Carp

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Carp

  • bighead carp
  • common carp
  • crucian carp
  • gibel carp
  • grass carp
  • indian major carp
  • jian carp
  • juvenile jian carp
  • major carp
  • silver carp

  • Terms modified by Carp

  • carp cyprinus carpio

  • Selected Abstracts


    Cardiac ankyrin repeat protein is a marker of skeletal muscle pathological remodelling

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 3 2009
    Lydie Laure
    In an attempt to identify potential therapeutic targets for the correction of muscle wasting, the gene expression of several pivotal proteins involved in protein metabolism was investigated in experimental atrophy induced by transient or definitive denervation, as well as in four animal models of muscular dystrophies (deficient for calpain 3, dysferlin, ,-sarcoglycan and dystrophin, respectively). The results showed that: (a) the components of the ubiquitin,proteasome pathway are upregulated during the very early phases of atrophy but do not greatly increase in the muscular dystrophy models; (b) forkhead box protein O1 mRNA expression is augmented in the muscles of a limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2A murine model; and (c) the expression of cardiac ankyrin repeat protein (CARP), a regulator of transcription factors, appears to be persistently upregulated in every condition, suggesting that CARP could be a hub protein participating in common pathological molecular pathway(s). Interestingly, the mRNA level of a cell cycle inhibitor known to be upregulated by CARP in other tissues, p21WAF1/CIP1, is consistently increased whenever CARP is upregulated. CARP overexpression in muscle fibres fails to affect their calibre, indicating that CARP per se cannot initiate atrophy. However, a switch towards fast-twitch fibres is observed, suggesting that CARP plays a role in skeletal muscle plasticity. The observation that p21WAF1/CIP1 is upregulated, put in perspective with the effects of CARP on the fibre type, fits well with the idea that the mechanisms at stake might be required to oppose muscle remodelling in skeletal muscle. [source]


    IDENTIFICATION OF A MYOFIBRIL-BOUND SERINE PROTEINASE IN THE SKELETAL MUSCLE OF SILVER CARP

    JOURNAL OF FOOD BIOCHEMISTRY, Issue 5 2004
    MIN-JIE CAO
    ABSTRACT Myofibril-bound serine proteinase (MBSP) in the skeletal muscle of silver carp was characterized. Myosin heavy chain (MHC) degraded markedly when silver carp myofibril was incubated at 55,60C as shown by SDS-PAGE. Prolonged incubation of myofibrils also caused the degradation of other myofibrillar proteins such as ,-actinin, actin and tropomyosin to some degree. The results suggest the existence of an endogenous myofibril associated proteinase. Serine proteinase inhibitors (Pefabloc SC and Lima bean trypsin inhibitor) greatly suppressed the degradation of myosin heavy chain, while inhibitors for cysteine, metallo, and aspartic proteinases did not show any effect, indicating that the endogeneous proteinase is a myofibril-bound serine proteinase. [source]


    Diagnostic Coronary Angiography in Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease: A Sub-study of the Coronary Artery Revascularization Prophylaxis Trial

    JOURNAL OF INTERVENTIONAL CARDIOLOGY, Issue 5 2008
    SANTIAGO GARCIA M.D.
    Background: Although patients in need of elective vascular surgery are often considered candidates for diagnostic coronary angiography, the safety of this invasive study has not been systematically studied in a large cohort of patients scheduled for an elective vascular operation. The goal of this sub-study of the Coronary Artery Revascularization Prophylaxis (CARP) trial was to assess the safety of coronary angiography in patients with peripheral vascular disease. Methods: The CARP trial tested the long-term benefit of coronary artery revascularization prior to elective vascular operations. Among those patients who underwent diagnostic coronary angiography during screening for the trial, the associated complications were determined at 24 hours following the diagnostic procedure. Results: Over 5,000 patients were screened during a 4-year recruitment period at 18 major VA medical centers and the present cohort consists of 1,298 patients who underwent preoperative coronary angiography. Surgical indications for vascular surgery included an expanding aortic aneurysm (AAA) (n = 446; 34.4%) or arterial occlusive disease with either claudication (n = 457; 35.2%) or rest pain (n = 395; 30.4%). A total of 39 patients had a confirmed complication with a major complication identified in 17 patients (1.3%). Complication rates were higher in patients with arterial occlusive symptoms compared with expanding aneurysms (1.8% vs. 0.5%; P = 0.07) and were not dissimilar with femoral (2.8%) versus nonfemoral (4.7%) access sites (P = 0.42). Conclusions: Coronary angiography is safe in patients with peripheral arterial disease undergoing preoperative coronary angiography. The complication rate is higher in patients with symptoms of arterial occlusive disease. [source]


    Exact methods based on node-routing formulations for undirected arc-routing problems

    NETWORKS: AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL, Issue 1 2006
    R. Baldacci
    Abstract This article proposes a new transformation of undirected arc-routing problems into equivalent node-routing problems, with emphasis on the transformation of Capacitated Arc Routing Problems (CARP) into Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problems (CVRP). For this last case, an analogue transformation has already been proposed in Pearn et al., where each required CARP edge is mapped onto a triplet of CVRP nodes. In our case, only two CVRP nodes are needed for every CARP required edge. The transformed instances have a structure and a dimension that make most CARP benchmarks solvable by state of the art CVRP techniques. We thus propose a general purpose transformation of arc into node-routing problems and new results on lower bounds and exact methods for CARP instances. 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. NETWORKS, Vol. 47(1), 52,60 2006 [source]


