Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Chemistry

Kinds of Carbon

  • aboveground carbon
  • activated carbon
  • active carbon
  • amorphous carbon
  • asymmetric carbon
  • biomass carbon
  • black carbon
  • bulk organic carbon
  • carbonyl carbon
  • diamond-like carbon
  • dissolved inorganic carbon
  • dissolved organic carbon
  • ecosystem carbon
  • fixed carbon
  • free carbon
  • glassy carbon
  • granular activated carbon
  • graphitic carbon
  • inorganic carbon
  • mesoporou carbon
  • microbial biomass carbon
  • microporou carbon
  • new carbon
  • organic carbon
  • particulate organic carbon
  • porous carbon
  • quaternary carbon
  • residual carbon
  • soil carbon
  • soil organic carbon
  • sole carbon
  • stable carbon
  • terrestrial carbon
  • total carbon
  • total organic carbon

  • Terms modified by Carbon

  • carbon Bond-Form reaction
  • carbon Composite
  • carbon Nanofiber
  • carbon Nanostructure
  • carbon Nanotube
  • carbon Nucleophile
  • carbon accumulation
  • carbon acquisition
  • carbon allocation
  • carbon analysis
  • carbon assimilation
  • carbon atom
  • carbon availability
  • carbon backbone
  • carbon balance
  • carbon black
  • carbon black composite
  • carbon black surface
  • carbon blacks
  • carbon bond
  • carbon bond cleavage
  • carbon bond formation
  • carbon bond-forming reaction
  • carbon budget
  • carbon capture
  • carbon catalyst
  • carbon center
  • carbon chain
  • carbon chain length
  • carbon chemical shift
  • carbon cluster
  • carbon coating
  • carbon composite
  • carbon compound
  • carbon concentration
  • carbon content
  • carbon cost
  • carbon cycle
  • carbon cycling
  • carbon demand
  • carbon deposition
  • carbon dioxide
  • carbon dioxide concentration
  • carbon dioxide emission
  • carbon dioxide enrichment
  • carbon dioxide extraction
  • carbon dioxide flux
  • carbon dioxide laser
  • carbon dioxide level
  • carbon dioxide output
  • carbon dioxide partial pressure
  • carbon dioxide pressure
  • carbon dioxide production
  • carbon dioxide tension
  • carbon dioxide treatment
  • carbon disulfide
  • carbon double bond
  • carbon dynamics
  • carbon economy
  • carbon electrode
  • carbon electrode surface
  • carbon emission
  • carbon exchange
  • carbon fiber
  • carbon fiber composite
  • carbon fibre
  • carbon filler
  • carbon film
  • carbon fixation
  • carbon flow
  • carbon flux
  • carbon formation
  • carbon fraction
  • carbon framework
  • carbon gain
  • carbon input
  • carbon isotope
  • carbon isotope analysis
  • carbon isotope composition
  • carbon isotope discrimination
  • carbon isotope fractionation
  • carbon isotope ratio
  • carbon isotope signature
  • carbon isotope value
  • carbon isotopic composition
  • carbon isotopic signature
  • carbon layer
  • carbon level
  • carbon limitation
  • carbon loss
  • carbon material
  • carbon matrix
  • carbon membrane
  • carbon metabolism
  • carbon monoxide
  • carbon monoxide level
  • carbon monoxide poisoning
  • carbon nanofiber
  • carbon nanoparticle
  • carbon nanostructure
  • carbon nanotube
  • carbon nanotube array
  • carbon nanotube bundle
  • carbon nanotube composite
  • carbon nanotube dispersion
  • carbon nanotube film
  • carbon nanotube nanocomposite
  • carbon nanotube network
  • carbon nanotube transistor
  • carbon nitride
  • carbon nucleophile
  • carbon number
  • carbon particle
  • carbon paste electrode
  • carbon pollution reduction scheme
  • carbon poly
  • carbon pool
  • carbon powder
  • carbon precursor
  • carbon radical
  • carbon ratio
  • carbon release
  • carbon reserve
  • carbon ring
  • carbon sequestration
  • carbon shell
  • carbon sink
  • carbon skeleton
  • carbon source
  • carbon source used
  • carbon species
  • carbon sphere
  • carbon steel
  • carbon stock
  • carbon storage
  • carbon store
  • carbon structure
  • carbon substrate
  • carbon supply
  • carbon support
  • carbon surface
  • carbon tax
  • carbon tetrachloride
  • carbon thin film
  • carbon transfer
  • carbon transport
  • carbon triple bond
  • carbon unit
  • carbon uptake
  • carbon utilization
  • carbon vacancy

  • Selected Abstracts


    GR Pautsch
    Agricultural tillage practices are important human-induced activities that can alter carbon emissions from agricultural soils and have the potential to contribute significantly to reductions in greenhouse gas emission (Lal et al., The Potential of U.S. Cropland, 1998). This research investigates the expected costs of sequestering carbon in agricultural soils under different subsidy and market-based policies. Using detailed National Resources Inventory data, we estimate the probability that farmers adopt conservation tillage practices based on a variety of exogenous characteristics and profit from conventional practices. These estimates are used with physical models of carbon sequestration to estimate the subsidy costs of achieving increased carbon sequestration with alternative subsidy schemes. [source]


