Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Canopy

  • closed canopy
  • crop canopy
  • dense canopy
  • forest canopy
  • lower canopy
  • open canopy
  • plant canopy
  • tree canopy
  • upper canopy
  • vegetation canopy

  • Terms modified by Canopy

  • canopy architecture
  • canopy area
  • canopy closure
  • canopy cover
  • canopy density
  • canopy dynamics
  • canopy forest
  • canopy gap
  • canopy height
  • canopy layer
  • canopy level
  • canopy openness
  • canopy photosynthesi
  • canopy position
  • canopy removal
  • canopy size
  • canopy species
  • canopy stomatal conductance
  • canopy structure
  • canopy temperature
  • canopy tree
  • canopy tree species
  • canopy type

  • Selected Abstracts

    The influence of Prosopis canopies on understorey vegetation: Effects of landscape position

    J.D. Schade
    Abstract. The influence of canopy trees and shrubs on under-storey plants is complex and context-dependent. Canopy plants can exert positive, negative or neutral effects on production, composition and diversity of understorey plant communities, depending on local environmental conditions and position in the landscape. We studied the influence of Prosopis velutina (mesquite) on soil moisture and nitrogen availability, and understorey vegetation along a topographic gradient in the Sonoran Desert. We found significant increases in both soil moisture and N along the gradient from desert to riparian zone. In addition, P. velutina canopies had positive effects, relative to open areas, on soil moisture in the desert, and soil N in both desert and intermediate terrace. Biomass of understorey vegetation was highest and species richness was lowest in the riparian zone. Canopies had a positive effect on biomass in both desert and terrace, and a negative effect on species richness in the terrace. The effect of the canopy depended on landscape position, with desert canopies more strongly influencing soil moisture and biomass and terrace canopies more strongly influencing soil N and species richness. Individual species distributions suggested interspecific variation in response to water- vs. N-availability; they strongly influence species composition at both patch and landscape position levels. [source]

    Effect of Cloud Cover on UVB Exposure Under Tree Canopies: Will Climate Change Affect UVB Exposure?

    Richard H. Grant
    ABSTRACT The effect of cloud cover on the amount of solar UV radiation that reaches pedestrians under tree cover was evaluated with a three-dimensional canopy radiation transport model. The spatial distribution of UVB irradiance at the base of a regular array of spherical tree crowns was modeled under the full range of sky conditions. The spatial mean relative irradiance (I), and erythemal irradiance of the entire below-canopy domain and the spatial mean relative irradiance and erythemal irradiance in the shaded regions of the domain were determined for solar zenith angles from 15° to 60°. The erythemal UV irradiance under skies with 50% or less cloud cover was not remarkably different from that under clear skies. In the shade, the actual irradiance was greater under partly cloudy than under clear skies. The mean ultraviolet protection factor for tree canopies under skies with 50% or less cloud cover was nearly equivalent to that for clear sky days. Regression equations of spatially averaged Ir. as a function of cloud cover fraction, solar zenith angle and canopy cover were used to predict the variation in erythemal irradiance in different land uses across Baltimore, MD. [source]

    Occurrence and effects of Nosema fumiferanae infections on adult spruce budworm caught above and within the forest canopy

    Eldon S. Eveleigh
    Abstract 1,Nosema fumiferanae infections in populations of both sexes of spruce budworm Choristoneura fumiferana moths, collected live above the forest canopy (canopy moths), within the tree crown (crown moths) and in drop trays (dead moths), were examined over a 5-year period in New Brunswick, Canada. 2,The incidence of infection and of moderate,heavy infections in canopy and crown moths of both sexes increased concomitantly with moth eclosion, indicating that N. fumiferanae retards larval/pupal development, with infected moths, particularly those having higher disease loads, emerging later in the season. 3,Infection rates differed among canopy, crown, and dead female, but not male, moths. Canopy (i.e. emigrating) females had a lower incidence of infection, lower incidence of moderate,heavy infections, and had longer forewings and higher dry weights, than crown females. These results suggest that N. fumiferanae infections negatively affect aspects of female, but not male, flight performance. Regardless of infection, forewing length and dry weight of both canopy and crown females declined over the moth flight period, but infected females in both moth types were smaller than their uninfected counterparts. Forewing lengths and dry weights of moderately,heavily infected females were most severely affected. 4,Despite high annual infection rates in parents, only a small percentage of offspring (second-instar larvae) that established feeding sites each spring were infected, indicating that high rates of horizontal transmission occurred annually throughout the larval period. 5,The present study indicates that whether N. fumiferanae infections are a debilitating sublethal factor in spruce budworm populations depends more on the disease load than on the overall incidence of infection. The potential importance of N. fumiferanae infections on various fitness parameters related to host dispersal is discussed. [source]

    The EmTech Wave Canopy 2009

    Michael Weinstock
    Abstract Michael Weinstock describes the constraints and creativity behind the Wave Canopy, the EmTech Masters programme construction project for 2009, which was located on the upper terrace of the Architectural Association's premises in Bedford Square. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Occasional intraguild predation structuring small mammal assemblages: the marsupial Didelphis aurita in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil

    AUSTRAL ECOLOGY, Issue 5 2009
    Abstract The didelphid marsupial, Didelphis aurita, is suggested as an intraguild predator and as key-species in small mammal assemblages of the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. The field experiments required to test this hypothesis are complex to implement, but the recent revival of regression methods offers a viable alternative. Here we use the dynamic and static regression methods to determine the importance of D. aurita as a competitor and intraguild predator. Capture,recapture data from two localities in the Rio de Janeiro State were used, Garrafão (municipality of Guapimirim), a coastal forest of the Serra do Mar, and Barra de Maricá, a costal sand dune vegetation. Population and microhabitat variables were monitored from April 1997 to April 2003 in Garrafão, and from January 1986 to July 1990 in Barra de Maricá. Microhabitat variables were related to Canopy, Plant, Litter and Rock covers, Obstruction from 0 to 1.5 m, and Number of logs. Exploitation competition was tested by the dynamic method, which models the effects of D. aurita on the per capita growth rate of a species. Interference by predation or competition was tested by the static method, where the abundance of D. aurita at trap stations was regressed against the abundance of other small mammals, after removal of any variation associated with microhabitat factors. Exploitation competition was not detected, but the interference of D. aurita was pervasive, affecting all small mammals studied in the two localities. The clear avoidance of D. aurita by all small mammals tested in two localities of different physiognomies indicates that it functions as an intraguild predator, even if actual predation by D. aurita is an occasional event. [source]

    Litter Decomposition Within the Canopy and Forest Floor of Three Tree Species in a Tropical Lowland Rain forest, Costa Rica