    Cardiac ankyrin repeat protein is preferentially induced in atrophic myofibers of congenital myopathy and spinal muscular atrophy

    PATHOLOGY INTERNATIONAL, Issue 10 2003
    Chisato Nakada
    Cardiac ankyrin repeat protein (CARP), which is structurally characterized by the presence of four ankyrin repeat motifs in its central region, is believed to be localized in the nucleus and to participate in the regulation of cardiac-specific gene expression in cardiomyocytes. However, we recently found that CARP was induced in skeletal muscle by denervation, leading us to speculate that CARP may be induced under some pathological conditions. In the present study, we immunohistochemically analyzed the expression of CARP in 11 cases of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) and 14 cases of congenital myopathy. In SMA, CARP was expressed selectively in severely atrophic myofibers, suggesting that CARP expression may reflect the status of muscle atrophy. Furthermore, in the congenital myopathies, the expression patterns of CARP were distinct among the subtypes, which included nemaline myopathy, myotubular myopathy, central core disease, and congenital fiber type disproportion. Although CARP was preferentially expressed in severely damaged myofibers in nemaline myopathy, it was not detected in central core disease. These findings suggest that immunohistochemical evaluation of CARP may be helpful in the diagnosis of SMA and the congenital myopathies. [source]


    An Evaluation of an Intervention to Assist Primary Care Physicians in Screening and Educating Older Patients Who Use Alcohol

    JOURNAL OF AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, Issue 11 2005
    Arlene Fink PhD
    Objectives: To evaluate whether providing physicians and older patients with personalized reports of drinking risks and benefits and patient education reduces alcohol-related risks and problems. Design: Prospective comparison study. Setting: Community primary care. Participants: Twenty-three physicians and 665 patients aged 65 and older. Intervention: Combined report, in which six physicians and 212 patients received reports of patients' drinking classifications and patients also received education; patient report, in which 245 patients received reports and education, but their five physicians did not receive reports; and usual care. Measurements: Assessments at baseline and 12 months later to determine patients' nonhazardous (no known risks), hazardous (risks for problems), or harmful (presence of problems) classifications using the Computerized Alcohol-Related Problems Survey (CARPS). The CARPS contains a scanned screening measure and scoring algorithms and automatically produces patient and physician reports and patient education. Results: At baseline, 21% were harmful drinkers, and 26% were hazardous drinkers. The patient report and combined report interventions were each associated with greater odds of lower-risk drinking at follow-up than usual care (odds ratio=1.59 and 1.23, respectively, P<.05 for each). The patient report intervention significantly reduced harmful drinking at follow-up from an expected 21% in usual care to 16% and increased nonhazardous drinking from 52% expected in usual care to 58%. Patients in the combined report intervention experienced a significantly greater average decrease in quantity and frequency. Conclusion: Older primary care patients can effectively reduce their alcohol consumption and other drinking risks when given personalized information about their drinking and health. [source]


    Carp: Biology and Culture

    FISH AND FISHERIES, Issue 1 2000
    Ian J Winfield
    [source]


    Carp (Cyprinus carpio) as a powerful invader in Australian waterways

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 7 2004
    John D. Koehn
    Summary 1. The invasion of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in Australia illustrates how quickly an introduced fish species can spread and dominate fish communities. This species has become the most abundant large freshwater fish in south-east Australia, now distributed over more than 1 million km2. 2. Carp exhibit most of the traits predicted for a successful invasive fish species. In addition, degradation of aquatic environments in south-east Australia has given them a relative advantage over native species. 3. Derivation of relative measures of 13 species-specific attributes allowed a quantitative comparison between carp and abundant native fish species across five major Australian drainage divisions. In four of six geographical regions analysed, carp differed clearly from native species in their behaviour, resource use and population dynamics. 4. Climate matching was used to predict future range expansion of carp in Australia. All Australian surface waters appear to be climatically suitable for carp. 5. This assessment strongly reinforces the need for immediate management of carp in Australia to include targeted control of human-assisted dispersal, such as use of carp as bait by anglers, distribution to new locations by anglers and the use of the ,Koi' strain in the aquarium industry. 6. Given their historical spread, dispersal mechanisms and ecological requirements, the expansion of carp across most of the remainder of Australia is to be expected. [source]


    Carp (Cyprinus carpio) oils obtained by fishmeal and ensilage processes: characteristics and lipid profiles

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, Issue 8 2009
    Valria T. Crexi
    Summary Fish oil is an important source of long-chain ,-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid. The common carp (Cyprinus carp) is a major fish species in world aquaculture production. This study aimed towards obtaining carp viscera oil by ensilage and fishmeal processes. Characteristics of crude oils obtained were also compared with oil extracted by Bligh and Dyer methods. Crude oils obtained by the three processes resulted in significant difference (P < 0.05) for free fatty acids, peroxide, thiobarbituric acid and Lovibond colour values; however, iodine and saponification values were not significantly affected (P > 0.05). Recovery yield of crude oils was approximately 85% in relation to carp viscera oil. Carp crude oils obtained by the ensilage and fishmeal processes resulted in high unsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acid contents (67.4%), and ,3/,6 ratios around 1.15. These oils are applicable in fish diets; however, crude oils require refinement for human consumption. [source]


