Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Carpio

  • c. carpio
  • carp cyprinus carpio
  • common carp cyprinus carpio
  • cyprinus carpio

  • Terms modified by Carpio

  • carpio l
  • carpio l.

  • Selected Abstracts

    Novel intramolecular coordination chemistry of some new metallocene complexes

    Yan-Long Qian
    Abstract The metabolic thermogenic curves of liver mitochondria isolated from the livers of Cyprinus Carpio vol and its parents were determined at 28°C by using an LKB-2277 Bioactivity Monitor. The results indicated that their thermogenic curves are different The total heat output and total time of the metabolism of the liver mitochondria of the hybrid F1 (Cyprinus Carpio val) are more than those of its parents, and its maximum heat power is between that of the female parent and male parent. The relationship between their metabolic thermogenic curves and character of mitochondrial metabolism, and thermokinetics and the heterosis were analyzed and discussed. The character of the mitochondrial thermogenic curves reflected the physiologic character of heterosis. The microcalorimetric method proved to be a probable and sensitive tool for the assessment of heterosis. [source]

    Microcalorimetric studies on the mitochondria metabolism of Cyprinus Carpio val and its parents

    Feng-Jiao Deng
    Abstract The metabolic thermogenic curves of liver mitochondria isolated from the livers of Cyprinus Carpio vol and its parents were determined at 28°C by using an LKB-2277 Bioactivity Monitor. The results indicated that their thermogenic curves are different The total heat output and total time of the metabolism of the liver mitochondria of the hybrid F1 (Cyprinus Carpio val) are more than those of its parents, and its maximum heat power is between that of the female parent and male parent. The relationship between their metabolic thermogenic curves and character of mitochondrial metabolism, and thermokinetics and the heterosis were analyzed and discussed. The character of the mitochondrial thermogenic curves reflected the physiologic character of heterosis. The microcalorimetric method proved to be a probable and sensitive tool for the assessment of heterosis. [source]

    Movements and habitat use of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and Murray cod (Maccullochella peelii peelii) juveniles in a large lowland Australian river

    M. J. Jones
    Abstract,,, Native Murray cod (Maccullochella peelii peelii) are listed as a nationally vulnerable species, whereas non-native common carp (Cyprinus carpio) are widespread and abundant. Understanding key aspects of life history, such as movement patterns and habitat selection by juvenile Murray cod and common carp, might be useful for conserving Murray cod populations and controlling common carp numbers. We used radio-telemetry to track eight juvenile Murray cod and seven juvenile common carp in the Murray River, Australia, between March and July 2001. Common carp occupied a significantly greater total linear range (mean ± SD: 1721 ± 1118 m) than Murray cod (mean ± SD: 318 ± 345 m) and the average daily movement was significantly greater for common carp (mean ± SD: 147 ± 238 m) than for Murray cod (mean ± SD: 15 ± 55 m). All Murray cod and five of the seven common carp displayed site fidelity or residency to one, two or three locations. Murray cod were found only in the mainstream Murray River among submerged woody habitats, whereas common carp occurred equally in mainstream and offstream areas, and among submerged wood and aquatic vegetation. Murray cod were found in deeper (mean ± SD: 2.3 ± 0.78 m) and faster waters (mean ± SD: 0.56 ± 0.25 m·s,1) compared with common carp (mean ± SD: 1 ± 0.54 m; 0.08 ± 0.09 m·s,1) respectively. The presence of juvenile Murray cod only amongst submerged wood is an indication that these habitats are important and should be preserved. Conversely, juvenile common carp were equally present among all habitats sampled, suggesting that habitat selection is less specific, possibly contributing to their widespread success. [source]

    The effect of food rations on tissue-specific copper accumulation patterns of sublethal waterborne exposure in Cyprinus carpio