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 5 2009
    Espen Granum
    Diel periodicity and effects of inorganic carbon (Ci) and NO3, on the expression of 11 key genes for primary carbon and nitrogen metabolism, including potential C4 photosynthesis, in the marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana Hasle et Heimdal were investigated. Target gene transcripts were measured by quantitative reverse transcriptase,PCR, and some of the gene-encoded proteins were analyzed by Western blotting. The diatom was grown with a 12 h photoperiod at two different Ci concentrations maintained by air-equilibration with either 380 ,L · L,1 (near-ambient) or 100 ,L · L,1 (low) CO2. Transcripts of the principal Ci and NO3, assimilatory genes RUBISCO LSU (rbcL) and nitrate reductase displayed very strong diel oscillations with peaks at the end of the scotophase. Considerable diel periodicities were also exhibited by the ,-carboxylase genes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC1 and PEPC2) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), and the Benson,Calvin cycle gene sedoheptulose,bisphosphatase (SBPase), with peaks during mid- to late scotophase. In accordance with the transcripts, there were substantial diel periodicities in PEPC1, PEPC2, PEPCK, and especially rbcL proteins, although they peaked during early to mid-photophase. Inorganic carbon had some transient effects on the ,-carboxylase transcripts, and glycine decarboxylase P subunit was highly up-regulated by low Ci concentration, indicating increased capacity for photorespiration. Nitrogen-starved cells had reduced amounts of carbon metabolic gene transcripts, but the PEPC1, PEPC2, PEPCK, and rbcL transcripts increased rapidly when NO3, was replenished. The results suggest that the ,-carboxylases in T. pseudonana play key anaplerotic roles but show no clear support for C4 photosynthesis. [source]


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 6 2003
    Dinghui Zou
    The mechanism of inorganic carbon (Ci) acquisition by the economic brown macroalga, Hizikia fusiforme (Harv.) Okamura (Sargassaceae), was investigated to characterize its photosynthetic physiology. Both intracellular and extracellular carbonic anhydrase (CA) were detected, with the external CA activity accounting for about 5% of the total. Hizikia fusiforme showed higher rates of photosynthetic oxygen evolution at alkaline pH than those theoretically derived from the rates of uncatalyzed CO2 production from bicarbonate and exhibited a high pH compensation point (pH 9.66). The external CA inhibitor, acetazolamide, significantly depressed the photosynthetic oxygen evolution, whereas the anion-exchanger inhibitor 4,4,-diisothiocyano-stilbene-2,2,-disulfonate had no inhibitory effect on it, implying the alga was capable of using HCO3, as a source of Ci for its photosynthesis via the mediation of the external CA. CO2 concentrations in the culture media affected its photosynthetic properties. A high level of CO2 (10,000 ppmv) resulted in a decrease in the external CA activity; however, a low CO2 level (20 ppmv) led to no changes in the external CA activity but raised the intracellular CA activity. Parallel to the reduction in the external CA activity at the high CO2 was a reduction in the photosynthetic CO2 affinity. Decreased activity of the external CA in the high CO2 grown samples led to reduced sensitiveness of photosynthesis to the addition of acetazolamide at alkaline pH. It was clearly indicated that H. fusiforme, which showed CO2 -limited photosynthesis with the half-saturating concentration of Ci exceeding that of seawater, did not operate active HCO3, uptake but used it via the extracellular CA for its photosynthetic carbon fixation. [source]


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 5 2002
    Pascal Claquin
    The elemental composition and the cell cycle stages of the marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana Hasle and Heimdal were studied in continuous cultures over a range of different light- (E), nitrogen- (N), and phosphorus- (P) limited growth rates. In all growth conditions investigated, the decrease in the growth rate was linked with a higher relative contribution of the G2+M phase. The other phases of the cell cycle, G1 and S, showed different patterns, depending on the type of limitation. All experiments showed a highly significant increase in the amount of biogenic silica per cell and per cell surface with decreasing growth rates. At low growth rates, the G2+M elongation allowed an increase of the silicification of the cells. This pattern could be explained by the major uptake of silicon during the G2+M phase and by the independence of this process on the requirements of the other elements. This was illustrated by the elemental ratios Si/C and Si/N that increased from 2- to 6-fold, depending of the type of limitation, whereas the C/N ratio decreased by 10% (E limitation) or increased by 50% (P limitation). The variations of the ratios clearly demonstrate the uncoupling of the Si metabolism compared with the C and N metabolisms. This uncoupling enabled us to explain that in any of the growth condition investigated, the silicification of the cells increased at low growth rates, whereas carbon and nitrogen cellular content are differently regulated, depending of the growth conditions. [source]