    Alternative Techniques for Producing a Quality Surimi and Kamaboko from Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 9 2008
    A. Jafarpour
    ABSTRACT:, The demand for surimi and kamaboko is increasing in the world at the same time as the supply of the fish traditionally used has declined. In an effort to increase the range and hence supply of fish used, factors increasing the quality of surimi and kamaboko from common carp were investigated. The best surimi and kamaboko characteristics were produced by a modified conventional method (MCM) rather than traditional method (TM), alkaline-aided method (AAM), and pH modified method (PMM). MCM processing used centrifugation instead of decanting and filtering to optimize dewatering and remove the sarcoplasmic proteins (Sp-P). The temperature sweep test, at the end of sol,gel transition stage (at 75 C), showed significantly (P < 0.05) greater G, for the kamaboko from MCM than that from other methods tested. Furthermore, the greatest and the least gel strengths were obtained with MCM and TM kamaboko, respectively. The protein recovery was about 67%, 74%, 87%, and 92% for TM, AAM, MCM, and PMM, respectively. TM and MCM resulted in the removal of Sp-P as determined by SDS-PAGE. The superiority of MCM kamaboko gel characteristics was supported by scanning electron micrographs (SEM) of the gel, which showed a significantly (P < 0.05) greater number of polygonal structures than for the TM kamaboko, which had the fewest and largest polygonal structures. The pH-shifting methods improved the textural quality of the resultant kamaboko compared with TM. However, a simple modification (centrifugation compared with decanting) by MCM in the surimi process can further improve the quality of the surimi and kamaboko gels. Furthermore, because it removed Sp-P and still preserved gel strength, it suggests that Sp-P are not required for gel strength. [source]


    Comparison of Gel-forming Properties of Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) Surimi Prepared in Different Seasons

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 5 2005
    C. Yuan
    ABSTRACT: The gel-forming properties of silver carp surimi made in different seasons were compared. Surimi prepared in winter and spring formed gel at 30C, while autumn and summer surimi required a higher temperature of 40C for gel formation. All surimi showed marked disintegration when incubated at 60C. Ca2+ -ATPase inactivation rate of myofibrils prepared from 4 surimi samples showed that myofibrils in autumn and summer surimi were much more stable than those in winter and spring surimi by about 10C. These results demonstrated a close relationship between the gel-forming temperature of surimi and the thermal stability of myofibrils in surimi, namely that autumn and summer surimi containing stable myofibrils required higher temperature than winter and spring surimi for the gel formation. [source]


    Effect of Slaughter Method on Postmortem Changes of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) Stored in Icesti

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 5 2005
    Rodrigo Scherer
    ABSTRACT: The effect of 2 slaughter methods (immersion in ice-water slurry and electrical stunning followed by ice slurry asphyxiation) on the quality of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) stored in ice for 20 d was evaluated using sensory and chemical analysis. Electricity immediately stunned the fish and did not induce blood spots in the flesh. Fish killed by electricity showed a faster initial rate of ATP degradation and entered into rigor mortis earlier, but did not show significant differences in the sensory score when compared with fish killed by immersion in ice-water slurry. Thus, no differences were observed in the shelf life of carps between the 2 slaughter methods evaluated. The limit for acceptability of grass carp stored in ice was around 13 to 16 d. Grass carp accumulated more inosine than hypoxanthine. K, Ki, P, Fr, and H values were highly correlated with storage time and with the TFRU sensory scores in both groups; these could be used to assess the freshness quality of grass carp. [source]


    Texture and colour properties of proteins recovered from whole gutted silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) using isoelectric solubilisation/precipitation

    JOURNAL OF THE SCIENCE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE, Issue 2 2009
    Latif Taskaya
    Abstract BACKGROUND: According to an FAO report, carp are the cheapest and by far the most commonly consumed fish in the world. Carp have minimal growth requirements, yet rapid growth rates. Although carp are generally considered unsuitable for human consumption in the USA, they have rapidly started populating major bodies of fresh water in the USA to the extent that commercial processing becomes of interest. However, typical mechanical means of meat recovery from carp are impractical owing to the bony nature of the carp carcass. Therefore the aim of the present study was to devise processing strategies to recover fish meat from carp that could be used in the development of human food products. RESULTS: Isoelectric solubilisation/precipitation at acidic and basic pH values was applied to whole gutted silver carp. Depending on the solubilisation pH, protein and fat recovery yields were approximately 420,660 and 800,950 g kg,1 respectively. The process effectively removed impurities such as bones, scales, skin, fins, etc. from whole gutted carp. The proteins were concentrated to approximately 900 g kg,1, while the fat was reduced by 970,990 g kg,1. Functional additives (potato starch, beef plasma protein, transglutaminase and polyphosphate) improved (P < 0.05) the texture of carp protein-based gels such that it was generally comparable to the texture of Alaska pollock surimi gels. Although titanium dioxide improved (P < 0.05) the whiteness of carp gels, it was lower (P < 0.05) than the whiteness of Alaska pollock surimi gels. CONCLUSION: Isoelectric solublisation/precipitation allows protein and lipid recovery from whole gutted carp. However, if the proteins are used as a gelling ingredient in fish food products, functional additives are recommended. Copyright 2008 Society of Chemical Industry [source]