    BIOTROPICA, Issue 3 2010
    Catherine L. Cardelús
    ABSTRACT The rain forest canopy hosts a large percentage of the world's plant biodiversity, which is maintained, in large part, by internal nutrient cycling. This is the first study to examine the effects of site (canopy, forest floor) and tree species (Dipteryx panamensis, Lecythis ampla, Hyeronima alchorneoides) on decay rates of a common substrate and in situ leaf litter in a tropical forest in Costa Rica. Decay rates were slower for both substrates within the canopy than on the forest floor. The slower rate of mass loss of the common substrate in the canopy was due to differences in microclimate between sites. Canopy litter decay rates were negatively correlated with litter lignin:P ratios, while forest floor decay rates were negatively correlated with lignin concentrations, indicating that the control of litter decay rates in the canopy is P availability while that of the forest floor is carbon quality. The slower cycling rates within the canopy are consistent with lower foliar nutrient concentrations of epiphytes compared with forest floor-rooted plants. Litter decay rates, but not common substrate decay rates, varied among tree species. The lack of variation in common substrate decay among tree species eliminated microclimatic variation as a possible cause for differences in litter decay and points to variation in litter quality, nutrient availability and decomposer community of tree species as the causal factors. The host tree contribution to canopy nutrient cycling via litter quality and inputs may influence the quality and quantity of canopy soil resources. Abstract in Spanish is available at [source]

    Colonization Strategies of Two Liana Species in a Tropical Dry Forest Canopy

    BIOTROPICA, Issue 3 2007
    Gerardo Avalos
    ABSTRACT Lianas impose intense resource competition for light in the upper forest canopy by displaying dense foliage on top of tree crowns. Using repeated access with a construction crane, we studied the patterns of canopy colonization of the lianas Combretum fruticosum and Bonamia trichantha in a Neotropical dry forest in Panama. Combretum fruticosum flushed leaves just before the rainy season, and its standing leaf area quickly reached a peak in the early rainy season (May,June). In contrast, B. trichantha built up foliage area continuously throughout the rainy season and reached a peak in the late rainy season (November). Both species displayed the majority of leaves in full sun on the canopy surface, but C. fruticosum displayed a greater proportion of leaves (26%) in more shaded microsites than B. trichantha (12%). Self-shading within patches of liana leaves within the uppermost 40,50 cm of the canopy reduced light levels measured with photodiodes placed directly on leaves to 4,9 percent of light levels received by sun leaves. Many leaves of C. fruticosum acclimated to shade within a month following the strongly synchronized leaf flushing and persisted in deep shade. In contrast, B. trichantha produced short-lived leaves opportunistically in the sunniest locations. Species differences in degree of shade acclimation were also evident in terms of structural (leaf mass per area, and leaf toughness) and physiological characters (nitrogen content, leaf life span, and light compensation point). Contrasting leaf phenologies reflect differences in light exploitation and canopy colonization strategies of these two liana species. RESUMEN Las lianas imponen una competencia intensa por la luz en el dosel superior al desplegar un denso follaje encima de las copas de los árboles. Usando acceso repetido al dosel a través de una grúa de construcción, estudiamos los patrones de colonización del dosel de las lianas Combretum fruticosum y Bonamia trichantha en un bosque neotropical seco en Panamá. Combretum fruticosum produjo hojas nuevas justo antes de la estación lluviosa, y su área foliar total alcanzó rápidamente un pico a inicios de la estación lluviosa (mayo-junio). En contraste, B. trichantha construyó su área foliar de forma continua a través de la estación lluviosa alcanzando un pico al final de esta (noviembre). Ambas especies desplegaron la mayoría de sus hojas bajo alta irradiación en la superficie del dosel, aunque C. fruticosum desplegó una mayor proporción de follaje (26%) en micrositios más sombreados que B. trichantha (12%). El auto sombreo dentro de los parches de hojas de lianas dentro de los primeros 40-50 cm del dosel superior redujo el nivel de radiación medido con fotodiodos colocados directamente sobre las hojas a 4-9% de la luz recibida por las hojas de sol. Muchas hojas de C. fruticosum se aclimataron a la sombra luego de un mes después de la producción inicial de hojas altamente sincronizada y persistieron en sombra profunda. En contraste, B. trichantha produjo hojas de corta longevidad de forma oportunística bajo las condiciones de mayor irradiación. Las diferencias entre especies en el grado de aclimatación a la sombra fueron evidentes en términos de caracteres estructurales (masa foliar por unidad de área, y dureza foliar) y fisiológicos (contenido de nitrógeno, longevidad foliar, y punto de compensación lumínica). Estas fenologías foliares tan contrastantes reflejan diferencias en las estrategias de explotación de luz y colonización del dosel por parte de estas dos lianas. [source]

    Runoff and soil loss under individual plants of a semi-arid Mediterranean shrubland: influence of plant morphology and rainfall intensity

    E. Bochet
    Abstract The influence of plant morphology and rainfall intensity on soil loss and runoff was determined at the plant scale for three representative species of a semi-arid patchy shrubland vegetation of east Spain, representing contrasting canopy structures and plant phenologies (Rosmarinus officinalis, Anthyllis cytisoides and Stipa tenacissima). Twenty-seven microplots of less than 1 m2, each containing one single plant, were built to quantify runoff volume and sediment yield under the canopies of the three species. Runoff and rates of soil loss measured in these plots under natural rainfall conditions were compared with control microplots built in the bare inter-plant areas. Precipitation was automatic-ally recorded and rainfall intensity calculated over a two-year period. Results indicated that individual plants played a relevant role in interrill erosion control at the microscale. Compared with a bare soil surface, rates of soil loss and runoff reduction varied strongly depending on the species. Cumulative soil loss was reduced by 94·3, 88·0 and 30·2 per cent, and cumulative runoff volume was reduced by 66·4, 50·8 and 18·4 per cent under the Rosmarinus, Stipa and Anthyllis canopies, respectively, compared with a bare surface. Anthyllis was significantly less efficient than the two other species in reducing runoff volume under its canopy. Differences between species could only be identified above a rainfall intensity threshold of 20 mm h,1. The different plant morphologies and plant compon-ents explained the different erosive responses of the three species. Canopy cover played a major role in runoff and soil loss reduction. The presence of a second layer of protection at the soil surface (litter cover) was fundamental for erosion control during intense rainfall. Rainfall intensity and soil water status prior to rainfall strongly influenced runoff and soil loss rates. The possible use of these species in restoration programmes of degraded areas is discussed. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Age-related change in canopy traits shifts conspecific facilitation to interference in a semi-arid shrubland