    VÉRONIQUE Lesage
    Diet-tissue isotopic fractionation of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) isotopes in short- and longer-term diet integrators of diet (i. e., blood serum and red cells), that involve non-invasive sampling techniques was examined using three species of phocid seals (harbor seals, gray seals, and harp seals) fed a known diet. Variability in diet-tissue fractionation values within and between species was also scrutinized to determine the legitimacy of using values obtained from one species to explore trophic positions and diets of other related species. All captive seals raised on a constant diet had tissues enriched in 13C and 15N relative to their diet. Diet-tissue isotopic fractionation values were generally consistent among conspecifics and among phocid species for a given tissue. Trophic isotopic enrichment in 13C was significantly higher in red blood cells (+1.5%±) than in blood serum (+0.8%±), whereas the reverse was observed for nitrogen isotopes (+1.7%± in red cells vs. +3.1%± in serum). However, 13C-depleted lipids were not extracted from blood tissues in this study. This results in a downward bias in the diet-tissue fractionation factors for carbon for both red cells and blood serum, particularly the latter because of their significantly higher lipid contents (x,± SD = 14.6 ± 2.3%; n= 20; red blood cells 3.8 ± 0.9%±; n= 50, muscle 7.7 ± 2.0; n= 21) in marine mammals. [source]


    ARCHAEOMETRY, Issue 1 2010
    C. J. YODER
    Researchers have long debated the appropriateness of stable isotope analysis of bone apatite to reconstruct the diets of ancient animals. The debate has centred, in part, on diagenesis of bone mineral from interaction with the burial environment. A number of acetic acid treatments are used to remove diagenetic carbonates from samples; however, less is known on how different protocols alter stable isotope values. We compare two common acetic acid solution treatments (0.1 M versus 1.0 M-buffered) to examine the effects on carbon and oxygen isotope values and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra in human bone from different burial contexts. Results indicate that both treatments have a similar effect on isotope values and FTIR spectra in bone apatite. [source]

    Current Awareness in Contrast Media and Molecular Imaging

    Article first published online: 20 APR 2010
    In order to keep subscribers up-to-date with the latest developments in their field, John Wiley & Sons are providing a current awareness service in each issue of the journal. The bibliography contains newly published material in the field of Contrast Media and Molecular Imaging. Each bibliography is divided into 15 sections: 1 Reviews; 2 General; Contrast Agents: 3 Chemistry; 4 Technique; 5 Experimental; 6 Applications; Molecular Imaging: 7 Carbon; 8 Fluorine; 9 Gallium; 10 Hydrogen; 11 Indium; 12 Iodine; 13 Phosphorus; 14 Technetium; 15 Others. Within each section, articles are listed in alphabetical order with respect to author. If, in the preceding period, no publications are located relevant to any one of these headings, that section will be omitted. [source]

    Current Awareness in Contrast Media and Molecular Imaging

    Article first published online: 22 FEB 2010
    In order to keep subscribers up-to-date with the latest developments in their field, John Wiley & Sons are providing a current awareness service in each issue of the journal. The bibliography contains newly published material in the field of Contrast Media and Molecular Imaging. Each bibliography is divided into 15 sections: 1 Reviews; 2 General; Contrast Agents: 3 Chemistry; 4 Technique; 5 Experimental; 6 Applications; Molecular Imaging: 7 Carbon; 8 Fluorine; 9 Gallium; 10 Hydrogen; 11 Indium; 12 Iodine; 13 Phosphorus; 14 Technetium; 15 Others. Within each section, articles are listed in alphabetical order with respect to author. If, in the preceding period, no publications are located relevant to any one of these headings, that section will be omitted. [source]

    Current Awareness in Contrast Media and Molecular Imaging

    Article first published online: 11 MAR 200
    In order to keep subscribers up-to-date with the latest developments in their field, John Wiley & Sons are providing a current awareness service in each issue of the journal. The bibliography contains newly published material in the field of Contrast Media and Molecular Imaging. Each bibliography is divided into 15 sections: 1 Reviews; 2 General; Contrast Agents: 3 Chemistry; 4 Technique; 5 Experimental; 6 Applications; Molecular Imaging: 7 Carbon; 8 Fluorine; 9 Gallium; 10 Hydrogen; 11 Indium; 12 Iodine; 13 Phosphorus; 14 Technetium; 15 Others. Within each section, articles are listed in alphabetical order with respect to author. If, in the preceding period, no publications are located relevant to any one of these headings, that section will be omitted. [source]

    Current Awareness in Contrast Media and Molecular Imaging

    Article first published online: 8 DEC 200
    In order to keep subscribers up-to-date with the latest developments in their field, John Wiley & Sons are providing a current awareness service in each issue of the journal. The bibliography contains newly published material in the field of Contrast Media and Molecular Imaging. Each bibliography is divided into 15 sections: 1 Reviews; 2 General; Contrast Agents: 3 Chemistry; 4 Technique; 5 Experimental; 6 Applications; Molecular Imaging: 7 Carbon; 8 Fluorine; 9 Gallium; 10 Hydrogen; 11 Indium; 12 Iodine; 13 Phosphorus; 14 Technetium; 15 Others. Within each section, articles are listed in alphabetical order with respect to author. If, in the preceding period, no publications are located relevant to any one of these headings, that section will be omitted. [source]