    Shodja Hashemi
    Abstract Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were fed to two different food rations, 0.5% body weight (low ration [LR]) and 5% body weight (high ration [HR]), and were exposed to sublethal (1 ,M) copper levels for 28 d in softened Antwerp (Belgium) city tap water (Ca2+, 79.3 mg/L; Mg2+, 7.4 mg/L; Na+, 27.8 mg/L; pH 7.5,8.0). Copper accumulations in the liver, gills, kidney, anterior intestine, posterior intestine, and muscle were determined. Copper accumulation in the gills, liver, and kidney of LR fish was significantly higher than in HR fish. The only time copper uptake in HR fish was significantly higher than in LR fish was in the posterior intestine after two weeks of exposure. No difference was found between the two rations in the anterior intestine. Copper accumulation in the liver of both feeding treatments occurred in a time-dependent manner and did not reach steady state in any treatment. On the contrary, copper concentration in the gills reached a steady state for both HR and LR fish within the first week of exposure. No copper accumulation was found in muscle tissues of either treatment. Copper concentration dropped to control levels in all tissues, except liver tissue, two weeks after the exposure ended. Our studies indicated that copper uptake was influenced by the food ration in carp. The difference in copper accumulation probably is related to the amount of dietary NaCl and different rates of metallothionein synthesis. Low food availability provides less Na+ influx and leads to increased brachial uptake of Na+ and copper. In addition, it has been shown that starved animals show increased levels of metallothionein, possibly causing higher copper accumulation. [source]

    Using regional exposure criteria and upstream reference data to characterize spatial and temporal exposures to chemical contaminants,

    Susan M. Cormier
    Abstract Analyses of biomarkers in fish were used to evaluate exposures among locations and across time. Two types of references were used for comparison, an upstream reference sample remote from known point sources and regional exposure criteria derived from a baseline of fish from reference sites throughout Ohio, USA. Liver, bile, and blood were sampled from white suckers (Catostomus commersoni) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) collected during 1993 and 1996 in the Ottawa River near Lima, Ohio. Levels of exposure were measured for petroleum by naphthalene-type metabolites, combustion by-products by benzo[a]pyrene-type metabolites, coplanar organic compounds by ethoxyresorufin- O -deethylase (EROD) activity, and urea by blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels. The four biomarkers analyzed proved effective in determining differences between reference and polluted sampling sites, between geographically close (<0.5 km) sites, and between sampling years at sites common in both years. Calculated exposure criteria levels of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon bile metabolites were found to be a conservative approximation of levels from a designated reference site and could thereby permit comparison of biomarker levels of fish from the Ottawa River to a regional reference level. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon bile metabolite and EROD activity levels were more reflective of spatial patterns of contamination than BUN, although all biomarkers indicated differences overtime. Biomarkers from white suckers seemed to be more responsive in detecting changes in contaminant levels than the same biomarkers from common carp. Lower levels in 1996 of all biomarkers at many sites suggested lower exposures than in 1993 and could be indicative of some improvement over the period. [source]

    A molecular approach to detect hybridisation between crucian carp (Carassius carassius) and non-indigenous carp species (Carassius spp. and Cyprinus carpio)

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 3 2005
    Summary 1. Releases of non-native fish into the wild is an increasing problem posing considerable ecological and genetic threats through direct competition and hybridisation. 2. We employed six microsatellite markers to identify first generation hybrids and backcrosses between native crucian carp (Carassius carassius) and introduced goldfish (C. auratus) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in the U.K. We also investigated the genetic characteristics of the taxonomically controversial gibel carp (Carassius spp.) from sites across Europe. 3. Natural hybridisation between goldfish and crucian carp occurs frequently, although hybrids between all other species pairs were observed. Only 62% of British crucian carp populations (n = 21) consisted exclusively of pure crucian carp. In some populations hybrids were so frequent, that no pure crucian carp were caught, indicating a high competitive ability of hybrids. 4. Most hybrids belonged to the F1 generation but backcrossing was evident at a low frequency in goldfish × crucian carp hybrids and goldfish × common carp hybrids. Furthermore, some local populations had high frequencies of backcrosses, raising the opportunity for introgression. 5. Gibel carp from Germany and Italy belonged to two triploid clonal lineages that were genetically closely related to goldfish, whereas all individuals identified from British populations proved to be crucian carp × goldfish hybrids. 6. Our study suggests that the release of closely related exotic cyprinids not only poses a threat to the genetic integrity and associated local adaptations of native species, but may also contribute to shifts in community structure through competitive interactions. [source]

    Carp (Cyprinus carpio) as a powerful invader in Australian waterways

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 7 2004
    John D. Koehn
    Summary 1. The invasion of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in Australia illustrates how quickly an introduced fish species can spread and dominate fish communities. This species has become the most abundant large freshwater fish in south-east Australia, now distributed over more than 1 million km2. 2. Carp exhibit most of the traits predicted for a successful invasive fish species. In addition, degradation of aquatic environments in south-east Australia has given them a relative advantage over native species. 3. Derivation of relative measures of 13 species-specific attributes allowed a quantitative comparison between carp and abundant native fish species across five major Australian drainage divisions. In four of six geographical regions analysed, carp differed clearly from native species in their behaviour, resource use and population dynamics. 4. Climate matching was used to predict future range expansion of carp in Australia. All Australian surface waters appear to be climatically suitable for carp. 5. This assessment strongly reinforces the need for immediate management of carp in Australia to include targeted control of human-assisted dispersal, such as use of carp as bait by anglers, distribution to new locations by anglers and the use of the ,Koi' strain in the aquarium industry. 6. Given their historical spread, dispersal mechanisms and ecological requirements, the expansion of carp across most of the remainder of Australia is to be expected. [source]