    ECOGRAPHY, Issue 4 2007
    Orna Reisman-Berman
    Shifts between facilitation and interference and their importance in shaping plant population and community dynamics have received wide recognition. Nevertheless, the causes and spatio-temporal scales of these shifts are poorly understood, yet strongly debated. This study tested the hypothesis that age-related changes in canopy structure shift the effect of a nurse shrub on their protégé from facilitation to interference, using as a model system the interaction between the dwarf shrub Sarcopoterium spinosum and conspecific new recruits, in the shrubland of the transition area between the Mediterranean and the semi-arid climatic zones of Israel. Foliation level (i.e. the percentage of canopy surface area covered with leaves), a measure of shrub canopy structure, increased with age. Shading level was significantly and positively related to foliation level. Densities of new recruits in the shrubland showed a unimodal response to canopy structure and cover: the highest densities were associated with canopies presenting low and medium foliation levels (providing 71 and 82% shade, respectively), while high foliation levels (93% shade) and open spaces among canopies were characterized by very low densities. A related field experiment using shading nets revealed that seedling survival rates followed a similar unimodal pattern, with the highest survival (ca 60%) detected in moderate shade (70%), twice as much as in full sun, and the lowest survival (ca 10%) observed in extreme shade (90%). These results support the study hypothesis on age-dependent interactions. Thus, in a semi-arid shrubland ecosystem, the transition of the "nurse shrub" from "young" to "old" stage can shift facilitation to interference. Hence, the age structure of established shrub populations determines a) the availability of suitable sites for seedling recruitment and b) the balance between facilitation versus interference effects on seedling establishment. [source]

    Effects of Acer platanoides invasion on understory plant communities and tree regeneration in the northern Rocky Mountains

    ECOGRAPHY, Issue 5 2005
    Kurt O. Reinhart
    Quantitative studies are necessary to determine whether invasive plant species displace natives and reduce local biodiversity, or if they increase local biodiversity. Here we describe the effects of invasion by Norway maple Acer platanoides on riparian plant communities and tree regeneration at two different scales (individual tree vs stand scales) in western Montana, USA, using both descriptive and experimental approaches. The three stands differed in community composition with the stand most dominated by A. platanoides invasion being more compositionally homogenous, and less species rich (,67%), species even (,40%), and diverse (,75%) than the two other stands. This sharp decrease in community richness and diversity of the highly invaded stand, relative to the other stands, corresponded with a 28-fold increase in A. platanoides seedlings and saplings. The dramatic difference between stand 1 vs 2 and 3 suggests that A. platanoides invasion is associated with a dramatic change in community composition and local loss of species diversity; however, other unaccounted for differences between stands may be the cause. These whole-stand correlations were corroborated by community patterns under individual A. platanoides trees in a stand with intermediate levels of patchy invasion. At the scale of individual A. platanoides canopies within a matrix of native trees, diversity and richness of species beneath solitary A. platanoides trees declined as the size of the trees increased. These decreases in native community properties corresponded with an increase in the density of A. platanoides seedlings. The effect of A. platanoides at the stand scale was more dramatic than at the individual canopy scale; however, at this smaller scale we only collected data from the stand with intermediate levels of invasion and not from the stand with high levels of invasion. Transplant experiments with tree seedlings demonstrated that A. platanoides seedlings performed better when grown beneath conspecific canopies than under natives, but Populus and Pinus seedlings performed better when grown beneath Populus canopies, the dominant native. Our results indicate that A. platanoides trees suppress most native species, including the regeneration of the natural canopy dominants, but facilitate conspecifics in their understories. [source]

    Modelling rainfall interception loss in forest restoration trials in Panama

    ECOHYDROLOGY, Issue 3 2010
    Darryl E. Carlyle-Moses
    Abstract A modified Liu analytical model of rainfall interception (Ic) by tree canopies was evaluated using rainfall, throughfall and stemflow data collected from forest restoration trials in the Republic of Panama. The model uses an introduced approach to estimating the water storage capacities of tree boles, which has a more realistic physical basis than earlier iterations of the Liu model. Study species (Acacia mangium, Gliricidia sepium, Guazuma ulmifolia, Ochroma pyramidale, and Pachira quinata) were selected on the basis of differing leaf size and crown characteristics. Significant interspecific differences in both observed and simulated cumulative interception loss were found, with A. mangium intercepting more rainfall than other species. Errors between calculated and modelled cumulative Ic ranged from + 6·3% to + 30·5%, with modelled Ic always being the larger term. During-event evaporation rates from the study trees were positively related to tree height, crown area, and basal diameter. Crown area and the storage capacity of tree boles were negatively correlated. The results of a sensitivity analysis suggested that the modified model was most sensitive to variations in during-event evaporation rate. The implications of the model's sensitivity to during-event evaporation and the importance of this mechanism of interception loss are discussed, while suggestions are provided that may lead to further improvements to the analytical model. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Local hydrologic effects of introducing non-native vegetation in a tropical catchment

    ECOHYDROLOGY, Issue 1 2008
    Maite Guardiola-Claramonte
    Abstract This study investigates the hydrologic implications of land use conversion from native vegetation to rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) in Southeast Asia. The experimental catchment, Nam Ken (69 km2), is located in Xishuangbanna Prefecture (22°N, 101°E), in the south of Yunnan province, in southwestern China. During 2005 and 2006, we collected hourly records of 2 m deep soil moisture profiles in rubber and three native land-covers (tea, secondary forest and grassland), and measured surface radiation above the tea and rubber canopies. Observations show that root water uptake of rubber during the dry season is controlled by day-length, whereas water demand of the native vegetation starts with the arrival of the first monsoon rainfall. The different dynamics of root water uptake in rubber result in distinct depletion of soil moisture in deeper layers. Traditional evapotranspiration and soil moisture models are unable to simulate this specific behaviour. Therefore, a different conceptual model, taking in account vegetation dynamics, is needed to predict hydrologic changes due to land use conversion in the area. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Ant versus bird exclusion effects on the arthropod assemblage of an organic citrus grove

    1. Predation-exclusion experiments have highlighted that top-down control is pervasive in terrestrial communities, but most of these experiments are simplistic in that they only excluded a single group of predators and the effect of removal was evaluated on a few species from the community. The main goal of our study was to experimentally establish the relative effects of ants and birds on the same arthropod assemblage of canopy trees. 2. We conducted 1-year long manipulative experiments in an organic citrus grove intended to quantify the independent effects of bird and ant predators on the abundance of arthropods. Birds were excluded with plastic nets whereas ants were excluded with sticky barriers on the trunks. The sticky barrier also excluded other ground dwelling insects, like the European earwig Forficula auricularia L. 3. Both the exclusion of ants and birds affected the arthropod community of the citrus canopies, but the exclusion of ants was far more important than the exclusion of birds. Indeed, almost all groups of arthropods had higher abundance in ant-excluded than in control trees, whereas only dermapterans were more abundant in bird-excluded than in control trees. A more detailed analysis conducted on spiders also showed that the effect of ant exclusion was limited to a few families rather than being widespread over the entire diverse spectrum of spiders. 4. Our results suggest that the relative importance of vertebrate and invertebrate predators in regulating arthropod populations largely depends on the nature of the predator,prey system. [source]