    Angioarchitecture of the Branchial Arterial System of Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    ANATOMIA, HISTOLOGIA, EMBRYOLOGIA, Issue 2005
    N. Ito
    The arterial system of the gills of carp and its histological structure were studied light and electron microscopically by making Mercox or Neoplane Latex corrosion cast preparations. Four pairs of afferent and efferent branchial arteries, and a pair of afferent and efferent pseudobranchial arteries were identified in the branchial arterial system. The 1st and 2nd afferent branchial arteries are given off directly from the ventral aorta, and the 3rd and 4th afferent arteries originate from their common trunk, which is branched off from the ventral aorta caudal to the origin of the former branchial arteries. Numerous afferent filamental arteries are connected to the lamellar blood capillary networks in the gill lamellae via afferent lamellar arterioles, and efferent filamental arteries followed the efferent lamellar arterioles are converged into four efferent branchial arteries that are connected to the dorsal aorta. To the pseudobranchia, afferent pseudobranchial arteries are connected with the ventral branches of the 1st efferent branchial arteries to provide arterial blood to the organ through the afferent mandibular arteries. Afferent pseudobranchial lamellar arterioles originating from the afferent pseudobranchial filamental arteries are connected with the blood capillary networks in the pseudobranchial lamellae, and blood in the capillary networks is drained into the efferent pseudobranchial filamental arteries via 2-4 pseudobranchial lamellar arterioles. Branches of the efferent pseudobranchial filamental arteries are connected with the arteries to the eyeballs and provide blood to choroid of the vascular tunic of them. Pseudobranchial cells surrounding lamellar capillaries in the pseudobranchia are furnished with abundant mitochondria and tubular structures, and the histological findings suggest the cells may share an ability to exchange physiological materials between the cells and the blood in the capillary networks of pseudobranchia. [source]


    Effect of dietary lysine and methionine supplementation on growth, nutrient utilization, carcass compositions and haemato-biochemical status in Indian Major Carp, Rohu (Labeo rohita H.) fed soy protein-based diet

    AQUACULTURE NUTRITION, Issue 4 2009
    P. SARDAR
    Abstract An 8-week feeding trial was conducted in flow through system to examine the effects of dietary supplementation of lysine and methionine on growth, nutrient utilization, haemato-biochemical status and carcass compositions in Indian major carp, rohu, Labeo rohita fingerlings (average weight 6.32 0.06 g). Four experimental soy protein-based diets D0 (without lysine or methionine supplementation), D1 (lysine supplementation alone), D2 (methionine supplementation alone) and D3 (both lysine and methionine supplementation) were fed to triplicate groups. l -Lysine and dl -methionine were added to the diets containing 550 g kg,1 soybean meals at 4 and 7 g kg,1 of dry diet respectively. Significant higher weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), dry matter retention, nitrogen retention, total ash retention, whole carcass protein, haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit value, total erythrocytic count, total leucocytic count, plasma glucose and plasma total protein and lower FCR, per cent lipid retention and whole body moisture content were observed in fish fed soya protein-based diet supplemented with both lysine and methionine than that of fish of other dietary groups at the end of 8 weeks feeding trial. Although fish fed diet supplemented with either methionine or lysine did not show any significant differences of growth performances, feed utilization, carcass composition and haemato-biochemical status, fish of both of these dietary groups showed significantly better growth performances, feed utilization, carcass composition and haemato-biochemical status than that of fish fed diet without lysine and methionine supplementation. [source]


    Managing invasive carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) for habitat enhancement at Botany Wetlands, Australia

    AQUATIC CONSERVATION: MARINE AND FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS, Issue 5 2005
    L. Pinto
    Abstract 1.In Australia, the carp Cyprinus carpio L. is regarded as a threat to the native fish and the aquatic environment. In recent years, Botany Wetlands, a significant coastal wetland in the Sydney region, has been invaded by the undesirable cyprinids, carp and goldfish (Carrasius auratus L.). 2.In 1996 a cyprinid removal programme commenced at Botany Wetlands with the objective of managing the invasive species, increasing fish diversity, reducing cyanobacterial blooms and hence enhancing the aquatic habitat. Using electrofishing and gill netting, 4073 carp and 261 goldfish, amounting to 10 117 kg of cyprinid biomass were removed between 1996 and 2004. The captured carp ranged from 60 to 835 mm. Males matured before females. Carp between 350 and 680 mm in length grew at the rate of 1.660.38 g day,1. 3.The success of the programme was monitored by assessing four indicators related to carp populations and two related to habitat. The former included the pattern of length,frequency distribution, mean weight per size class, condition factor (CF) and the catch per unit effort (CPUE), and the latter the Secchi disc transparency and cyanobacterial counts. After 8 yr of removal, the plots of carp length,frequency distribution flattened, CF decreased from 2.86 to 1.82 and CPUE decreased from 97 kg day,1 to 50 kg day,1. A 10-fold decrease occurred in cyanobacterial counts and the Secchi disc transparency increased by 20%. More than 20 000 fingerlings of native Australian bass Macquaria novemaculeata (S.) have been introduced to the wetlands, increasing the potential for juvenile carp predation and biodiversity. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Lateral movement of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in a large lowland river and floodplain