    Mechanism of blood coagulation in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Shuangan LI
    Abstract In vitro, carp blood was anticoagulated by using MgSO4 at a final concentration of 22.2 mmol L,1 and sodium citrate at a final concentration of 11.8 mmol L,1. The coagulation times for carp plasma diluted by ion-free water (1:1), and that of carp plasma to which thrombocytes and small lymphocytes were added, were measured at 23 °C using standard methods, and then contrasted with the coagulation times for plasma obtained from chickens and rabbits. The shapes of the thrombocytes and small lymphocytes, which were either wet mounted or stained with hematoxylin and eosin, were observed under a light microscope. We found that: (i) the coagulation reaction of carp blood was significantly (P < 0.01) accelerated by the addition of ion-free water; (ii) the three types of blood cells (thrombocytes, small lymphocytes and red blood cells) promoted plasma coagulation to a similar extent (P > 0.05); (iii) in carp Mg2+ plasma and K2C2O4 plasma, the thrombocytes were usually morphologically normal, but many small lymphocytes were destroyed and became aggregated; (iv) in the citrate plasma, thrombocytes were often aggregated, but the small lymphocytes were usually morphologically normal; and (v) the coagulation time for chicken and rabbit plasma was significantly extended by adding ion-free water. [source]

    Carp (Cyprinus carpio) oils obtained by fishmeal and ensilage processes: characteristics and lipid profiles

    Valéria T. Crexi
    Summary Fish oil is an important source of long-chain ,-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid. The common carp (Cyprinus carp) is a major fish species in world aquaculture production. This study aimed towards obtaining carp viscera oil by ensilage and fishmeal processes. Characteristics of crude oils obtained were also compared with oil extracted by Bligh and Dyer methods. Crude oils obtained by the three processes resulted in significant difference (P < 0.05) for free fatty acids, peroxide, thiobarbituric acid and Lovibond colour values; however, iodine and saponification values were not significantly affected (P > 0.05). Recovery yield of crude oils was approximately 85% in relation to carp viscera oil. Carp crude oils obtained by the ensilage and fishmeal processes resulted in high unsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acid contents (67.4%), and ,3/,6 ratios around 1.15. These oils are applicable in fish diets; however, crude oils require refinement for human consumption. [source]

    Colour improvement of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fillets by hydrogen peroxide for surimi production

    Ali Jafarpour
    Summary The preferred colour for surimi is white, but surimi prepared from light fillets of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is slightly pink. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2; 1,3% v/v) with and without sodium tri-polyphosphate (STP; 1,2% w/v) was added to a sodium carbonate bath (pH 7.0,11.5) resulting in a final pH range of 4.4,10.1 which was injected into carp fillets. After soaking and tumbling for 30 min at 4,10 °C, the fillets were evaluated for colour and water holding capacity (WHC). Fillets tumbled with treatment solution with different pH levels (7.0,11.5), but with no H2O2 or STP added, had improved colour with significantly (P < 0.05) higher L* compared with untreated fillets as the control. However, the colour improvement [(L* and colour deviation (,E)] was not significantly different (P > 0.05) within the pH levels (7.0,11.5) trialled. With increasing H2O2 levels (1,3%), fillets became lighter and ,E increased significantly (P < 0.05), especially with a 3% H2O2 treatment at pH of 10.5 (adjusted pH before H2O2 addition, actual pH after H2O2 addition was 8.2). The whiteness (L*,3b*) of kamaboko produced from treated (3% H2O2, pH 10.5) common carp light fillets was not significantly different to that of kamaboko from Alaska pollock and threadfin bream. Treatments combining H2O2 (3%) with STP (1,2%) significantly reduced the L* value obtained in comparison with fillets treated with only H2O2 (3%). Similarly, fillets treated with STP (1%) alone, resulting in lower L* values, irrespective of treatment pH (7.0,11.5). WHC, an indicator of the quality of the fillet texture, increased from 816 g/kg at pH 7.0 without STP to 841 g/kg at pH 11.5 with 1% STP. Treatment with H2O2 (without STP) decreased the WHC of the fillets. [source]