    Spatial correlations of Diceroprocta apache and its host plants: evidence for a negative impact from Tamarix invasion

    Aaron R. Ellingson
    Abstract 1. The hypothesis that the habitat-scale spatial distribution of the Apache cicada Diceroprocta apache Davis is unaffected by the presence of the invasive exotic saltcedar Tamarix ramosissima was tested using data from 205 1-m2 quadrats placed within the flood-plain of the Bill Williams River, Arizona, U.S.A. Spatial dependencies within and between cicada density and habitat variables were estimated using Moran's I and its bivariate analogue to discern patterns and associations at spatial scales from 1 to 30 m. 2. Apache cicadas were spatially aggregated in high-density clusters averaging 3 m in diameter. A positive association between cicada density, estimated by exuvial density, and the per cent canopy cover of a native tree, Goodding's willow Salix gooddingii, was detected in a non-spatial correlation analysis. No non-spatial association between cicada density and saltcedar canopy cover was detected. 3. Tests for spatial cross-correlation using the bivariate IYZ indicated the presence of a broad-scale negative association between cicada density and saltcedar canopy cover. This result suggests that large continuous stands of saltcedar are associated with reduced cicada density. In contrast, positive associations detected at spatial scales larger than individual quadrats suggested a spill-over of high cicada density from areas featuring Goodding's willow canopy into surrounding saltcedar monoculture. 4. Taken together and considered in light of the Apache cicada's polyphagous habits, the observed spatial patterns suggest that broad-scale factors such as canopy heterogeneity affect cicada habitat use more than host plant selection. This has implications for management of lower Colorado River riparian woodlands to promote cicada presence and density through maintenance or creation of stands of native trees as well as manipulation of the characteristically dense and homogeneous saltcedar canopies. [source]

    Distribution and severity of damage by Cryphonectria parasitica in the chestnut stands in Guilan province, Iran

    FOREST PATHOLOGY, Issue 5 2010
    E. Ghezi
    Summary Chestnut blight caused by Cryphonectria parasitica has recently been reported from Guilan province, the only region with natural chestnut (Castanea sativa) stands in Iran. During the past few years, chestnut stands in Iran have been seriously threatened by the fungus, incidence of the disease is increasing and vast canopies are reduced to sprouts. As yet, there is no report on the disease distribution and severity in this region. Six sites from three main growing regions of chestnut in Guilan province were selected for investigation. We report occurrence and evaluation of the damage of the disease caused by C. parasitica. To evaluate the scale of damage, the investigated trees were classified into six categories based on the degree of crown damage, the number of canker wounds and the presence of the fungus. Index of health condition was calculated for all sites. During this study, a total of 250 isolates of Cryphonectria species were obtained, of which 232 isolates were C. parasitica and 18 were Cryphonectria radicalis. Castanea parasitica was observed in all regions. Index of health condition was scored from 0 to 6 with 0 being disease free and six being the most severe infection. Index results in the investigated sites varied between 0.69,5.45 and 0.93,5.55 for years 2006 and 2007, respectively. The highest damage was found in Doran (IH = 5.55), which is located some 100 km away from Shahbalutmahalleh, the site with lowest damage (IH = 0.93). This is the first extended report on aspects of chestnut blight in Iran. [source]

    Water savings in mature deciduous forest trees under elevated CO2

    GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY, Issue 12 2007
    Abstract Stomatal conductance of plants exposed to elevated CO2 is often reduced. Whether this leads to water savings in tall forest-trees under future CO2 concentrations is largely unknown but could have significant implications for climate and hydrology. We used three different sets of measurements (sap flow, soil moisture and canopy temperature) to quantify potential water savings under elevated CO2 in a ca. 35 m tall, ca. 100 years old mixed deciduous forest. Part of the forest canopy was exposed to 540 ppm CO2 during daylight hours using free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) and the Swiss Canopy Crane (SCC). Across species and a wide range of weather conditions, sap flow was reduced by 14% in trees subjected to elevated CO2, yielding ca. 10% reduction in evapotranspiration. This signal is likely to diminish as atmospheric feedback through reduced moistening of the air comes into play at landscape scale. Vapour pressure deficit (VPD)-sap flow response curves show that the CO2 effect is greatest at low VPD, and that sap flow saturation tends to occur at lower VPD in CO2 -treated trees. Matching stomatal response data, the CO2 effect was largely produced by Carpinus and Fagus, with Quercus contributing little. In line with these findings, soil moisture at 10 cm depth decreased at a slower rate under high-CO2 trees than under control trees during rainless periods, with a reversal of this trend during prolonged drought when CO2 -treated trees take advantage from initial water savings. High-resolution thermal images taken at different heights above the forest canopy did detect reduced water loss through altered energy balance only at <5 m distance (0.44 K leaf warming of CO2 -treated Fagus trees). Short discontinuations of CO2 supply during morning hours had no measurable canopy temperature effects, most likely because the stomatal effects were small compared with the aerodynamic constraints in these dense, broad-leaved canopies. Hence, on a seasonal basis, these data suggest a <10% reduction in water consumption in this type of forest when the atmosphere reaches 540% ppm CO2. [source]

    Canopy structure in savannas along a moisture gradient on Kalahari sands

    Robert J. Scholes
    Abstract Measurements of tree canopy architecture were made at six savanna sites on deep, sandy soils, along a gradient of increasing aridity. There was substantial variation in the leaf area estimated within each site, using the same sample frame, but different measurement techniques. The trends in canopy properties in relation to the aridity gradient were consistent, regardless of the technique used for estimating the properties. The effective plant area index for the tree canopy (the sum of the stem area index and the leaf area index (LAI)) declined from around 2 to around 0.8 m2 m,2 over a gradient of mean annual rainfall from 1000 to 350 mm. Stems contributed 2,5% of the tree canopy plant area index. Since the tree canopy cover decreased from 50% to 20% over this aridity range, the leaf area index within the area covered by tree canopies remained fairly constant at 3,4 m2 m,2. Tree leaves tended from a horizontal orientation to a more random orientation as the aridity increased. On the same gradient, the leaf minor axis dimension decreased from around 30 mm to around 3 mm, and the mean specific leaf area decreased from 14 to 5 m2 kgha,1. There was good agreement between LAI observed in the field using a line ceptometer and the LAI inferred by the MODIS sensor on the Terra satellite platform, 2 months later in the same season. [source]

    Annual Q10 of soil respiration reflects plant phenological patterns as well as temperature sensitivity