    Current Awareness in Contrast Media and Molecular Imaging

    Article first published online: 10 OCT 200
    In order to keep subscribers up-to-date with the latest developments in their field, John Wiley & Sons are providing a current awareness service in each issue of the journal. The bibliography contains newly published material in the field of Contrast Media and Molecular Imaging. Each bibliography is divided into 15 sections: 1 Reviews; 2 General; Contrast Agents: 3 Chemistry; 4 Technique; 5 Experimental; 6 Applications; Molecular Imaging: 7 Carbon; 8 Fluorine; 9 Gallium; 10 Hydrogen; 11 Indium; 12 Iodine; 13 Phosphorus; 14 Technetium; 15 Others. Within each section, articles are listed in alphabetical order with respect to author. If, in the preceding period, no publications are located relevant to any one of these headings, that section will be omitted. [source]

    Stoichiometric relations in an ant-treehopper mutualism

    ECOLOGY LETTERS, Issue 11 2004
    Adam D. Kay
    Abstract Carbon : nitrogen : phosphorus (C : N : P) stoichiometry can underlie physiological and life history characteristics that shape ecological interactions. Despite its potential importance, there is much to learn about the causes and consequences of stoichiometric variation in terrestrial consumers. Here we show that treehoppers (Publilia modesta) tended by ants (Formica obscuripes) contained lower N concentrations than treehoppers on plants from which ants were excluded. Ant presence also affected nutrient concentrations in host plants: on plants with ants, leaves contained uniformly low concentrations of N; on plants without ants, N concentrations were low only in the few leaves fed upon by treehoppers at the time of collection. We suggest treehopper feeding reduces leaf nutrient levels and ants positively affect treehopper abundance, producing a top,down effect on plant quality. Determining the causes of these stoichiometric changes should help elucidate factors guiding the dynamics of conditional mutualisms between ants and homopterans. [source]

    Electrochemical Reduction of S(IV) Compounds in Water-Ethanol Solutions at Nafion/Tetraruthenated Porphyrins Glassy Carbon Modified Electrodes

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 3 2010
    Karla Calfumán
    Abstract This work describes electrocatalytic detection of S(IV) compounds in water-ethanol solutions under acidic conditions, on a glassy carbon electrode modified with Co(II) tetraruthenated porphyrin electrostatically assembled onto a Nafion film. The Ipc current shows a linear relationship with the concentration of S(IV) oxo-anions. Controlled potential electrolysis shows that thiosulfate was detected as reaction product. Rotating disk electrode and UV-visible spectroelectrochemistry experiments showed a kinetic limitation to the electron transfer controlled by charge propagation in the film and the formation of an intermediary between Co center and S(IV) species. The reproducibility of the modification methodology presents a RSD of 4.1%. [source]

    Quantitative Studies of Metal Ion Adsorption on a Chemically Modified Carbon Surface: Adsorption of Cd(II) and Hg(II) on Glutathione Modified Carbon

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 8 2009
    Poobalasingam Abiman
    Abstract The adsorption behavior of model toxic metal cations namely Cd(II) and Hg(II) on carbon surfaces chemically modified by glutathione was investigated as a function of the concentration of Cd2+ and Hg2+ ions, time and the amount of modified carbon used. Square wave and linear sweep anodic stripping voltammetry was used to monitor the uptake of Cd(II) and Hg(II) ions respectively. Kinetic and adsorption isotherm studies reveal that both Cd(II) and Hg(II) ions undergo similar large adsorption with the modified glutathione carbon material (Glu-carbon). [source]

    Electroreduction of Oxygen and Electrooxidation of Methanol at Carbon and Single Wall Carbon Nanotube Supported Platinum Electrodes

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 10 2008
    Ahmad, Nozad Golikand
    Abstract The present research aimed at investigating the electrocatalytic properties and the electrochemical deposition of Pt nanoparticles on carbon powder, carbon nanotube and preparation of carbon and single wall carbon nanotube supported platinum electrodes. The Pt nanoparticles were synthesized by electroreduction of hexachloroplatinic acid in aqueous solution at ,200,mV. Electrocatalytic properties of the modified electrodes for oxygen reduction were investigated by cyclic voltammetry in O2 saturated solution containing 0.1,M HClO4. Methanol electrooxidation at the modified surfaces in 0.5,M HCLO4 was studied by cyclic voltammetry. The corresponding results showed that the Pt/SWCNT/GC electrode exhibits more improved catalytical activity than the Pt/C/GC electrode. [source]

    Amperometric Glucose Biosensors Based on Glassy Carbon and SWCNT-Modified Glassy Carbon Electrodes