    Fillet yield and fat content in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) produced in three Austrian carp farms with different culture methodologies

    C. Bauer
    Summary The fat content and fillet yield of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from three carp farms were investigated with respect to pond management and overall climatic conditions. The mean fat content of the trimmed fillet varied from 2.7 to 6.9% and differed significantly among the three facilities (P < 0.001). It is suggested that differences in the fillet fat content may be based on the climatic conditions as well as the different management strategies (feeding, stocking biomass). The mean fillet yield was calculated as 34.0,39.0%. No significant correlation between fish weight and fillet yield (, = ,0.16) was found. Results suggest that producing smaller fish for fillets of serving size may lead to a higher production and conclude with lower production risks and costs. [source]

    Tracking gender factors in fish surface mucus: temporal patterns in individual Koi (Cyprinus carpio)

    D. R. Schultz
    First page of article [source]

    Nutritional evaluation of fermented black gram (Phaseolus mungo) seed meal in compound diets for rohu, Labeo rohita (Hamilton), fingerlings

    S. Ramachandran
    Summary Six isonitrogenous (approximately 35% crude protein) and isocaloric (approximately 4.0 kcal g,1) diets were formulated incorporating raw and fermented black gram, Phaseolus mungo, seed meal at 20%, 30% and 40% levels by weight into a fishmeal-based control diet fed to rohu, Labeo rohita, fingerlings (mean weight, 1.81 ± 0.21 g) for 80 days for a study of fish performance. A particular bacterial strain (Bacillus sp.) isolated from the intestine of adult common carp (Cyprinus carpio) reared in the wild having significant amylolytic, cellulolytic, lipolytic and proteolytic activities was used for fermentation of seed meal for 15 days at 37 ± 2°C. Fermentation of P. mungo seed meal was effective in significantly reducing the crude fibre content and antinutritional factors such as tannins and phytic acid, and enhancing available free amino acids and fatty acids. In terms of growth, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio, the 30% fermented black gram seed meal incorporated diet resulted in a significantly (P < 0.05) better performance of rohu fingerlings. In general, growth and feed utilization efficiencies of diets containing fermented seed meal were superior to diets containing raw seed meal. The apparent protein digestibility (APD) values decreased with increasing levels of raw seed meal in the diets. The APD for raw seed meal was lower at all levels of inclusion in comparison to those for the fermented seed meals. The maximum deposition of protein in the carcass was recorded in fish fed the diet containing 40% fermented seed meal. The results indicate that fermented black gram seed meal can be incorporated in carp diets up to the 30% level compared to the 10% level of raw seed meal. [source]

    A review of length,weight relationships of fish from the Segura River basin (SE Iberian Peninsula)

    A. Andreu-Soler
    Summary We present the relationships between fork length and total weight for 14 fish species from the Segura River basin (southeastern Spain): Barbus sclateri, Chondrostoma polylepis, Gobio lozanoi, Aphanius iberus, Micropterus salmoides, Lepomis gibbosus, Carassius auratus auratus, Cyprinus carpio carpio, Sander lucioperca, Gambusia holbrooki, Liza ramado, Mugil cephalus, Atherina boyeri and Pomatoschistus marmoratus. Significant length,weight relationships were found for all species. The values of the exponent b of the length,weight relationships ranged from 3.82 for Sander lucioperca to 2.59 for Micropterus salmoides. [source]

    A review of changes in the fish assemblages of Levantine inland and marine ecosystems following the introduction of non-native fishes

    M. Goren
    Summary The arrival of non-native fishes in the Levant Basin began in the late 19th century. Whereas the presence of most of the 40 non-native freshwater fishes stem from intentional introductions, either for aquaculture or pest control, the 62 species of non-native marine fishes arrived by natural dispersal via the Suez Canal. Of the non-native freshwater species, five have established successful breeding populations (mosquitofish Gambusia affinis, common carp Cyprinus carpio, crucian carp Carassius carassius, swordtail Xiphophorus hellerii and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss), and seven are regularly stocked in natural habitats (thinlip mullet Liza ramada, flathead mullet Mugil cephalus, European eel Anguilla anguilla, grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, Asian silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, bighead carp Aristichthys nobilis, black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus). Some non-native species appear to have out-competed native species. Gambusia affinis may have caused the extirpation of two native cyprinid fishes from the Qishon River basin (Levant silver carp Hemigrammocapoeta nana and common garra Garra rufa) and the southern Dead Sea (endemic Sodom's garra G. ghoerensis). The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 allowed entry into the eastern Mediterranean of Indo-Pacific and Erythrean biota, with the latter now dominating the community structure (50,90% of fish biomass) and function (altered native food web) of the Levantine littoral and infra-littoral zones. The process has accelerated in recent years concurrent with a warming trend of the seawater. Record numbers of newly discovered non-native species is leading to the creation of a human-assisted Erythrean biotic province in the eastern Mediterranean. [source]

