantly lower than those in untreated animals (P = 0.005 and P = 0.002, respectively) and in PBS-treated animals (P = 0.002 and P < 0.001, respectively). Conclusion After treatment with any of the 3 types of lubricin evaluated in this study, a reduction in cartilage damage following ACLT was evident, combined with a reduction in type II collagen degradation. Our findings indicate that intraarticular lubricin injection following an ACL injury may be beneficial in retarding the degeneration of cartilage and the development of posttraumatic OA. [source]


Subchondral bone and cartilage damage: A prospective study in older adults

ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM, Issue 7 2010
Dawn Doré
Objective There is limited longitudinal evidence relating subchondral bone changes to cartilage damage and loss. The aim of this study was to describe the association between baseline tibial bone area and tibial subchondral bone mineral density (BMD) with tibial cartilage defect development and cartilage volume loss. Methods A total of 341 subjects (mean age 63 years, range 52,79 years) underwent measurement at baseline and ,2.7 years later. Tibial knee cartilage volume, cartilage defects (graded on a scale of 0,4), and bone area were determined using T1-weighted fat suppression magnetic resonance imaging. Tibial subchondral BMD was determined using dual x-ray absorptiometry. Results In multivariable analysis, baseline bone area positively predicted cartilage defect development at the medial and lateral tibial sites (odds ratio [OR] 1.6 per 1 SD increase, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.0, 2.6, and OR 2.4 per 1 SD increase, 95% CI 1.4, 4.0, respectively) and cartilage volume loss at the medial tibial site (, = ,34.9 per 1 SD increase, 95% CI ,49.8, ,20.1). In contrast, baseline subchondral BMD positively predicted cartilage defect development at the medial tibial site only (OR 1.6 per 1 SD increase, 95% CI 1.2, 2.1) and was not associated with cartilage loss. Conclusion The results of this study demonstrated that bone area predicted medial and lateral cartilage defect development and medial cartilage volume loss, while subchondral BMD predicted medial defect development but not cartilage loss. These associations were independent of each other, indicating there are multiple mechanisms by which subchondral bone changes may lead to cartilage damage. [source]


Inflammatory arthritis in caspase 1 gene,deficient mice: Contribution of proteinase 3 to caspase 1,independent production of bioactive interleukin-1,

ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM, Issue 12 2009
Leo A. B. Joosten
Objective Caspase 1, a known cysteine protease, is a critical component of the inflammasome. Both caspase 1 and neutrophil serine proteases such as proteinase 3 (PR3) can process pro,interleukin-1, (proIL-1,), a crucial cytokine linked to the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. This study was undertaken to establish the relative importance of caspase 1 and serine proteases in mouse models of acute and chronic inflammatory arthritis. Methods Acute and chronic arthritis were induced in caspase 1,/, mice, and the lack of caspase 1 was investigated for its effects on joint swelling, cartilage metabolism, and histopathologic features. In addition, caspase 1 activity was inhibited in mice lacking active cysteine proteases, and the effects of dual blockade of caspase 1 and serine proteases on arthritis severity and histopathologic features were evaluated. Results Surprisingly, caspase 1,/, mice, in a model of acute (neutrophil-dominated) arthritis, developed joint swelling to an extent similar to that in wild-type control mice. Joint fluid concentrations of bioactive IL-1, were comparable in caspase 1,/, mice and controls. In contrast, induction of chronic arthritis (characterized by minimal numbers of neutrophils) in caspase 1,/, mice led to reduced joint inflammation and less cartilage damage, implying a caspase 1,dependent role in this process. In mice lacking neutrophil serine PR3, inhibition of caspase 1 activity resulted in decreased bioactive IL-1, concentrations in the synovial tissue and less suppression of chondrocyte anabolic function. In addition, dual blockade of both PR3 and caspase 1 led to protection against cartilage and bone destruction. Conclusion Caspase 1 deficiency does not affect neutrophil-dominated joint inflammation, whereas in chronic arthritis, the lack of caspase 1 results in reduced joint inflammation and cartilage destruction. These findings suggest that inhibitors of caspase 1 are not able to interfere with the whole spectrum of IL-1, production, and therefore such inhibitors may be of therapeutic value only in inflammatory conditions in which limited numbers of neutrophils are present. [source]