    J. Curiel yuste
    Abstract The temperature sensitivity of soil respiration (SR) is often estimated from the seasonal changes in the flux relative to those in soil temperature, and subsequently used in models to interpolate or predict soil fluxes. However, temperature sensitivities derived from seasonal changes in SR (from here on denoted seasonal Q10) may not solely reflect the temperature sensitivity of SR, because seasonal changes in SR can also be affected by other seasonally fluctuating conditions and processes. In this manuscript, we present a case study of how the seasonal Q10 of SR can be decoupled from the temperature sensitivity of SR. In a mixed temperate forest, we measured SR under vegetations with different leaf strategies: pure evergreen, pure deciduous, and mixed. Seasonal Q10 was much higher under deciduous than under evergreen canopies. However, at a shorter time scale, both vegetation types exhibited very similar Q10 values, indicating that the large differences in seasonal Q10 do not represent differences in the temperature sensitivity of the soil metabolism. The seasonal Q10 depends strongly on the amplitude of the seasonal changes in SR (SRs), which, under the particular climatic and edaphic conditions of our forest study site, were significantly larger in deciduous forest. In turn, SRs was positively correlated with the seasonal changes in leaf area index (LAIs), a measure of the deciduousness of the vegetation. Thus, in this temperate maritime forest, seasonal Q10 of SR was strongly influenced by the deciduousness of the vegetation. We conclude that the large differences in seasonal Q10 were not entirely due to different temperature sensitivities, but also to different seasonal patterns of plant activity in the evergreen and deciduous plants of this site. Some coniferous forests may be more seasonal than the one we studied, and the deciduous,evergreen differences observed here may not be broadly applicable, but this case study demonstrates that variation of plant phenological process can significantly contribute to the seasonality of SR, and, hence, calculated Q10 values. Where this occurs, the seasonal Q10 value for SR does not accurately represent temperature sensitivity. Because the strong seasonal correlation between SR and temperature does not necessarily imply a causal relationship, Q10 values derived form annual patterns of SR should be used with caution when predicting future responses of SR to climatic change. [source]

    Modelling canopy CO2 fluxes: are ,big-leaf' simplifications justified?

    GLOBAL ECOLOGY, Issue 6 2001
    A. D. Friend
    Abstract 1The ,big-leaf' approach to calculating the carbon balance of plant canopies is evaluated for inclusion in the ETEMA model framework. This approach assumes that canopy carbon fluxes have the same relative responses to the environment as any single leaf, and that the scaling from leaf to canopy is therefore linear. 2A series of model simulations was performed with two models of leaf photosynthesis, three distributions of canopy nitrogen, and two levels of canopy radiation detail. Leaf- and canopy-level responses to light and nitrogen, both as instantaneous rates and daily integrals, are presented. 3Observed leaf nitrogen contents of unshaded leaves are over 40% lower than the big-leaf approach requires. Scaling from these leaves to the canopy using the big-leaf approach may underestimate canopy photosynthesis by ~20%. A leaf photosynthesis model that treats within-leaf light extinction displays characteristics that contradict the big-leaf theory. Observed distributions of canopy nitrogen are closer to those required to optimize this model than the homogeneous model used in the big-leaf approach. 4It is theoretically consistent to use the big-leaf approach with the homogeneous photosynthesis model to estimate canopy carbon fluxes if canopy nitrogen and leaf area are known and if the distribution of nitrogen is assumed optimal. However, real nitrogen profiles are not optimal for this photosynthesis model, and caution is necessary in using the big-leaf approach to scale satellite estimates of leaf physiology to canopies. Accurate prediction of canopy carbon fluxes requires canopy nitrogen, leaf area, declining nitrogen with canopy depth, the heterogeneous model of leaf photosynthesis and the separation of sunlit and shaded leaves. The exact nitrogen profile is not critical, but realistic distributions can be predicted using a simple model of canopy nitrogen allocation. [source]

    A note on estimating urban roof runoff with a forest evaporation model

    J. H. C. Gash
    Abstract A model developed for estimating the evaporation of rainfall intercepted by forest canopies is applied to estimate measurements of the average runoff from the roofs of six houses made in a previous study of hydrological processes in an urban environment. The model is applied using values of the mean rates of wet canopy evaporation and rainfall derived previously for forests and an estimate of the roof storage capacity derived from the data collected in the previous study. Although the model prediction is sensitive to the value of storage capacity, close correlation between the modelled and measured runoff indicates that the model captures the essential processes. It is concluded that the process of evaporation from an urban roof is sufficiently similar to that from a forest canopy for forest evaporation models to be used to give a useful estimate of urban roof runoff. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Seasonal snowpack dynamics and runoff in a cool temperate forest: lysimeter experiment in Niigata, Japan

    Andrew C. Whitaker
    Abstract Seasonal snowpack dynamics are described through field measurements under contrasting canopy conditions for a mountainous catchment in the Japan Sea region. Microclimatic data, snow accumulation, albedo and lysimeter runoff are given through the complete winter season 2002,03 in (1) a mature cedar stand, (2) a larch stand, and (3) a regenerating cedar stand or opening. The accumulation and melt of seasonal snowpack strongly influences streamflow runoff during December to May, including winter baseflow, mid-winter melt, rain on snow, and diurnal peaks driven by radiation melt in spring. Lysimeter runoff at all sites is characterized by constant ground melt of 0·8,1·0 mm day,1. Rapid response to mid-winter melt or rainfall shows that the snowpack remains in a ripe or near-ripe condition throughout the snow-cover season. Hourly and daily lysimeter discharge was greatest during rain on snow (e.g. 7 mm h,1 and 53 mm day,1 on 17 December) with the majority of runoff due to rainfall passing through the snowpack as opposed to snowmelt. For both rain-on-snow and radiation melt events lysimeter discharge was generally greatest at the open site, although there were exceptions such as during interception melt events. During radiation melt instantaneous discharge was up to 4·0 times greater in the opening compared with the mature cedar, and 48 h discharge was up to 2·5 times greater. Perhaps characteristic of maritime climates, forest interception melt is shown to be important in addition to sublimation in reducing snow accumulation beneath dense canopies. While sublimation represents a loss from the catchment water balance, interception melt percolates through the snowpack and contributes to soil moisture during the winter season. Strong differences in microclimate and snowpack albedo persisted between cedar, larch and open sites, and it is suggested further work is needed to account for this in hydrological simulation models. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Disposition of rainwater under creosotebush