    Growth of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) introduced into the Mediterranean Vransko Lake

    T. Treer
    First page of article [source]

    Isolation and selection of Bacillus spp. as potential biological agents for enhancement of water quality in culture of ornamental fish

    R. Lalloo
    Abstract Aims:, To isolate, select and evaluate Bacillus spp. as potential biological agents for enhancement of water quality in culture of ornamental fish. Methods and Results:, Natural isolates obtained from mud sediment and Cyprinus carpio were purified and assessed in vitro for efficacy based on the inhibition of growth of pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila and the decrease in concentrations of ammonium, nitrite, nitrate and phosphate ions. Based on suitability to predefined characteristics, the isolates B001, B002 and B003 were selected and evaluated in vitro in the presence of Aer. hydrophila and in a preliminary in vivo trial with C. carpio. The inhibitory effect on pathogen growth and the decrease in concentrations of waste ions was demonstrated. Based on 16S RNA sequence homology, the isolates were identified as Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus licheniformis, respectively. Isolate B002 did not contain the anthrax virulence plasmids pOX1, pOX2 or the B. cereus enterotoxin. Conclusions:, Selected isolates effected synergistic reduction in pathogen load and the concentrations of waste ions in vitro and in vivo and are safe for use in ornamental aquaculture. Significance and Impact of the Study:, A new approach for assessment of biological agents was demonstrated and has yielded putative isolates for development into aquaculture products. [source]

    Modular changes of cis-regulatory elements from two functional Pit1 genes in the duplicated genome of Cyprinus carpio

    G. Kausel
    Abstract The pituitary-specific transcription factor Pit1 is involved in its own regulation and in a network of transcriptional regulation of hypothalamo-hypophyseal factors including prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH). In the ectotherm teleost Cyprinus carpio, Pit1 plays an important role in regulation of the adaptive response to seasonal environmental changes. Two Pit1 genes exist in carp, a tetraploid vertebrate and transcripts of both genes were detected by RT-PCR analysis. Powerful comparative analyses of the 5,-flanking regions revealed copy specific changes comprising modular functional units in the naturally evolved promoters. These include the precise replacement of four nucleotides around the transcription start site embedded in completely conserved regions extending upstream of the TATA-box, an additional transcription factor binding site in the 5,-UTR of gene-I and, instead, duplication of a 9 bp element in gene-II. Binding of nuclear factors was assessed by electro mobility shift assays using extracts from rat pituitary cells and carp pituitary. Binding was confirmed at one conserved Pit1, one conserved CREB and one consensus MTF1. Interestingly, two functional Pit1 sites and one putative MTF1 binding site are unique to the Pit1 gene-I. In situ hybridization experiments revealed that the expression of gene-I in winter carp was significantly stronger than that of gene-II. Our data suggest that the specific control elements identified in the proximal regulatory region are physiologically relevant for the function of the duplicated Pit1 genes in carp and highlight modular changes in the architecture of two Pit1 genes that evolved for at least 12 MYA in the same organism. J. Cell. Biochem. 99: 905,921, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Elevated ability to compete for limited food resources by ,all-fish' growth hormone transgenic common carp Cyprinus carpio

    M. Duan
    Food consumption, number of movements and feeding hierarchy of juvenile transgenic common carp Cyprinus carpio and their size-matched non-transgenic conspecifics were measured under conditions of limited food supply. Transgenic fish exhibited 73·3% more movements as well as a higher feeding order, and consumed 1·86 times as many food pellets as their non-transgenic counterparts. After the 10 day experiment, transgenic C. carpio had still not realized their higher growth potential, which may be partly explained by the higher frequency of movements of transgenics and the ,sneaky' feeding strategy used by the non-transgenics. The results indicate that these transgenic fish possess an elevated ability to compete for limited food resources, which could be advantageous after an escape into the wild. It may be that other factors in the natural environment (i.e. predation risk and food distribution), however, would offset this advantage. Thus, these results need to be assessed with caution. [source]