    ECOLOGY OF FRESHWATER FISH, Issue 1 2009
    M. J. Jones
    Abstract,,, Common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) are a major freshwater invader and knowledge of their movements is important for planning control efforts. To investigate the movement patterns of common carp, radio-tags were implanted into 46 adult fish; 37 near a large floodplain wetland, the Barmah-Millewa forest, and 9 in the Murray River approximately 175 km upstream. Tagged fish were located every second week between August 1999 and March 2001. Common carp occupied total linear ranges (TLR) between 0.4 and 238 km (mean 30 61 km), with 25 fish (62.5%) occupying a TLR < 10 km. Two fish made large distance movements approximately 650 km downstream. Fish sex, the number of locations, time at large, or tagging location explained little variability (P > 0.05) in TLR. Monthly distance from release varied from 0.04 to 238 km (mean 15 44 km), and was not significantly related to river discharge and water temperature, but 29 of 31 (93.5%) fish tagged at Barmah moved from the Murray River into adjacent floodplain habitats upon flooding. Five fish (12.5%) moved large distances (>127 km) upstream of the Barmah-Millewa forest. Fourteen fish (35%) showed site fidelity to within 20 m and usually occupied one or two home sites. Twenty-six fish (65%) showed site fidelity to within 100 m occupying up to five sites during the study period. Movement patterns of common carp were complex, and individuals exhibited different strategies, which is typical of invasive species. Efforts to control and potentially reduce common carp populations in regulated river-floodplain environments should target key floodplain access points and over-wintering habitats to reduce adult biomass, spawning and recruitment levels. [source]


    Movements and habitat use of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and Murray cod (Maccullochella peelii peelii) juveniles in a large lowland Australian river

    ECOLOGY OF FRESHWATER FISH, Issue 2 2007
    M. J. Jones
    Abstract,,, Native Murray cod (Maccullochella peelii peelii) are listed as a nationally vulnerable species, whereas non-native common carp (Cyprinus carpio) are widespread and abundant. Understanding key aspects of life history, such as movement patterns and habitat selection by juvenile Murray cod and common carp, might be useful for conserving Murray cod populations and controlling common carp numbers. We used radio-telemetry to track eight juvenile Murray cod and seven juvenile common carp in the Murray River, Australia, between March and July 2001. Common carp occupied a significantly greater total linear range (mean SD: 1721 1118 m) than Murray cod (mean SD: 318 345 m) and the average daily movement was significantly greater for common carp (mean SD: 147 238 m) than for Murray cod (mean SD: 15 55 m). All Murray cod and five of the seven common carp displayed site fidelity or residency to one, two or three locations. Murray cod were found only in the mainstream Murray River among submerged woody habitats, whereas common carp occurred equally in mainstream and offstream areas, and among submerged wood and aquatic vegetation. Murray cod were found in deeper (mean SD: 2.3 0.78 m) and faster waters (mean SD: 0.56 0.25 ms,1) compared with common carp (mean SD: 1 0.54 m; 0.08 0.09 ms,1) respectively. The presence of juvenile Murray cod only amongst submerged wood is an indication that these habitats are important and should be preserved. Conversely, juvenile common carp were equally present among all habitats sampled, suggesting that habitat selection is less specific, possibly contributing to their widespread success. [source]


    Microcystin-LR modulates selected immune parameters and induces necrosis/apoptosis of carp leucocytes,

    ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY & CHEMISTRY, Issue 3 2010
    Anna Rymuszka
    Abstract Microcystins (MCs) are potent hepatotoxins acting by the inhibition of protein phosphatase 1 and 2A, and may promote liver tumors. Moreover, studies also suggest they are nephrotoxic. The aim of the present study was to assess possible in vitro effects of microcystin-LR (which contains the amino acids leucine and arginine, the most widely studied and distributed variant of all microcystins) on the selected immune functions of the cells isolated from the head kidney of carp. In the experiments, pure microcystin-LR (MC-LR), was used at concentrations of 0.01, 0.1, 0.5, and 1,g/ml RPMI-1640 medium. Leucocytes (lymphocytes and phagocytes) were isolated by centrifugation on a density gradient. Lymphocyte proliferation, intracellular production of reactive oxygen species by phagocytes, and the presence of apoptotic and/or necrotic cells were assessed. The respiratory burst activity of phagocytic cells was increased at the lowest toxin concentration used in the study, but it was decreased at higher concentrations. Using a sensitive luminescent immunoassay, MC-LR was observed to have no influence on the T-cell proliferation but decreased the proliferation of B lymphocytes. Moreover, it was noted that MC-LR induced necrosis to a higher degree than apoptosis in fish leucocytes. The results of the present study suggest the modulatory potency of microcystin-LR on fish leucocytes. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2010;29:569,574. 2009 SETAC [source]