    Athol D. Abrahams
    Abstract In desert shrubland ecosystems water and nutrients are concentrated beneath shrub canopies in ,resource islands'. Rain falling on to these islands reaches the ground as either stemflow or throughfall and then either infiltrates into the soil or runs off as overland flow. This study investigates the partitioning of rainwater between stemflow and throughfall in the first instance and between infiltration and runoff in the second. Two series of 40 rainfall simulation experiments were performed on 16 creosotebush shrubs in the Jornada Basin, New Mexico. The first series of experiments was designed to measure the surface runoff and was performed with each shrub in its growth position. The second series was designed to measure stemflow reaching the shrub base and was conducted with the shrub suspended above the ground. The experimental data show that once equilibrium is achieved, 16% of the rainfall intercepted by the canopy or 6·7% of the rain falling inside the shrub area (i.e. the area inside the shrub's circumscribing ellipse) is funnelled to the shrub base as stemflow. This redistribution of the rainfall by stemflow is a function of the ratio of canopy area (i.e. the area covered by the shrub canopy) to collar area (i.e. a circular area centred on the shrub base), with stemflow rate being positively correlated and throughfall rate being negatively correlated with this ratio. The surface runoff rate expressed as a proportion of the rate at which rainwater arrives at a point (i.e. stemflow rate plus throughfall rate) is the runoff coefficient. A multiple regression reveals that 75% of the variance in the runoff coefficient can be explained by three independent variables: the rainfall rate, the ratio of the canopy area to the collar area, and the presence or absence of subcanopy vegetation. Although the last variable is a dummy variable, it accounts for 66·4% of the variance in the runoff coefficient. This suggests that the density and extent of the subcanopy vegetation is the single most important control of the partitioning of rainwater between runoff and infiltration beneath creosotebush. Although these findings pertain to creosotebush, similar findings might be expected for other desert shrubs that generate significant stemflow and have subcanopy vegetation. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Shade Effects on Phaseolus vulgaris L. Intercropped with Zea mays L. under Well-Watered Conditions

    M. Tsubo
    Abstract Field experiments were carried out under unstressed conditions of soil water during two summer crop growing seasons (1998,99 and 1999,2000 seasons) in a South African semi-arid region (Bloemfontein, Free State, South Africa). The aim of this study was to investigate shade effects on beans intercropped with maize in terms of plant mass and radiation use. The experimental treatments were two cropping systems (no shading/sole cropping and shading/intercropping) and two row orientations (north,south and east,west). At the top of bean canopies shaded by maize, incident radiation was reduced by up to 90 %. Shading reduced total dry matter of beans by 67 % at the end of the growing season, resulting in yield losses. The dry matter partitioning into leaf and stem (the ratios of leaf and stem to total biomass) was about 50 % higher in intercropping than sole cropping. In contrast, intercropped beans had 40 % lower dry matter partitioning into pod (the ratio of pod to total biomass). Fraction of radiation intercepted by sole-cropped beans steeply increased until canopy closure (0.9) and then slowly decreased, while fraction of radiation intercepted by intercropped beans remained constant between 0.0 and 0.2 throughout the growing seasons. However, intercropped beans had 77 % higher radiation use efficiency (RUE) than sole-cropped beans. In contrast, for maize, no effect of intercropping (shading) was found on growth, partitioning, yield, radiation interception or RUE. Consequently, lower bean yield losses can be attained in association with late shading rather than early shading. This can be controlled by growing crops with different temporal and spatial treatments. As regards row treatment, no effect of row direction was found on growth, partitioning, yield, radiation interception or RUE. [source]

    Effects of Plant Population Density and Intercropping with Soybean on the Fractal Dimension of Corn Plant Skeletal Images

    K. Foroutan-pour
    Three-year field experiments were conducted to determine whether the temporal pattern of fractal dimension (FD) for corn (Zea mays L.) plant structure is altered by plant population density (PPD) or intercropping with soybean [Glycine max. (L.) Merr.], and how changes in the FD are related to changes in other canopy characteristics. Plants in monocropped corn and intercropped corn,soybean plots were randomly sampled and labelled for later identification. Corn plant structure was photographed from the side that allowed the maximum appearance of details (perpendicular to the plane of developed leaves) and from two fixed sides (side 1: parallel to the row and side 2: perpendicular to the row). Images were scanned and skeletonized, as skeletal images provide acceptable information to estimate the FD of plant structure two-dimensionally by the box-counting method. Differences in the FD estimated from images taken perpendicular to the plane of developed leaves were not significant among competition treatments. An adjustment of corn plants to treatments, by changing the orientation of the plane of developed leaves with respect to the row, was observed. Based on overall FD means, competition treatments were ranked as: high > normal , intercrop , low for side 1 and intercrop > low , normal > high for side 2. Leaf area index (LAI) and plant height had a positive correlation with FD. In contrast, light penetration had a negative correlation with FD. In conclusion, FD provides a meaningful and effective tool for quantifying corn plant structure, measuring the structural response to cultural practices, and modelling corn plant canopies. Zusammenfassung Folgende Ziele der Untersuchungen wurden berücksichtigt: 1) Eine geeignete Methode für die Abschätzung der Anteile (FD) 2-dimensional für Pflanzen mit einer einfachen dreidimensionalen Vegetationsstruktur wie z. B. Mais (Zea mays L.) zu bestimmen; 2) der Frage nachzugehen, ob die zeitlichen Muster von FD bei der Maispflanzenstruktur durch die Bestandesdichte verändert wird (PPD: low, normal und hoch) oder in Mischanbau mit Sojabohnen (Glyzine max. L.) Merr.); und 3) in welcher Beziehung Änderungen in der FD in der Maispflanzenstruktur zu Änderungen in anderen Bestandeseigenschaften stehen. Pflanzen im Reinanbau von Mais und im Mischanbau in Mais-Sojabohnen-Parzellen wurden randomisiert gesammelt und für die spätere Identifikation gekennzeichnet. Die Maispflanzenstruktur wurde von der Seite fotografiert, so dai eine maximale Darstellung der Details (perpendiculär zu der Ebene der entwickelten Blätter) und von zwei festgelegten Seiten (Seite 1: parallel zur Reihe und Seite 2 perpendikulär zur Reihe) verfügbar war. Die Abbildungen wurden gescannt und skelettiert; Skelettabbildungen geben eine akzeptierbare Information zur Abschätzung von FD Pflanzenstrukturen in zweidimensionaler Form über die Box-counting-Methode. Unterschiede in der FD, die sich aus Bildern mit einer perpendikulären Aufnahme zu der Ebene der entwickelten Blätter ergaben, waren nicht signifikant innerhalb der Konkurrenzbehandlungen. Eine Anpassung der Maispflanzen an die Behandlungen durch Änderungen der Orientierung zur Ebene der entwickelten Blätter im Hinblick auf die Reihe, wurde beobachtet. Auf der Grundlage von gesamt FD-Mittelwerten ergab sich, dai Konkurrenzbehandlungen in folgender Reihe auftraten: Hoch (1,192) > (1,178) , zu Mischanbau (1,177) , zu gering (1,170) für Seite 1 und bei Mischanbau (1,147) > gering (1,158) , (1,153) > hoch für Seite 2. Der Blattflächenindex (LAI) und die Pflanzenhöhe hatten eine positive Korrelation zu FD. Im Gegensatz dazu wies die Lichtpenetration eine negative Korrelation zu FD auf. Es kann festgestellt werden, dai FD eine aussagekräftige und zweckmäiige Methode ist, die Maispflanzenstruktur zu quantifizieren, Strukturreaktionen zum Anbauverfahren zu messen und Maispflanzenbestände zu beschreiben. [source]