    Reduced swimming abilities in fast-growing transgenic common carp Cyprinus carpio associated with their morphological variations

    D. Li
    Critical swimming speeds (Ucrit) and morphological characters were compared between the F4 generation of GH-transgenic common carp Cyprinus carpio and the non-transgenic controls. Transgenic fish displayed a mean absolute Ucrit value 22·3% lower than the controls. Principal component analysis identified variations in body shape, with transgenic fish having significantly deeper head, longer caudal length of the dorsal region, longer standard length (LS) and shallower body and caudal region, and shorter caudal length of the ventral region. Swimming speeds were related to the combination of deeper body and caudal region, longer caudal length of the ventral region, shallower head depth, shorter caudal length of dorsal region and LS. These findings suggest that morphological variations which are poorly suited to produce maximum thrust and minimum drag in GH-transgenic C. carpio may be responsible for their lower swimming abilities in comparison with non-transgenic controls. [source]

    Common carp tissue reactions to surgically implanted radio tags with external antennas

    C. Bauer
    Examination of common carp Cyprinus carpio, carrying implanted telemetry transmitters, showed that wound healing was incomplete after 4 months and completed after 1 year. Granulation tissue, which encapsulated the transmitter, adhered to the intestine and liver. The liver was infiltrated by the granulation tissue after 1 year. Epidermal tissue grew down the channel for the antenna, establishing a potential pathway for pathogens. No signs of infections, however, were found. [source]

    Genetic analysis of offspring from intra- and interspecific crosses of Carassius auratus gibelio by chromosome and RAPD analysis

    B. Tóth
    The ploidy of silver crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelio individuals, originating from nine natural habitats of Hungary, was estimated by erythrocyte nucleus area analysis. On the basis of DNA polymorphism, the genetic homogeneity or heterogeneity and the chromosome number of different offspring derived from the crossing of triploid and diploid populations and of two types of silver crucian carp females with other cyprinid males (Cyprinus carpio, Carassius carassius, Carassius auratus and Barbus conchonius) were determined. The results of chromosome and RAPD analysis demonstrated that diploid females could reproduce sexually with silver crucian carp and other cyprinid males and that the offspring of intra- and interspecific crosses contained the paternal DNA. Triploid females usually reproduced by gynogenesis and their offspring were clones, however, in very rare cases paternal genes were actually transmitted (i.e. paternal leakage) to the offspring and the progeny were triploid interspecific hybrids. RAPD analysis showed that while the paternal DNA appeared in the offspring, the maternal phenotype was strongly expressed. [source]

    About the oldest domesticates among fishes

    E. K. Balon
    Domestication of mammals such as cattle, dogs, pigs and horses preceded that of fishes by at least 10 000 years. The first domesticated fish was the common carp Cyprinus carpio. Initially it was held as an exploited captive and did not undergo major changes in body shape or colour variations. About 2000 years ago, wild common carp were most abundant in the inland delta of the Danube River. These fish were torpedo shaped, golden-yellow in colour and had two pairs of barbels and a mesh-like scale pattern. Large schools of them thrived and reproduced on the flood plains of the Danube. The Romans kept fishes in specially built ponds at that time. The common carp was an ideal candidate and its rearing became more popular in medieval times. Common carp culture gradually became the most profitable branch of agriculture in central Europe and many special ponds were built. Soon common carp were being produced in pond systems including spawning and growing ponds. Unintentional artificial selection had taken place between the 12th and mid-14th century, and deep bodied and variously scaled or scaleless domesticated forms appeared in nearly every pond system. Some colour aberrations appeared in the 1950s in Japan, which, as koi, became the most expensive of fish. Common carp were not originally domesticated in China but wild ,chi'Carassius auratus occasionally appeared as a xanthic form that, as the goldfish, has been known since 960 A.D. By the 1200s the fish were used as ornamental animals in the garden pools of rich landowners. Circa 1276 to 1546, the Chinese began keeping golden chi in aquarium-like vessels and soon rich and poor alike became breeders of the fancy domesticated goldfish. The variously shaped monstrosities and colour aberrants were freaks but they became very fashionable at that time and still are. Domesticated goldfish monstrosities were first exported from China to Japan and much later to Europe and around the world. More recently other species have been domesticated by aquarists, such as the guppy Poecilia reticulata or the neon tetra Paracheirodon innesi. Other fishes kept as ornamentals, like swordtails Xiphophorus hellerii and platies Xiphophorus maculatus, the discus and angelfishes (Cichlidae), as well as those cultured for food like the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus or sturgeons (Acipenseridae) are merely exploited captives. [source]