    The effect of food rations on tissue-specific copper accumulation patterns of sublethal waterborne exposure in Cyprinus carpio

    ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY & CHEMISTRY, Issue 7 2007
    Shodja Hashemi
    Abstract Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were fed to two different food rations, 0.5% body weight (low ration [LR]) and 5% body weight (high ration [HR]), and were exposed to sublethal (1 ,M) copper levels for 28 d in softened Antwerp (Belgium) city tap water (Ca2+, 79.3 mg/L; Mg2+, 7.4 mg/L; Na+, 27.8 mg/L; pH 7.5,8.0). Copper accumulations in the liver, gills, kidney, anterior intestine, posterior intestine, and muscle were determined. Copper accumulation in the gills, liver, and kidney of LR fish was significantly higher than in HR fish. The only time copper uptake in HR fish was significantly higher than in LR fish was in the posterior intestine after two weeks of exposure. No difference was found between the two rations in the anterior intestine. Copper accumulation in the liver of both feeding treatments occurred in a time-dependent manner and did not reach steady state in any treatment. On the contrary, copper concentration in the gills reached a steady state for both HR and LR fish within the first week of exposure. No copper accumulation was found in muscle tissues of either treatment. Copper concentration dropped to control levels in all tissues, except liver tissue, two weeks after the exposure ended. Our studies indicated that copper uptake was influenced by the food ration in carp. The difference in copper accumulation probably is related to the amount of dietary NaCl and different rates of metallothionein synthesis. Low food availability provides less Na+ influx and leads to increased brachial uptake of Na+ and copper. In addition, it has been shown that starved animals show increased levels of metallothionein, possibly causing higher copper accumulation. [source]


    Contamination of fish in streams of the Mid-Atlantic Region: An approach to regional indicator selection and wildlife assessment

    ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY & CHEMISTRY, Issue 3 2003
    James M. Lazorchak
    Abstract The extent of contamination of fish in the Mid-Atlantic Region was evaluated as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Monitoring and Assessment Program's regional assessment in 1993 through 1994. Fish assemblages from wadeable streams were dominated by small, short-lived fishes (e.g., minnows, darters, and sculpins) that were more widely distributed and abundant than large fishes typically chosen for tissue contaminant studies (e.g., trout, black bass, sunfish, common carp). Chemical concentrations in whole-fish homogenates exceeded detection limits for mercury, DDT, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in 75 to 100% of the stream length assessed using small fishes and 84 to 100% of the stream length assessed using large fishes. Wildlife values (WVs) representing a threshold for toxic effect were developed to allow examination of the spatial extent of potential risk to piscivorous wildlife. For mercury, DDT, dieldrin, and chlordane, estimates of the regional extent of streams where fish contaminant concentrations exceeded the WVs were greater when based on small fishes than on large fishes. However, within the distribution of stream lengths assessed using small and large fishes, the percentage of stream kilometers exceeding the WVs were quite similar. Our data demonstrate that the greater abundance and distribution of small, short-lived fishes provide greater estimates of regional extent of contamination for first- through third-order streams and can be used for regional assessments of potential exposure and effects in wildlife. [source]


    Using regional exposure criteria and upstream reference data to characterize spatial and temporal exposures to chemical contaminants,

    ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY & CHEMISTRY, Issue 4 2000
    Susan M. Cormier
    Abstract Analyses of biomarkers in fish were used to evaluate exposures among locations and across time. Two types of references were used for comparison, an upstream reference sample remote from known point sources and regional exposure criteria derived from a baseline of fish from reference sites throughout Ohio, USA. Liver, bile, and blood were sampled from white suckers (Catostomus commersoni) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) collected during 1993 and 1996 in the Ottawa River near Lima, Ohio. Levels of exposure were measured for petroleum by naphthalene-type metabolites, combustion by-products by benzo[a]pyrene-type metabolites, coplanar organic compounds by ethoxyresorufin- O -deethylase (EROD) activity, and urea by blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels. The four biomarkers analyzed proved effective in determining differences between reference and polluted sampling sites, between geographically close (<0.5 km) sites, and between sampling years at sites common in both years. Calculated exposure criteria levels of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon bile metabolites were found to be a conservative approximation of levels from a designated reference site and could thereby permit comparison of biomarker levels of fish from the Ottawa River to a regional reference level. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon bile metabolite and EROD activity levels were more reflective of spatial patterns of contamination than BUN, although all biomarkers indicated differences overtime. Biomarkers from white suckers seemed to be more responsive in detecting changes in contaminant levels than the same biomarkers from common carp. Lower levels in 1996 of all biomarkers at many sites suggested lower exposures than in 1993 and could be indicative of some improvement over the period. [source]


    Population estimation methods to quantify temporal variation in fish accumulations downstream of a weir

    FISHERIES MANAGEMENT & ECOLOGY, Issue 6 2006
    L. J. BAUMGARTNER
    Abstract, Temporal changes in the population sizes of seven migratory species were assessed over a 2-year period prior to the construction of a fishway on the Murrumbidgee River, Australia. Mark-recapture (Chapman,Petersen) and Jackknife removal methods were used at 3-month intervals to determine the composition and sizes of migratory fish populations. No difference in population size estimate was detected between the two methods. However, the Jackknife removal estimator generally provided less variable estimates for a greater number of species. Population sizes were greatest during summer and autumn when bony herring, Nematalosa erebi Gnther, and common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., dominated the migratory community. Both estimators provided data essential to further the development of an appropriate fish passage facility and could be applied to other sites where the size of migratory fish populations is of interest. [source]