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 1 2008
    Irene Carpani
    Abstract Different carbonaceous materials, such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and glassy carbon submitted to an electrochemical activation at +1.80,V (vs. SCE) for 900,s, have been used with the aim of comparing their performances in the development of enzyme electrodes. Commercial SWCNTs have been pretreated with 2.2,M HNO3 for 20,h prior to use. The utility of activated GC as promising material for amperometric oxidase-based biosensors has been confirmed. With glucose oxidase (GOx) as a model enzyme, glucose was efficiently detected up to 1 mM without the use of a mediator. Both electrodes operated in stirred solutions of 0.1,M phosphate buffer (pH,5.5), containing dissolved oxygen, at a potential of ,0.40,V vs. SCE. Although the performances of the two carbonaceous materials were comparable, the biosensors based on activated GC were characterized by a practically unchanged response 40 days after the fabrication, a better signal to noise ratio, and a little worse sensitivity. In addition, the preparation procedure of such biosensors was more simple, rapid and reproducible. [source]

    Rainwater Dissolved Organic Carbon: Characterization of Surface Active Substances by Electrochemical Method

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 19-20 2007
    Abstract Surface active substances as organic constituents of bulk precipitation were studied by AC voltammetric method. Adsorption characteristics at the mercury electrode of real rainwater samples are compared with aqueous solutions of a number model substances suggested to be representative of water soluble organic compounds (WSOC) in atmospheric aerosols and droplets: monocarboxylic, dicarboxylic, and polyacidic compounds, levoglucosan, polyaromatic hydrocarbon naphtalene and anionic surfactant sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate. On the basis of the capacitance vs. potential curves and the surfactant activity normalized to the organic carbon content it is concluded that humic like substances, monocarboxylic acids and polyaromatic hydrocarbons may play an important role in atmospheric aquatic system because of their surface active potential. [source]

    Study of Factors Affecting the Performance of Voltammetric Copper Sensors Based on Gly-Gly-His Modified Glassy Carbon and Gold Electrodes

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 12 2006
    Guozhen Liu
    Abstract This paper reports a study of the factors affecting the analytical performance of gold and glassy carbon electrodes modified with the tripeptide Gly-Gly-His for the detection of copper ions. Gly-Gly-His is attached to a glassy carbon (GC) surface modified with 4-carboxyphenyl moieties or a gold surface modified with 3-mercaptopropionic acid by the reaction of the N-terminal amine group of the peptide with the carboxylic acid groups of the monolayer via carbodiimide activation. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to characterize the steps in the biosensor fabrication. It was found that the analytical performance of a sensor prepared with Gly-Gly-His on a GC electrode was similar to that on a gold electrode under the same conditions. The performance was greatly enhanced at higher temperature, no added salt during copper accumulation and longer accumulation time within a pH range of 7,9. Interference studies and investigations of stability of the Gly-Gly-His sensor are reported. Analysis of natural water samples show that the sensors measure only copper ions that can complex at the sensor surface. Strongly complexed copper in natural water is not measured. Despite greater stability of diazonium salt derived monolayers on carbon surfaces compared with alkanethiols self-assembled monolayers on gold, the stability of the sensors was essentially the same regardless of the modification procedure. [source]

    Microwave Activation of Electrochemical Processes at Glassy Carbon and Boron-Doped Diamond Electrodes

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 5-6 2005
    Kumar Sur, Ujjal
    Abstract Voltammetric experiments under intense microwave field conditions have been carried out at a carbon microfiber electrode, an array of carbon microfiber electrodes, and at a boron-doped diamond electrode. For the reversible one electron redox systems Fe(CN) and Ru(NH3) in aqueous KCl solution increased currents (up to 16 fold at a 33,,m diameter carbon microelectrode) and superheating (up to ca. 400,K at all types of electrodes) are observed. Electrodes with smaller diameter allow better signal enhancements to be achieved. From the missing effect of the supporting electrolyte concentration on the microwave enhanced currents, it can be concluded that effects observed at carbon electrodes (microwave absorbers) are due to the interaction of microwaves with the electrode material whereas for metal electrodes (microwave conductors) effects are dominated by the interaction of the microwaves with the aqueous dielectric. Short heat pulses can be applied by pulsing the microwave field and relatively fast temperature transients are observed for small electrodes. For the irreversible two electron oxidation of L -dopa in aqueous phosphate buffer, different types of effects are observed at glassy carbon and at boron-doped diamond. Arrays of carbon microfibers give the most reproducible and analytically useful current signal enhancements in the presence of microwaves. [source]

    Carbon and nitrogen isotope composition of bulk soils, particle-size fractions and organic material after treatment with hydrofluoric acid