    An in situ estimate of food consumption of five cyprinid species in Lake Balaton

    A. Specziár
    Daily rations of five cyprinid species, bream Abramis brama, silver bream Blicca bjoerkna, roach Rutilus rutilus, gibel Carassius auratus gibelio and carp Cyprinus carpio, in Lake Balaton, a large shallow lake, estimated by the Eggers model differed from that of the Elliott , Persson model by only , 4.3 to +7.3% (the differences were insignificant). Daily rations varied within the range of 0.23,0.69 in bream, 0.55,3.61 in silver bream, 0.69,4.65 in roach, 0.38,3.16 in gibel and 0.50,9.74 g dry 100 g wet fish mass,1 day ,1 in carp at temperatures ranging from 8.7,25.8% C. Daily ration was related exponentially with temperature in silver bream, roach, gibel and carp. For bream, a significant relationship was obtained only when a daily ration value was excluded from the analysis. Annual rations were assessed using the relationships between the daily ration estimates from the Elliott,Persson model and water temperature, and the long-term averages of the monthly water temperature data. From these estimates the bream population consumed 104%, silver bream 424%, roach 487%, gibel 363% and carp 913% dry mass of food of its wet biomass annually. [source]

    Short-term storage of ova of common carp and tench in extenders

    O. Linhart
    In a study of the effect of short-term storage on the hatching rate of common carp Cyprinus carpio and tench Tinca tinca ova in vitro in various extenders at 21° C under aerobic conditions, the best extender for 30 min storage for common carp appeared to be Dettlaff 1. This gave the same hatching rate as controls without extender (55%v. 56%). For 60 min storage of ova, the best extenders were Dettlaff 2 (24% hatching rate) and Dettlaff 3 (30%), but hatching was significantly lower than in the control (58%). In carp ovarian artificial fluid (CAF) extender, the hatching rate of common carp ova was also high after 10 min, but decreased to 12% after 30 min. In tench, the hatching rate of ova increased after 10 min storage in Dettlaff 5 extender (44%) compared to the control (41%) without extender. However, it was significantly lower after storage in Dettlaff 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and CAF extenders for 20, 30 and 60 min, compared to controls. Malformations (10,50%) were observed in the tench second control groups without extender after 10, 20 and 30 min storage of ova. [source]

    Salt stress and resistance to hypoxic challenges in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    G. De Boeck
    Long term exposure to brackish water (171 mm NaCl) affected the capacity of common carp Cyprinus carpio to deal with hypoxic conditions and the critical oxygen concentrations for oxygen consumption increased. In addition, regulation of ammonia excretion was lost. The cytosolic phosphorylation potential (the index of the energy status of a cell in terms of potential transferable phosphate groups) in the lateral muscle on the other hand remained relatively unaffected, indicating that oxygen transport to the tissues was not severely compromised. It appears that exposure to brackish water reduces the capacity of common carp to cope with hypoxic conditions mainly because of the high energetic cost of hyperventilation under conditions where energy stores are depleted, and not because of any impeded oxygen transport mechanisms. [source]

    The life cycle of Henneguya nuesslini Schuberg & Schröder, 1905 (Myxozoa) involves a triactinomyxon-type actinospore

    D M Kallert
    Abstract The life cycle of the histozoic myxozoan parasite Henneguya nuesslini was investigated in two salmonid host species. Naďve brown trout, Salmo trutta, and brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis, were experimentally infected in two trials by triactinomyxon type actinospores from naturally infected Tubifex tubifex. In exposed common carp, Cyprinus carpio, no myxospore production was detected. The parasite formed cysts with mature myxospores in the connective tissue of the fish 102 days post-exposure. The morphology of both actinosporean and myxosporean stages was described by light microscopy and a 1417-bp fragment of the 18S rDNA gene was sequenced. Sequence analysis confirmed the absolute congruence of the two developmental stages and assisted in determining species identity. Host range, tissue specificity and myxospore measurements provided sufficiently distinctive features to confirm species validity and were thus crucial for identification. The triactinomyxon spores had 16 secondary germ cells, unique dimensions, a very opaque sporoplasm matrix and three conspicuously protruding, pyriform polar capsules. This is the first record of a Henneguya sp. life cycle with a triactinomyxon-type actinospore, which suggests a close relationship with the Myxobolus group and a polyphyletic origin of the genus Henneguya. [source]