    Culture-based fisheries in non-perennial reservoirs in Sri Lanka: production and relative performance of stocked species

    FISHERIES MANAGEMENT & ECOLOGY, Issue 4 2005
    W. M. H. K. WIJENAYAKE
    Abstract, In Sri Lanka, there is a great potential for the development of culture-based fisheries because of the availability of around 12 000 non-perennial reservoirs in the dry zone (<187 cm annual rainfall) of the island. These reservoirs fill during the north-east monsoonal period in October to December and almost completely dry up during August to October. As these non-perennial reservoirs are highly productive, hatchery-reared fish fingerlings can be stocked to develop culture-based fisheries during the water retention period of 7,9 months. The present study was conducted in 32 non-perennial reservoirs in five administrative districts in Sri Lanka. These reservoirs were stocked with fingerlings of Indian (catla Catla catla Hamilton and rohu Labeo rohita Hamilton) and Chinese (bighead carp Aristichthys nobilis Richardson) major carps, common carp Cyprinus carpio L., genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT) strain of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.) and post-larvae of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii De Man, at three different species combinations and overall stocking densities (SD) ranging from 218 to 3902 fingerlings ha,1, during the 2002,2003 culture cycle. Of the 32 reservoirs stocked, reliable data on harvest were obtained from 25 reservoirs. Fish yield ranged from 53 to 1801 kg ha,1 and the yields of non-perennial reservoirs in southern region were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those in the northern region. Naturally-recruited snakehead species contributed the catches in northern reservoirs. Fish yield was curvilinearly related to reservoir area (P < 0.05), and a negative second order relationship was evident between SD and yield (P < 0.05). Chlorophyll- a and fish yield exhibited a positive second order relationship (P < 0.01). Bighead carp yield impacted positively on the total yield (P < 0.05), whereas snakehead yield impact was negative. Bighead carp, common carp and rohu appear suitable for poly-culture in non-perennial reservoirs. GIFT strain O. niloticus had the lowest specific growth rate among stocked species and freshwater prawn had a low return. [source]


    Status of the crucian carp, Carassius carassius (L.), in the UK

    FISHERIES MANAGEMENT & ECOLOGY, Issue 4 2000
    A. Wheeler
    Summary The crucian carp, Carassius carassius (L.), is a small fish of restricted distribution in the UK, which is probably only native to central and eastern England. The crucian carp is endemic to northern Europe. It has been widely confused with the introduced and congeneric goldfish, Carassius auratus (L.), and forms hybrids with that species and the introduced Cyprinus carpio L. The status of this fish has become confused with the presence of the congener and its hybrids, and it is now thought to be less frequent in occurrence than formerly. [source]


    Behavioural responses of a south-east Australian floodplain fish community to gradual hypoxia

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 3 2007
    DALE G. MCNEIL
    Summary 1. Hypoxic conditions occur frequently during hot, dry summers in the small lentic waterbodies (billabongs) that occur on the floodplains of the Murray-Darling River system of Australia. Behavioural responses to progressive hypoxia were examined for the native and introduced floodplain fish of the Ovens River, an unregulated tributary of the Murray River in south-east Australia. 2. Given the high frequency of hypoxic episodes in billabongs on the Ovens River floodplain, it was hypothesised that all species would exhibit behaviours that would confer a degree of hypoxia-tolerance. Specifically, it was hypothesised that as hypoxia progressed, gill ventilation rates (GVRs) would increase and aquatic surface respiration (ASR) would become increasingly frequent. Fish were subjected to rapid, progressive hypoxia from normoxia to anoxia in open tanks. 3. All tested species exhibited behaviours consistent with their use of potentially hypoxic habitats. As hypoxia progressed, GVRs increased and all species, with the exception of oriental weatherloach, began to switch increasingly to ASR with 90% of individuals using ASR at various oxygen concentrations below 1.0 mg O2 L,1. Australian smelt, redfin perch and flat-headed galaxias were the first three species to rise to ASR, with 10% of individuals using ASR by 2.55, 2.29 and 2.21 mg O2 L,1 respectively. Goldfish and common carp were the last two species to rise to ASR, with 10% of individuals using ASR by 0.84 and 0.75 mg O2 L,1 respectively. In contrast to other species, oriental weatherloach largely ceased gill ventilation and used air-gulping as their primary means of respiration during severe hypoxia and anoxia. 4. Australian smelt, redfin perch and flat-headed galaxias were unable to maintain ASR under severe hypoxia, and began exhibiting erratic movements, termed terminal avoidance behaviour, and loss of equilibrium. All other species continued to use ASR through severe hypoxia and into anoxia. Following a rise to ASR, GVRs either remained steady or decreased slightly indicating partial or significant relief from hypoxic stress for these hypoxia-tolerant species. 5. Behavioural responses to progressive hypoxia amongst the fish species of the Ovens River floodplain indicate a generally high level of tolerance to periodic hypoxia. However, species-specific variation in hypoxia-tolerance may have implications for community structure of billabong fish communities following hypoxic events. [source]