Matrix metalloproteinase 13,deficient mice are resistant to osteoarthritic cartilage erosion but not chondrocyte hypertrophy or osteophyte development

ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM, Issue 12 2009
C. B. Little
Objective To investigate the role of matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP-13; collagenase 3) in osteoarthritis (OA). Methods OA was surgically induced in the knees of MMP-13,knockout mice and wild-type mice, and mice were compared. Histologic scoring of femoral and tibial cartilage aggrecan loss (0,3 scale), erosion (0,7 scale), and chondrocyte hypertrophy (0,1 scale), as well as osteophyte size (0,3 scale) and maturity (0,3 scale) was performed. Serial sections were stained for type X collagen and the MMP-generated aggrecan neoepitope DIPEN. Results Following surgery, aggrecan loss and cartilage erosion were more severe in the tibia than femur (P < 0.01) and tibial cartilage erosion increased with time (P < 0.05) in wild-type mice. Cartilaginous osteophytes were present at 4 weeks and underwent ossification, with size and maturity increasing by 8 weeks (P < 0.01). There was no difference between genotypes in aggrecan loss or cartilage erosion at 4 weeks. There was less tibial cartilage erosion in knockout mice than in wild-type mice at 8 weeks (P < 0.02). Cartilaginous osteophytes were larger in knockout mice at 4 weeks (P < 0.01), but by 8 weeks osteophyte maturity and size were no different from those in wild-type mice. Articular chondrocyte hypertrophy with positive type X collagen and DIPEN staining occurred in both wild-type and knockout mouse joints. Conclusion Our findings indicate that structural cartilage damage in a mouse model of OA is dependent on MMP-13 activity. Chondrocyte hypertrophy is not regulated by MMP-13 activity in this model and does not in itself lead to cartilage erosion. MMP-13 deficiency can inhibit cartilage erosion in the presence of aggrecan depletion, supporting the potential for therapeutic intervention in established OA with MMP-13 inhibitors. [source]


The impact of anterior cruciate ligament injury on lubricin metabolism and the effect of inhibiting tumor necrosis factor , on chondroprotection in an animal model

ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM, Issue 10 2009
K. A. Elsaid
Objective To examine the effects of anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) in a rat model on lubricin metabolism and its relationship to markers of inflammation and cartilage damage, and to determine whether blocking the metabolic effects of tumor necrosis factor , (TNF,) by etanercept increases the chondroprotection provided by lubricin. Methods Unilateral ACLT was performed in Lewis rats. Levels of lubricin, TNF,, interleukin-1, (IL-1,), and sulfated glycosaminoglycans (sGAG) in synovial fluid (SF) lavage specimens and synovial tissue lubricin gene expression were evaluated at 1 week and 4 weeks following ACLT. Histologic evaluation of articular cartilage included staining with lubricin-specific monoclonal antibody 9G3 and Safranin O. The percentage of lubricin staining on the surface of articular cartilage in weight-bearing areas was estimated by digital imaging. Blocking of TNF, was performed using etanercept, which was administered subcutaneously at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg around the ACL-transected joints, using different dosing strategies. The ACL-transected and contralateral joints of these rats were harvested 4 weeks following surgery. Results Four weeks following ACLT, SF lubricin concentrations and the percentage of cartilage surface lubricin staining were significantly lower in the injured joints compared with the contralateral joints. A significant decrease in synovial tissue lubricin gene expression was associated with elevated TNF, and IL-1, concentrations in SF lavage samples. With all of the etanercept treatment strategies, blocking of TNF, significantly increased the amount of lubricin bound to cartilage, coupled with a significant decrease in sGAG release. However, changes in the concentrations of lubricin in SF were variable. Conclusion Blocking TNF, resulted in a chondroprotective effect, exemplified by increased lubricin deposition on articular cartilage and a decrease in sGAG release from articular cartilage in an animal model of posttraumatic arthritis. [source]


Induction of an antiinflammatory effect and prevention of cartilage damage in rat knee osteoarthritis by CF101 treatment

ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM, Issue 10 2009
S. Bar-Yehuda
Objective Studies have suggested that rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) share common characteristics. The highly selective A3 adenosine receptor agonist CF101 was recently defined as a potent antiinflammatory agent for the treatment of RA. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of CF101 on the clinical and pathologic manifestations of OA in an experimental animal model. Methods OA was induced in rats by monosodium iodoacetate, and upon disease onset, oral treatment with CF101 (100 ,g/kg given twice daily) was initiated. The A3 adenosine receptor antagonist MRS1220 (100 ,g/kg given twice daily) was administered orally, 30 minutes before CF101 treatment. The OA clinical score was monitored by knee diameter measurements and by radiographic analyses. Histologic analyses were performed following staining with hematoxylin and eosin, Safranin O,fast green, or toluidine blue, and histologic changes were scored according to a modified Mankin system. Signaling proteins were assayed by Western blotting; apoptosis was detected via immunohistochemistry and TUNEL analyses. Results CF101 induced a marked decrease in knee diameter and improved the changes noted on radiographs. Administration of MRS1220 counteracted the effects of CF101. CF101 prevented cartilage damage, osteoclast/osteophyte formation, and bone destruction. In addition, CF101 markedly reduced pannus formation and lymphocyte infiltration. Mechanistically, CF101 induced deregulation of the NF-,B signaling pathway, resulting in down-regulation of tumor necrosis factor ,. Consequently, CF101 induced apoptosis of inflammatory cells that had infiltrated the knee joints; however, it prevented apoptosis of chondrocytes. Conclusion CF101 deregulated the NF-,B signaling pathway involved in the pathogenesis of OA. CF101 induced apoptosis of inflammatory cells and acted as a cartilage protective agent, which suggests that it would be a suitable candidate drug for the treatment of OA. [source]


Transgenic disruption of glucocorticoid signaling in mature osteoblasts and osteocytes attenuates K/BxN mouse serum,induced arthritis in vivo

ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM, Issue 7 2009
Frank Buttgereit
Objective Endogenous glucocorticoids (GCs) modulate numerous biologic systems involved in the initiation and maintenance of arthritis. Bone cells play a critical role in the progression of arthritis, and some of the effects of GCs on inflammation may be mediated via these cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of osteoblast-targeted disruption of GC signaling on joint inflammation, cartilage damage, and bone metabolism in the K/BxN mouse serum transfer model of autoimmune arthritis. Methods Intracellular GC signaling was disrupted in osteoblasts through transgenic overexpression of 11,-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 under the control of a type I collagen promoter. Arthritis was induced in 5-week-old male transgenic mice and their wild-type (WT) littermates, and paw swelling was assessed daily until the mice were killed. The mice were examined by histology, histomorphometry, and microfocal computed tomography, and serum was analyzed for cytokines, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and corticosterone. Results Acute arthritis developed in both transgenic and WT mice treated with K/BxN mouse serum. However, the arthritis and local inflammatory activity were significantly attenuated in transgenic mice, as judged by clinical and histologic indices of inflammation and cartilage damage. Bone turnover and bone volume remained unchanged in arthritic transgenic mice, while WT mice exhibited stimulated bone resorption, suppressed osteoblast activity, and significantly reduced bone volume, compatible with the known effects of active inflammation on bone. Circulating levels of proinflammatory cytokines tended to be lower in arthritic transgenic mice than in control transgenic mice. Conclusion Disruption of GC signaling in osteoblasts significantly attenuates K/BxN mouse serum,induced autoimmune arthritis in mice. These data suggest that osteoblasts modulate the immune-mediated inflammatory response via a GC-dependent pathway. [source]


A new class of potent matrix metalloproteinase 13 inhibitors for potential treatment of osteoarthritis: Evidence of histologic and clinical efficacy without musculoskeletal toxicity in rat models

ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM, Issue 7 2009
Vijaykumar M. Baragi
Objective Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have long been considered excellent targets for osteoarthritis (OA) treatment. However, clinical utility of broad-spectrum MMP inhibitors developed for this purpose has been restricted by dose-limiting musculoskeletal side effects observed in humans. This study was undertaken to identify a new class of potent and selective MMP-13 inhibitors that would provide histologic and clinical efficacy without musculoskeletal toxicity. Methods Selectivity assays were developed using catalytic domains of human MMPs. Freshly isolated bovine articular cartilage or human OA cartilage was used in in vitro cartilage degradation assays. The rat model of monoiodoacetate (MIA),induced OA was implemented for assessing the effects of MMP-13 inhibitors on cartilage degradation and joint pain. The surgical medial meniscus tear model in rats was used to evaluate the chondroprotective ability of MMP-13 inhibitors in a chronic disease model of OA. The rat model of musculoskeletal side effects (MSS) was used to assess whether selective MMP-13 inhibitors have the joint toxicity associated with broad-spectrum MMP inhibitors. Results A number of non,hydroxamic acid,containing compounds that showed a high degree of potency for MMP-13 and selectivity against other MMPs were designed and synthesized. Steady-state kinetics experiments and Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis of rate versus substrate concentration with one such compound, ALS 1-0635, indicated linear, noncompetitive inhibition, and Dixon plot analysis from competition studies with a zinc chelator (acetoxyhydroxamic acid) and ALS 1-0635 demonstrated nonexclusive binding. ALS 1-0635 inhibited bovine articular cartilage degradation in a dose-dependent manner (48.7% and 87.1% at 500 nM and 5,000 nM, respectively) and was effective in inhibiting interleukin-1,, and oncostatin M,induced C1,C2 release in human OA cartilage cultures. ALS 1-0635 modulated cartilage damage in the rat MIA model (mean ± SEM damage score 1.3 ± 0.3, versus 2.2 ± 0.4 in vehicle-treated animals). Most significantly, when treated twice daily with oral ALS 1-0635, rats with surgically induced medial meniscus tear exhibited histologic evidence of chondroprotection and reduced cartilage degeneration, without observable musculoskeletal toxicity. Conclusion The compounds investigated in this study represent a novel class of MMP-13 inhibitors. They are mechanistically distinct from previously reported broad-spectrum MMP inhibitors and do not exhibit the problems previously associated with these inhibitors, including selectivity, poor pharmacokinetics, and MSS liability. MMP-13 inhibitors exert chondroprotective effects and can potentially modulate joint pain, and are, therefore, uniquely suited as potential disease-modifying osteoarthritis drugs. [source]


Involvement of the Wnt signaling pathway in experimental and human osteoarthritis: Prominent role of Wnt-induced signaling protein 1

ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM, Issue 2 2009
Arjen B. Blom
Objective Wnt signaling pathway proteins are involved in embryonic development of cartilage and bone, and, interestingly, developmental processes appear to be recapitulated in osteoarthritic (OA) cartilage. The present study was undertaken to characterize the expression pattern of Wnt and Fz genes during experimental OA and to determine the function of selected genes in experimental and human OA. Methods Longitudinal expression analysis was performed in 2 models of OA. Levels of messenger RNA for genes from the Wnt/,-catenin pathway were determined in synovium and cartilage, and the results were validated using immunohistochemistry. Effects of selected genes were assessed in vitro using recombinant protein, and in vivo by adenoviral overexpression. Results Wnt-induced signaling protein 1 (WISP-1) expression was strongly increased in the synovium and cartilage of mice with experimental OA. Wnt-16 and Wnt-2B were also markedly up-regulated during the course of disease. Interestingly, increased WISP-1 expression was also found in human OA cartilage and synovium. Stimulation of macrophages and chondrocytes with recombinant WISP-1 resulted in interleukin-1,independent induction of several matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and aggrecanase. Adenoviral overexpression of WISP-1 in murine knee joints induced MMP and aggrecanase expression and resulted in cartilage damage. Conclusion This study included a comprehensive characterization of Wnt and Frizzled gene expression in experimental and human OA articular joint tissue. The data demonstrate, for the first time, that WISP-1 expression is a feature of experimental and human OA and that WISP-1 regulates chondrocyte and macrophage MMP and aggrecanase expression and is capable of inducing articular cartilage damage in models of OA. [source]


The combination of the biomarkers urinary C-terminal telopeptide of type II collagen, serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein, and serum chondroitin sulfate 846 reflects cartilage damage in hemophilic arthropathy

ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM, Issue 1 2009
Nathalie W. D. Jansen
Objective Hemophilic arthropathy, with characteristics of inflammatory (rheumatoid arthritis) and degenerative (osteoarthritis) joint damage, occurs at an early age, is associated with minor comorbidity, and is restricted to 3 pairs of large joints. The aim of this study was to determine whether commonly used serum and/or urinary biomarkers of cartilage and bone turnover for which assay kits are commercially available are associated with the severity of joint damage in patients with various degrees of hemophilic arthropathy and, thus, whether this disease could be useful in the identification and evaluation of such biomarkers. Methods Blood and urine samples were collected from 36 patients with various degrees of hemophilic arthropathy. Commercially available assays for the most frequently investigated serum and urine biomarkers were performed: urinary C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-I), urinary CTX-II, serum CTX-I, serum CTX-II, serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), serum cartilage cleavage products C1,2C and C2C, and serum chondroitin sulfate 846 (CS-846). Radiographs of the ankles, knees, and elbows in all patients were evaluated for the degree of joint damage according to the Pettersson score, which is based on cartilage and periarticular bone changes and is specific for hemophilic arthropathy. Results Urinary CTX-II, serum C1,2C, and serum CS-846 levels correlated with the overall Pettersson score and with the joint space narrowing component. Regression analysis showed that combined indexes of different markers increased the degree of correlation for the combination of urinary CTX-II, serum COMP, and serum CS-846. Bone-specific markers (urinary/serum CTX-I and serum C1,2C) did not correlate with specific bone-related items of the Pettersson score (osteoporosis and erosions). Conclusion These results support the idea that a combination of biomarkers relates significantly better to the severity of joint damage than do individual biomarkers. The combination of urinary CTX-II, serum COMP, and serum CS-846 correlated best with the degree of arthropathy. Because of its specific characteristics and restricted involvement, hemophilic arthropathy may prove useful in the screening of newly developed biomarkers of joint damage. [source]


Resemblance of osteophytes in experimental osteoarthritis to transforming growth factor ,,induced osteophytes: Limited role of bone morphogenetic protein in early osteoarthritic osteophyte formation

ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM, Issue 12 2007
E. N. Blaney Davidson
Objective Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by cartilage damage, synovial fibrosis, and osteophyte formation. Both transforming growth factor , (TGF,) and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) can induce the formation of osteophytes during OA, but their specific role in this process is unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the respective contributions of TGF, and BMP-2 to OA. Methods Mouse knee joints injected with adenovirus (Ad-TGF, or Ad-BMP-2) were compared histologically with knee joints from murine models of OA (joints injected with collagenase and joints from STR/Ort mice with spontaneous OA). To further investigate the role of BMP during osteophyte formation, adenovirus Ad-Gremlin was injected into knee joints that had previously been injected with Ad-TGF, or collagenase. Results BMP-2 induced early osteophytes, which bulged from the growth plates on the femur and grew on top of the patella, whereas TGF, induced early osteophyte formation on the bone shaft beneath the collateral ligament on the femur as well as on top of the patella. The pattern of osteophyte formation during experimental OA closely resembled that of TGF,-induced osteophyte formation, but differed from the pattern induced by BMP-2. Ad-Gremlin proved to be able to totally block BMP-2,induced osteophyte formation. However, blocking BMP activity inhibited neither TGF,-induced nor experimental OA,associated osteophyte formation. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that the role of BMP during the onset of TGF,-induced and experimental OA,induced osteophyte formation is limited. The latter finding does not rule out a role of BMP during osteophyte maturation. [source]


Crucial role of macrophages in matrix metalloproteinase,mediated cartilage destruction during experimental osteoarthritis : Involvement of matrix metalloproteinase 3

ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM, Issue 1 2007
Arjen B. Blom
Objective To explore the involvement of synovial macrophages in early cartilage damage in osteoarthritis (OA), and to identify the role of matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP-3) in the pathology of early and late OA. Methods The role of synovial macrophages in MMP-mediated damage in OA was studied by depleting synovial macrophages prior to elicitation of a collagenase-induced instability model of OA. The expression of MMP in synovium and cartilage was monitored using TaqMan analysis. In spontaneous and induced OA, cartilage pathology was scored in MMP-3,knockout mice and control mice, by histologic assessment and VDIPEN staining. Results On day 14 following induction of OA, MMP-mediated neoepitopes were detected in cartilage from mice with mild experimental OA (mean ± SD positively stained surface area 20 ± 3.2%). Remarkably, by depleting synovial macrophages prior to induction of OA, the generation of MMP-induced neoepitopes was largely prevented (mean ± SD positively stained surface area 5 ± 1%; P< 0.001), indicating an important role for synovial macrophages in the occurrence of MMP-mediated cartilage damage. We observed a strong decrease in MMP-3 and MMP-9 expression in synovial but not cartilage tissue in macrophage-depleted joints. Among 2-year-old mice, spontaneous OA,like changes in the lining layer were significantly decreased in MMP-3,knockout mice compared with control mice. Even more striking was the 67% reduction in the occurrence of severe cartilage damage in MMP-3,knockout mice. In addition, MMP-mediated VDIPEN expression was significantly decreased, indicating reduced MMP-mediated cartilage breakdown. Conclusion The results of this study prove that MMP-3 is involved in the generation of severe cartilage damage in murine OA. Synovial macrophages are crucial in early MMP activity and appear to mediate MMP production in synovium rather than cartilage. [source]


Early elevation in circulating levels of C-telopeptides of type II collagen predicts structural damage in articular cartilage in the rodent model of collagen-induced arthritis

ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM, Issue 9 2006
Svetlana Oestergaard
Objective To investigate changes in the circulating levels of the C-telopeptide of type II collagen (CTX-II) with relation to disease onset and structural damage of cartilage in a rodent model of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), and to investigate immunolocalization of the CTX-II epitope in the articular cartilage of affected joints. Methods Seven-week-old female Lewis rats were immunized with type II collagen and monitored using blood sampling at weekly intervals. At study termination (day 23), the animals were killed, synovial fluid was collected, and the affected joints were scored macroscopically for disease severity and underwent immunohistochemical evaluation. Results At the time of disease onset (day 15), which was characterized by redness and swelling of the affected joints (mean ± SD macroscopic severity score 9.1 ± 1.6), there was a 355% increase in serum CTX-II levels. The early change in serum CTX-II from day 0 to day 15 showed a significant association with the severity of cartilage damage (r = 0.61, P < 0.01). Immunostaining revealed extensive presence of the CTX-II epitope in the damaged, uncalcified cartilage tissue. Conclusion The elevation in serum CTX-II concomitant with the onset of disease and proportional to cartilage damage demonstrates that CTX-II is a sensitive diagnostic tool for monitoring joint disease in the rodent model of CIA. Furthermore, the immunohistochemical findings are consistent with the concept that the major source of serum CTX-II is the damaged articular cartilage. [source]


Connective tissue growth factor/CCN2 overexpression in mouse synovial lining results in transient fibrosis and cartilage damage

ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM, Issue 5 2006
E. N. Blaney Davidson
Objective Characteristics of osteoarthritis (OA) include cartilage damage, fibrosis, and osteophyte formation. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF; also known as CCN2), is found in high levels in OA chondrocytes and is frequently involved in fibrosis, bone formation, and cartilage repair. The present study was therefore undertaken to investigate the potential role of CTGF in OA pathophysiology. Methods We transfected the synovial lining of mouse knee joints with a recombinant adenovirus expressing human CTGF and measured synovial fibrosis and proteoglycan content in cartilage on days 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28. Messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in synovium and cartilage was measured on days 3, 7, and 21. Results CTGF induced synovial fibrosis, as indicated by accumulation of extracellular matrix and an increase in procollagen type I,positive cells. The fibrosis reached a maximum on day 7 and had reversed by day 28. Levels of mRNA for matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP-3), MMP-13, ADAMTS-4, ADAMTS-5, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1), and transforming growth factor , were elevated in the fibrotic tissue. TIMP-1 expression was elevated on day 3, while expression of other genes did not increase until day 7 or later. CTGF induced proteoglycan depletion in cartilage as early as day 1. Maximal depletion was observed on days 3,7. Cartilage damage was reduced by day 28. A high level of MMP-3 mRNA expression was found in cartilage. CTGF overexpression did not induce osteophyte formation. Conclusion CTGF induces transient fibrosis that is reversible within 28 days. Overexpression of CTGF in knee joints results in reversible cartilage damage, induced either by the high CTGF levels or via factors produced by the CTGF-induced fibrotic tissue. [source]