    Effects of infection with the ectoparasite Argulus japonicus (Thiele) and administration of cortisol on cellular proliferation and apoptosis in the epidermis of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., skin

    A L Van Der Salm
    The host-parasite interaction between juvenile carp, Cyprinus carpio, and the ectoparasitic branchiuran, Argulus japonicus, together with the role of cortisol in this interaction, was examined at the level of the host skin epidermis. Epidermal mucous cell numbers, and proliferation and apoptosis of the epithelial cells were studied over 32 days. Apoptotic cell numbers in the uppermost epidermis were reduced at 26 days post-infection with A. japonicus, while the other parameters were unaffected. Administration of cortisol-containing food resulted in reduced apoptosis in the cells in the upper skin epidermis at 24 h and at 28 days post-feeding. Cortisol feeding combined with A. japonicus infection reduced numbers of apoptotic cells in the upper epidermis more than either individual treatment. Further, combining the treatments also significantly increased apoptosis in the lower epidermis in cells morphologically identified as leucocytes apparently migrating macrophages and lymphocytes. Using immunohistochemistry, we demonstrated cortisol receptor presence and cellular localization in the teleost epidermis. Receptors only occurred in pavement cells in the upper epidermis and in leucocytes in the lower parts of the epidermis. The ectoparasites, or administered cortisol, induced effects which may be functionally adaptive in the upper pavement cells, while combining the two treatments also induced changes indicative of immunosuppression. [source]

    Alternative Techniques for Producing a Quality Surimi and Kamaboko from Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    A. Jafarpour
    ABSTRACT:, The demand for surimi and kamaboko is increasing in the world at the same time as the supply of the fish traditionally used has declined. In an effort to increase the range and hence supply of fish used, factors increasing the quality of surimi and kamaboko from common carp were investigated. The best surimi and kamaboko characteristics were produced by a modified conventional method (MCM) rather than traditional method (TM), alkaline-aided method (AAM), and pH modified method (PMM). MCM processing used centrifugation instead of decanting and filtering to optimize dewatering and remove the sarcoplasmic proteins (Sp-P). The temperature sweep test, at the end of sol,gel transition stage (at 75 °C), showed significantly (P < 0.05) greater G, for the kamaboko from MCM than that from other methods tested. Furthermore, the greatest and the least gel strengths were obtained with MCM and TM kamaboko, respectively. The protein recovery was about 67%, 74%, 87%, and 92% for TM, AAM, MCM, and PMM, respectively. TM and MCM resulted in the removal of Sp-P as determined by SDS-PAGE. The superiority of MCM kamaboko gel characteristics was supported by scanning electron micrographs (SEM) of the gel, which showed a significantly (P < 0.05) greater number of polygonal structures than for the TM kamaboko, which had the fewest and largest polygonal structures. The pH-shifting methods improved the textural quality of the resultant kamaboko compared with TM. However, a simple modification (centrifugation compared with decanting) by MCM in the surimi process can further improve the quality of the surimi and kamaboko gels. Furthermore, because it removed Sp-P and still preserved gel strength, it suggests that Sp-P are not required for gel strength. [source]

    Estimating Amino Acid Requirement of Brazilian Freshwater Fish from Muscle Amino Acid Profile

    ÁLvaro José De Almeida Bicudo
    Information on nutritional requirement of some Brazilian farmed fish species, especially essential amino acids (EAA) requirements, is scarce. The estimation of amino acids requirements based on amino acid composition of fish is a fast and reliable alternative. Matrinxa, Brycon amazonicus, and curimbata, Prochilodus lineatus, are two important Brazilian fish with potential for aquaculture. The objective of the present study was to estimate amino acid requirements of these species and analyze similarities among amino acid composition of different fish species by cluster analysis. To estimate amino acid requirement, the following formula was used: amino acid requirement = [(amount of an individual amino acid in fish muscle tissue) × (average totalEAA requirement among channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, and common carp, Cyprinus carpio)]/(average fish muscle totalEAA). Most values found lie within the range of requirements determined for other omnivorous fish species, in exception of leucine requirement estimated for both species, and arginine requirement estimated for matrinxa alone. Rather than writing off the need for regular dose,response assays under the ideal protein concept to determine EAA requirements of curimbata and matrinxa, results set solid base for the study of tropical species dietary amino acids requirements. [source]