    Regional climate modulates the canopy mosaic of favourable and risky microclimates for insects

    Summary 1,One major gap in our ability to predict the impacts of climate change is a quantitative analysis of temperatures experienced by organisms under natural conditions. We developed a framework to describe and quantify the impacts of local climate on the mosaic of microclimates and physiological states of insects within tree canopies. This approach was applied to a leaf mining moth feeding on apple leaf tissues. 2,Canopy geometry was explicitly considered by mapping the 3D position and orientation of more than 26 000 leaves in an apple tree. Four published models for canopy radiation interception, energy budget of leaves and mines, body temperature and developmental rate of the leaf miner were integrated. Model predictions were compared with actual microclimate temperatures. The biophysical model accurately predicted temperature within mines at different positions within the tree crown. 3,Field temperature measurements indicated that leaf and mine temperature patterns differ according to the regional climatic conditions (cloudy or sunny) and depending on their location within the canopy. Mines in the sun can be warmer than those in the shade by several degrees and the heterogeneity of mine temperature was incremented by 120%, compared with that of leaf temperature. 4.,The integrated model was used to explore the impact of both warm and exceptionally hot climatic conditions recorded during a heat wave on the microclimate heterogeneity at canopy scale. During warm conditions, larvae in sunlight-exposed mines experienced nearly optimal growth conditions compared with those within shaded mines. The developmental rate was increased by almost 50% in the sunny microhabitat compared with the shaded location. Larvae, however, experienced optimal temperatures for their development inside shaded mines during extreme climatic conditions, whereas larvae in exposed mines were overheating, leading to major risks of mortality. 5,Tree canopies act as both magnifiers and reducers of the climatic regime experienced in open air outside canopies. Favourable and risky spots within the canopy do change as a function of the climatic conditions at the regional scale. The shifting nature of the mosaic of suitable and risky habitats may explain the observed uniform distribution of leaf miners within tree canopies. [source]

    Factors affecting predation by buzzards Buteo buteo on released pheasants Phasianus colchicus

    R.E. Kenward
    Summary 1Information on the effects of wildlife predation on game and livestock is required to allow improved management of all organisms involved. Monitoring of prey, predators and predation mechanisms each suggests important methods, illustrated here by data from common buzzards Buteo buteo and ring-necked pheasants Phasianus colchicus. 2Location data from 136 radio-tagged common buzzards, together with prey remains from 40 nest areas, records from 10 gamekeepers and vegetation surveys, were used to investigate raptor predation at 28 pens from which pheasants were released in southern England. 3Among 20 725 juvenile pheasants released in 1994,95, gamekeepers attributed 4·3% of deaths to buzzards, 0·7% to owls, 0·6% to sparrowhawks, 3·2% to foxes and 0·5% to other mammals. 4Fresh pheasant remains were found on 7% of 91 visits to buzzard nests, and 8% of radio-tagged buzzards had significantly more association than other buzzards with pheasant pens. 5Predation by buzzards was most likely to be recorded at release pens with little shrub cover, deciduous canopies and a large number of released pheasants. The number of pheasants killed was greatest in large pens with extensive ground cover, and the highest proportion of released pheasants was killed in large pens where few were released. However, only 21% of 55 releases had > 2 pheasant kills per week. 6Radio-tagged buzzards were located most often at pheasant-release pens with open, deciduous canopies. Pens were most likely to be visited by buzzards that had fledged nearby, but the proximity of buzzard nests had little influence on how much predation occurred. 7Only a minority of buzzards associated frequently with pheasant pens, and predation was heavy at only a minority of sites, where pen characteristics and release factors probably made it easy for individual buzzards to kill pheasants. We suggest that the occasional heavy losses could be avoided by encouraging shrubs rather than ground cover in pens, by siting pens where there are few perches for buzzards, and perhaps also by high-density releases. [source]

    Performance of seedlings of the invasive alien tree Schinus molle L. under indigenous and alien host trees in semi-arid savanna

    Donald M. Iponga
    Abstract We assessed the importance of host trees in influencing invasion patterns of the alien tree Schinus molle L. (Anacardiaceae) in semi-arid savanna in South Africa. Recruitment of S. molle is dependent on trees in its invaded habitat, particularly Acacia tortilis Hayne. Another leguminous tree, the invasive alien mesquite (Prosopis sp.), has become common in the area recently, but S. molle rarely recruits under canopies of this species. Understanding of the association between these species is needed to predict invasion dynamics in the region. We conducted experiments to test whether: (i) seedling survival of S. molle is better beneath A. tortilis than beneath mesquite canopies; (ii) growth rates of S. molle seedlings are higher beneath A. tortilis than beneath mesquite. Results showed that growth and survival of S. molle did not differ significantly beneath the native A. tortilis and the alien Prosopis species. This suggests that microsites provided by canopies of mesquite are as good for S. molle establishment as those provided by the native acacia. Other factors, such as the failure of propagules to arrive beneath mesquite trees, must be sought to explain the lack of recruitment beneath mesquite. Résumé Nous avons évalué l'importance des arbres hôtes dans les facteurs qui influencent les schémas d'envahissement de l'arbre exotique Scinus molle L. (Anacardiaceae) dans une savane semi aride d'Afrique du Sud. Le recrutement de S. molle dépend des arbres de l'habitat qu'il envahit, et particulièrement de l'Acacia tortilis Hayne. Un autre arbre de la famille des légumineuses, l'envahissant « mesquite » (Prosopis sp.), est devenu commun dernièrement dans la région, mais S. molle recrute rarement sous la canopée de cette espèce. Il est nécessaire de bien comprendre l'association entre ces espèces pour prévoir la dynamique des envahissements dans la région. Nous avons réalisé des expériences pour tester si : i) la survie des jeunes plants de S. molle est meilleure sous une canopée d'Acacia tortilis que de « mesquite »; ii) le taux de croissance des jeunes plants de S. molle est supérieur sous les A. tortilis que sous les « mesquite ». Les résultats montrent que la croissance et la survie de S. molle ne sont pas significativement différentes sous les espèces natives Acacia tortilis natifs et sous les espèces exotiques de Prosopis. Ceci suggère que les microsites constitués par les canopées de « mesquite » sont aussi bons pour l'établissement de S. molle que ceux qu'offrent les acacias natifs. D'autres facteurs, tels que le fait que les propagules ne parviennent pas à arriver jusque sous les « mesquite », pourraient être invoqués pour expliquer le manque de recrutement sous ces arbres. [source]

    The influence of tree canopies and elephants on sub-canopy vegetation in a savannah