    M. W. I. Schmidt
    Summary Soils and sediments contain only small amounts of organic matter, and large concentrations of paramagnetic metals can give poor solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of organic matter. Pretreatment of samples with hydrofluoric acid (HF) dissolves significant proportions of the mineral matrix and extracts paramagnetic elements. We investigated the effects of 10% HF treatment on the stable isotope content of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) of organic matter from soils, composts and shales. Additionally we inferred molecular and isotopic characteristics of lost materials from calculations of isotope mass balances. Treatment with HF enriched C and N in mineral samples substantially (factors 2.5,42.4), except for Podzol B horizons (1.1,1.7) and organic material (1.0,1.3). After treatment most of the C (59.7,91.7%) and N (53.7,86.6%) was recovered, although changing C/N ratios often indicated a preferential loss of N-rich material. Isotope ratios of C and N in the remaining material became more negative when net alterations exceeded 0.3,. The isotope ratios of the lost material contained more 13C (1,2,) and 15N (1,4,) than the initial organic matter. Acid hydrolysis typically removes proteins, amino acids and polysaccharides, all of which are enriched in 13C, and in the case of proteins and amino acids, enriched in 15N as well. We conclude that HF treatment released fresh, soluble, probably microbial, biomass in addition to carbohydrates. Net changes of the bulk chemical composition of organic matter were small for most soils, size fractions and plant material, but not for samples containing little organic matter, or those rich in easily soluble organic matter associated with iron oxides, such as Podzol B horizons. [source]

    Ex-situ Formation Periodic Interlayer Structure to Improve Significantly the Impact Damage Resistance of Carbon Laminates

    X.-S. Yi
    A periodically interleaved carbon laminate system, wherein solid thermoplastic thin layers are interleaved into each carbon ply, has been fabricated by means of an "ex-situ" type synthesis in which the thermoset and thermoplastic components are separated and interact only at elevated temperature. The Figure shows the boundary area between the two-phase granular and a pure epoxy-resin structure within a single carbon ply. [source]

    Dynamics of yeast populations recovered from decaying leaves in a nonpolluted stream: a 2-year study on the effects of leaf litter type and decomposition time

    FEMS YEAST RESEARCH, Issue 4 2007
    Ana Sampaio
    Abstract Here we report on the results of a survey of the yeast populations occurring on submerged leaves (alder, eucalyptus and oak) in a natural mountain stream, during different phases of their decomposition and through two consecutive years. Leaf litter mass loss, total yeast counts, Shannon,Weiner index (H,), yeast community structure and physiologic abilities were analyzed to evaluate the dynamics of yeast communities during decay. Seventy-two yeast taxa were recorded, and in all litter types, species of basidiomycetous affinity predominated over ascomycetous ones. Discriminant analysis of presence/absence data (yeast species) showed significant differences both among substrate types (P<0.0026) and with decomposition time (P<0.0001). Carbon and nitrogen source utilization by yeast strains also varied with the substrate (P<0.0001) and decomposition time (P<0.0001). Further conclusions were that: (1) all litter types have in common ubiquitous yeast species, such as Cryptococcus albidus, Debaryomyces hansenii and Rhodotorula glutinis, among the common 20 yeast species; (2) only a few species were dominant, and most species were rare, being recorded once or twice throughout decomposition; and (3) the order of yeast appearance, and their substrate assimilation patterns, strongly suggest a succession phenomenon. Finally, explanations for the distribution patterns and variations in yeast communities are discussed. [source]

    Nanomorphology and Charge Generation in Bulk Heterojunctions Based on Low-Bandgap Dithiophene Polymers with Different Bridging Atoms

    Mauro Morana
    Abstract Carbon bridged (C-PCPDTBT) and silicon-bridged (Si-PCPDTBT) dithiophene donor,acceptor copolymers belong to a promising class of low bandgap materials. Their higher field-effect mobility, as high as 10,2,cm2 V,1,s,1 in pristine films, and their more balanced charge transport in blends with fullerenes make silicon-bridged materials better candidates for use in photovoltaic devices. Striking morphological changes are observed in polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunctions upon the substitution of the bridging atom. XRD investigation indicates increased ,,, stacking in Si-PCPDTBT compared to the carbon-bridged analogue. The fluorescence of this polymer and that of its counterpart C-PCPDTBT indicates that the higher photogeneration achieved in Si-PCPDTBT:fullerene films (with either [C60]PCBM or [C70]PCBM) can be correlated to the inactivation of a charge-transfer complex and to a favorable length of the donor,acceptor phase separation. TEM studies of Si-PCPDTBT:fullerene blended films suggest the formation of an interpenetrating network whose phase distribution is comparable to the one achieved in C-PCPDTBT:fullerene using 1,8-octanedithiol as an additive. In order to achieve a balanced hole and electron transport, Si-PCPDTBT requires a lower fullerene content (between 50 to 60,wt%) than C-PCPDTBT (more than 70,wt%). The Si-PCPDTBT:[C70]PCBM OBHJ solar cells deliver power conversion efficiencies of over 5%. [source]

    Phytoplankton production and growth rate in Lake Tanganyika: evidence of a decline in primary productivity in recent decades