    A molecular approach to detect hybridisation between crucian carp (Carassius carassius) and non-indigenous carp species (Carassius spp. and Cyprinus carpio)

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 3 2005
    B. HNFLING
    Summary 1. Releases of non-native fish into the wild is an increasing problem posing considerable ecological and genetic threats through direct competition and hybridisation. 2. We employed six microsatellite markers to identify first generation hybrids and backcrosses between native crucian carp (Carassius carassius) and introduced goldfish (C. auratus) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in the U.K. We also investigated the genetic characteristics of the taxonomically controversial gibel carp (Carassius spp.) from sites across Europe. 3. Natural hybridisation between goldfish and crucian carp occurs frequently, although hybrids between all other species pairs were observed. Only 62% of British crucian carp populations (n = 21) consisted exclusively of pure crucian carp. In some populations hybrids were so frequent, that no pure crucian carp were caught, indicating a high competitive ability of hybrids. 4. Most hybrids belonged to the F1 generation but backcrossing was evident at a low frequency in goldfish crucian carp hybrids and goldfish common carp hybrids. Furthermore, some local populations had high frequencies of backcrosses, raising the opportunity for introgression. 5. Gibel carp from Germany and Italy belonged to two triploid clonal lineages that were genetically closely related to goldfish, whereas all individuals identified from British populations proved to be crucian carp goldfish hybrids. 6. Our study suggests that the release of closely related exotic cyprinids not only poses a threat to the genetic integrity and associated local adaptations of native species, but may also contribute to shifts in community structure through competitive interactions. [source]


    Carp (Cyprinus carpio) as a powerful invader in Australian waterways

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 7 2004
    John D. Koehn
    Summary 1. The invasion of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in Australia illustrates how quickly an introduced fish species can spread and dominate fish communities. This species has become the most abundant large freshwater fish in south-east Australia, now distributed over more than 1 million km2. 2. Carp exhibit most of the traits predicted for a successful invasive fish species. In addition, degradation of aquatic environments in south-east Australia has given them a relative advantage over native species. 3. Derivation of relative measures of 13 species-specific attributes allowed a quantitative comparison between carp and abundant native fish species across five major Australian drainage divisions. In four of six geographical regions analysed, carp differed clearly from native species in their behaviour, resource use and population dynamics. 4. Climate matching was used to predict future range expansion of carp in Australia. All Australian surface waters appear to be climatically suitable for carp. 5. This assessment strongly reinforces the need for immediate management of carp in Australia to include targeted control of human-assisted dispersal, such as use of carp as bait by anglers, distribution to new locations by anglers and the use of the ,Koi' strain in the aquarium industry. 6. Given their historical spread, dispersal mechanisms and ecological requirements, the expansion of carp across most of the remainder of Australia is to be expected. [source]


    Mechanism of blood coagulation in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    INTEGRATIVE ZOOLOGY (ELECTRONIC), Issue 3 2006
    Shuangan LI
    Abstract In vitro, carp blood was anticoagulated by using MgSO4 at a final concentration of 22.2 mmol L,1 and sodium citrate at a final concentration of 11.8 mmol L,1. The coagulation times for carp plasma diluted by ion-free water (1:1), and that of carp plasma to which thrombocytes and small lymphocytes were added, were measured at 23 C using standard methods, and then contrasted with the coagulation times for plasma obtained from chickens and rabbits. The shapes of the thrombocytes and small lymphocytes, which were either wet mounted or stained with hematoxylin and eosin, were observed under a light microscope. We found that: (i) the coagulation reaction of carp blood was significantly (P < 0.01) accelerated by the addition of ion-free water; (ii) the three types of blood cells (thrombocytes, small lymphocytes and red blood cells) promoted plasma coagulation to a similar extent (P > 0.05); (iii) in carp Mg2+ plasma and K2C2O4 plasma, the thrombocytes were usually morphologically normal, but many small lymphocytes were destroyed and became aggregated; (iv) in the citrate plasma, thrombocytes were often aggregated, but the small lymphocytes were usually morphologically normal; and (v) the coagulation time for chicken and rabbit plasma was significantly extended by adding ion-free water. [source]


    Effect of different precooking methods on chemical composition and lipid damage of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) muscle

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, Issue 10 2010
    Mahmood Naseri
    Summary The influence of three precooking methods (steaming, oven-baking and microwave-cooking) on the chemical composition and lipid quality of silver carp fillets was evaluated. The changes in protein, fat and moisture were found to be significant for all the treatments (P , 0.05). The iron content in the samples subjected to steam-cooking increased; however, the other precooking methods did not change the mineral contents (P , 0.05). The free fatty acid content of the fillets did not change by the different precooking methods, while thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values increased for oven- and microwave-cooked fillets and remained constant in the steam-cooked samples. Conjugated diene and browning colour formation levels significantly increased in the oven-baked fillets. Oven-baking and microwave-cooking marginally affected the fatty acid composition of the silver carp. On comparing the raw and precooked fillets, steam-cooking was found to be the best precooking method on retaining nutritional constituents. [source]