    Robert Guldemond
    Abstract The apparent influence of elephants on the structure of savannahs in Africa may be enhanced by management activities, fire and other herbivores. We separated the effect elephants have on grasses, woody seedlings (<0.5 m) and saplings (0.5,2 m) from the effect of tree canopies (canopy effect), and herbivory (park effect). We defined the canopy effect as the differences between plant abundances and diversity indices under tree canopies and 20 m away from these. Our testing of the park effect relied on the differences in the sub-canopy plant indices inside and outside a protected area that supported a range of herbivores. We based our assessment of the elephant effect on sub-canopy vegetation indices associated with elephant induced reductions in tree canopies. The park and canopy effects were more pronounced than the elephant effect. The park effect suppressed the development of woody seedlings into saplings. Conditions associated with tree canopies benefited woody plants, but not the grasses, as their indices were lower under trees. Elephants reducing canopies facilitated grass species tolerant of direct solar radiation. We concluded that management should consider other agents operating in the system when deciding on reducing the impact that elephants may have on vegetation. Résumé L'influence apparente des éléphants sur la structure des savanes africaines pourrait bien être accentuée par les activités de gestion, les feux et les autres herbivores. Nous avons séparé l'effet que les éléphants ont sur les herbes, les jeunes plants ligneux (<0,5 m) et les arbustes (0,5,2 m) de ceux de la canopée des arbres (effet canopée) et de la présence d'herbivores (effet parc). Nous avons défini l'effet canopée comme la différence entre les indices d'abondance et de diversité des plantes sous la canopée des arbres et à 20 m de ceux-ci. Notre expérimentation de l'effet parc se basait sur la différence des indices de végétation sous canopée à l'intérieur et à l'extérieur d'une aire protégée qui accueille toute une gamme d'herbivores. Nous avons fondé notre évaluation de l'effet éléphants sur les indices de végétation sous canopée, associés aux réductions induites par les éléphants dans la canopée des arbres. Les effets parc et canopée étaient plus prononcés que l'effet éléphants. L'effet parc supprimait le développement des jeunes plants ligneux en arbustes. Les conditions liées à la canopée des arbres bénéficiaient aux plantes ligneuses mais pas aux herbes, car leurs indices étaient inférieurs sous les arbres. Les canopées réduites par les éléphants favorisaient les espèces d'herbes tolérantes à la lumière directe du soleil. Nous en avons conclu que toute gestion devrait considérer l'impact d'autres agents dans le système lorsqu'il s'agit de réduire l'impact que les éléphants peuvent avoir sur la végétation. [source]

    Host,parasite relations of an angiospermous root parasite (Thonningia sanguinea Vahl) in logged and unlogged sites of Budongo forest reserve, western Uganda

    Concy Acen Olanya
    Abstract Host,parasite relationships of an angiospermous root parasite (Thonningia sanguinea) were investigated in logged and unlogged sites of Budongo Forest Reserve. Host trees were identified and their diameters measured in 20 × 20 m plots established randomly in sites where the parasites were presumed to occur. The distance of the point of attachment of the parasite from the base of the host stem was determined and overstorey density measured at the centre of each plot. There were more parasites in the logged than in the unlogged sites (878 and 425 individual parasites ha,1 respectively). The parasite was not host specific but Alchornea laxiflora (Benth) Pax and K.Hoffm, Celtis mildbraedii Engl and Lasiodiscus mildbraedii Engl had relatively more parasites than other species. The parasite could be found within a radius of 2 m from the base of the host stem. The diameter of hosts ranged from 1 to 95 cm. There was a positive correlation between overstorey density and occurrence of T. sanguinea. Conservation of T. sanguinea, therefore, requires maintenance of intact forests with closed canopies rather than logged sites with many gaps and hence low overstorey density. Résumé On a étudié les relations hôte-parasite d'un angiosperme parasite des racines (Thonningia sanguinea) sur des sites exploités ou non de la Réserve forestière de Budongo. On a identifié les arbres hôtes et on a mesuré leur diamètre dans des parcelles de 20 × 20 m établies au hasard dans des sites où le parasite était supposé se trouver. La distance entre le point d'ancrage du parasite et la base du tronc de l'hôte fut déterminée, et la densité de la végétation aérienne fut mesurée au centre de chaque parcelle. Il y avait plus de parasites dans les parcelles exploitées que dans les parcelles nonexploitées (878 et 425 parasites par ha, respectivement). Le parasite n'était pas spécifique de l'hôte, mais Alchornea laxiflora (Benth) Pax et K.Hoffm, Celtis mildbraedii Engl et Lasiodiscus mildbraedii Engl avaient relativement plus de parasites que d'autres espèces. Le parasite peut se trouver dans un rayon de deux mètres de la base du tronc de l'hôte. Le diamètre du tronc de l'hôte variait de 1 à 95 cm. Il y avait une corrélation positive entre la densité de la végétation aérienne et l'occurrence de T. sanguinea. Donc, la conservation de T. sanguinea requiert la préservation de forêts intactes avec des canopées fermées plutôt que des sites exploités avec des nombreuses clairières et donc, une faible densité de couverture végétale. [source]

    Spatio-temporal dynamics and local hotspots of initial recruitment in vertebrate-dispersed trees

    JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY, Issue 4 2008
    Arndt Hampe
    Summary 1Initial recruitment, or the arrival and establishment of propagules, is the most variable period in the life cycle of long-lived plants, and the extent to which studies of initial recruitment can be used to predict patterns of regeneration remains unresolved. 2We investigated the spatio-temporal dynamics of initial recruitment across five populations of three fleshy-fruited tree species from contrasting environments. Among-year variation in total seedfall, dispersed seedfall and seedling distributions was examined using analytical approaches that are new to the field and that explicitly incorporate space and allow comparisons among studies. 3Observed patterns ranged from remarkable across-year consistency in seedfall distributions and strong spatial coupling between seed and seedling stages to extensive variation and almost complete independence of stages. Spatial distributions of frugivore-mediated seedfall were markedly more consistent than those of the total seedfall in two of the five populations. Seedling distributions were generally more variable among years than seedfall distributions. 4All populations showed a positive relationship between the long-term mean density of recruitment at a given microsite and its year-to-year consistency. This relationship remained valid when considering only microsites away from fruiting tree canopies (i.e. those receiving actually dispersed seeds), and was virtually independent of their distance to the nearest fruiting tree. 5Synthesis. Our results point to the existence of some general rules behind the idiosyncratic recruitment dynamics of perennial plant populations, which should help with projecting spatial patterns of plant establishment in long-lived species. In particular, those microsites that combine a great intensity with a high year-to-year consistency of recruitment should represent potential regeneration ,hotspots' whose identification and characterization can be of great use for the management and conservation of naturally regenerating tree populations. [source]