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 11 2007
    Summary 1. This study focused on phytoplankton production in Lake Tanganyika. We provide new estimates of daily and annual primary production, as well as growth rates of phytoplankton, and we compare them with values published in former studies. 2. Chlorophyll- a (chl- a) in the mixed layer ranged from 5 to 120 mg chl- a m,2 and varied significantly between rainy and dry seasons. Particulate organic carbon concentrations were significantly higher in the south basin (with 196 and 166 mg C m,3 in the dry and the rainy season, respectively) than in the north basin (112 and 109 mg C m,3, respectively). 3. Carbon : phosphorus (C : P) ratios varied according to season. Phosphorus limitation seemed to occur more frequently than nitrogen limitation, especially during the rainy season. Severe P deficiencies were rare. 4. Measured particulate daily primary production ranged from 110 to 1410 mg C m,2 day,1; seasonal contrasts were well marked in the north basin, but less in the south basin, where primary production peaks occurred also in the rainy season. Estimates of annual primary production, based on daily primary production calculated from chl- a and water transparency, gave values lower than those reported in previous studies. Picophytoplankton accounted on average for 56% of total particulate production in the south basin during the wet season of 2003. 5. Phytoplankton growth rates, calculated from primary production, ranged from 0.055 to 0.282 day,1; these are lower than previously published values for Lake Tanganyika. [source]

    Threshold elemental ratios for carbon versus phosphorus limitation in Daphnia

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 12 2005
    Summary 1. The transition from carbon (C) to phosphorus (P) limited growth in Daphnia depends not only on the C : P ratio in seston, i.e. food quality, but also on food quantity. Carbon is commonly believed to be limiting at low food because of the energetic demands of basal metabolism. The critical C : P ratio in seston (otherwise known as the threshold elemental ratio, TER) above which P is limiting would then be high when food is scarce. 2. A new model that differentiates between the C : P requirements for growth and maintenance is presented that includes terms for both C and P in basal metabolism. At low food the calculated TERs for Daphnia of around 230 are only slightly higher than values of 200 or so at high intake. Seston C : P often exceeds 230, particularly in oligotrophic lakes where phytoplankton concentration is low and detritus dominates the diet, indicating the potential for limitation by P. 3. The analysis highlights the importance of P, as well as C, in maintenance metabolism and the overall metabolic budget, such that food quality is of importance even when intake is low. Further measurements of C and P metabolism at low food, in particular basal respiration and excretion rates, are needed in order to improve our understanding of the interacting roles of food quantity and quality in zooplankton nutrition. [source]

    Aboveground plant biomass, carbon, and nitrogen dynamics before and after burning in a seminatural grassland of Miscanthus sinensis in Kumamoto, Japan

    GCB BIOENERGY, Issue 2 2010
    Abstract Although fire has been used for several thousand years to maintain Miscanthus sinensis grasslands in Japan, there is little information about the nutrient dynamics in these ecosystems immediately after burning. We investigated the loss of aboveground biomass; carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) dynamics; surface soil C change before and after burning; and carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes 2 h after burning in a M. sinensis grassland in Kumamoto, Japan. We calculated average C and N accumulation rates within the soil profile over the past 7300 years, which were 58.0 kg C ha,1 yr,1 and 2.60 kg N ha,1 yr,1, respectively. After burning, 98% of aboveground biomass and litter were consumed. Carbon remaining on the field, however, was 102 kg C ha,1. We found at least 43% of C was possibly lost due to decomposition. However, remaining C, which contained ash and charcoal, appeared to contribute to C accumulation in soil. There was no difference in the amount of 0,5 cm surface soil C before and after burning. The amount of remaining litter on the soil surface indicated burning appeared not to have caused a reduction in soil C nor did it negatively impact the sub-surface vegetative crown of M. sinensis. Also, nearly 50 kg N ha,1 of total aboveground biomass and litter N was lost due to burning. Compared with before the burning event, postburning CO2 and CH4 fluxes from soil appeared not to be directly affected by burning. However, it appears the short time span of measurements of N2O flux after burning sufficiently characterized the pattern of increasing N2O fluxes immediately after burning. These findings indicate burning did not cause significant reductions in soil C nor did it result in elevated CO2 and CH4 emissions from the soil relative to before the burning event. [source]

    Speleothem preservation and diagenesis in South African hominin sites implications for paleoenvironments and geochronology

    Philip J. Hopley
    Plio-Pleistocene speleothems from australopithecine-bearing caves of South Africa have the potential to yield paleoenvironmental and geochronological information using isotope geochemistry. Prior to such studies it is important to assess the preservation of geochemical signals within the calcitic and aragonitic speleothems, given the tendency of aragonitic speleothems to recrystallize to calcite. This study documents the geochemical suitability of speleothems from the principal hominin-bearing deposits of South Africa. We use petrography, together with stable isotope and trace element analysis, to identify the occurrence of primary aragonite, primary calcite, and secondary calcite. This study highlights the presence of diagenetic alteration at many of the sites, often observed as interbedded primary and secondary fabrics. Trace element and stable isotopic values distinguish primary calcite from secondary calcite and offer insights into geochemical aspects of the past cave environment. ,13C values of the primary and secondary calcites range from +6 to ,9, and ,18O values range from ,4 to ,6,. The data are thus typical of meteoric calcites with highly variable ,13C and relatively invariant ,18O. High carbon isotope values in these deposits are associated with the effects of recrystallization and rapid outgassing of CO2 during precipitation. Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios differ between primary and secondary calcite speleothems, aiding their identification. Carbon and oxygen isotope values in primary calcite reflect the proportion of C3 and C4 vegetation in the local environment and the oxygen isotope composition of rainfall. Primary calcite speleothems preserve the pristine geochemical signals vital for ongoing paleoenvironmental and geochronological research. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    Carbon and oxygen isotopes: a tool for Jurassic and early Cretaceous pelagic correlation (southern Spain)

    GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 4 2002
    J. Rey
    Abstract The isotopic evolution of ,13C and ,18O is reported for the Jurassic and early Cretaceous in two pelagic sections of the External Zones in the Betic Cordilleras (SE Spain). Stable isotope curves from pelagic trough and swell sections display similar patterns. Variations in ,18O and ,13C values from strata at equivalent age probably reflect both early diagenetic cementation and later temperature-related burial diagenesis. Comparison of global isotope curves with those presented in this work allows the differentiation of global from local events. Thus, the anoxic event during the early Toarcian (falciferum Zone) is characterized by elevated ,13C and depressed ,18O values. The isotopic record also allows the detection of the middle Oxfordian transgression. There are other peaks for the late Toarcian, early Bajocian, Callovian and early Berriasian that can also be used as tools for correlation purposes. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Monte Carlo Study of Quantitative Electron Probe Microanalysis of Monazite with a Coating Film: Comparison of 25 nm Carbon and 10 nm Gold at E0= 15 and 25 keV

    Takenori Kato
    simulation par la méthode de Monte Carlo; microanalyse par sonde électronique (EPMA); analyse quantitative; film de revêtement; monazite Carbon (25,30 nm in thickness) is the most common coating material used in the electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) of geological samples. A gold coating is also used in special cases to reduce the surface damage by electron bombardment. Monte Carlo simulations have been performed for monazite with a 25 nm carbon and a 10 nm gold coating to understand the effect of a coating film in quantitative EPMA at E0= 15 keV and 25 keV. Simulations showed that carbon-coated monazite gave the same depth distribution of the generated X-rays in the monazite as uncoated monazite, whilst gold-coated monazite gave a distorted depth distribution. A 10 nm gold coating was 1.06 (15 keV) and 1.05 (25 keV) times higher in k -ratio between monazite and pure thorium than a 25 nm carbon coating at an X-ray take-off angle of 40 degrees. Thus, a 10 nm gold coating is a possible factor contributing to inaccuracy in quantitative EPMA of monazite, while a 25 nm carbon coating does not have a significant effect. Le carbone, avec des épaisseurs de 25 à 30 nm, est le matériel de dépôt le plus fréquemment utilisé en microanalyse par sonde électronique (EPMA) d'échantillons géologiques. Un dépôt d'or est aussi utilisé dans des cas spécifiques, pour réduire les dommages causés à la surface par le bombardement d'électrons. Des simulations par la méthode de Monte Carlo ont été effectuées pour une monazite recouverte d'une couche de carbone de 25 nm et d'une couche d'or de 10 nm, dans le but de comprendre l'effet du dépôt dans les mesures quantitatives à l'EPMA, à E0= 15 keV et 25 keV. Les simulations ont montré que la monazite recouverte de carbone avait la même distribution en profondeur de rayons X générés qu'une monazite non recouverte, tandis que la monazite recouverte d'or avait une distribution en profondeur déformée. Le dépôt de 10 nm d'or avait un k -ratio qui était 1.06 (pour 15 keV) et 1.05 (pour 25 keV) fois plus important pour la monazite et du thorium pur que le dépôt de 25 nm de carbone dans le cas d'un angle de sortie des rayons X de 40 degrés. En conséquence un dépôt d'or de 10 nm est un facteur possible d'inexactitude lors de mesures quantitatives de monazites par EPMA, alors qu'un dépôt de carbone de 25 nm n'a pas d'effet significatif sur la mesure. [source]

    Carbon stored in human settlements: the conterminous United States

    Abstract Urban areas are home to more than half of the world's people, responsible for >70% of anthropogenic release of carbon dioxide and 76% of wood used for industrial purposes. By 2050 the proportion of the urban population is expected to increase to 70% worldwide. Despite fast rates of change and potential value for mitigation of carbon dioxide emissions, the organic carbon storage in human settlements has not been well quantified. Here, we show that human settlements can store as much carbon per unit area (23,42 kg C m,2 urban areas and 7,16 kg C m,2exurban areas) as tropical forests, which have the highest carbon density of natural ecosystems (4,25 kg C m,2). By the year 2000 carbon storage attributed to human settlements of the conterminous United States was 18 Pg of carbon or 10% of its total land carbon storage. Sixty-four percent of this carbon was attributed to soil, 20% to vegetation, 11% to landfills, and 5% to buildings. To offset rising urban emissions of carbon, regional and national governments should consider how to protect or even to increase carbon storage of human-dominated landscapes. Rigorous studies addressing carbon budgets of human settlements and vulnerability of their carbon storage are needed. [source]