Cane Toads (cane + toad)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Cane Toads

  • invasive cane toad


  • Selected Abstracts


    Assessing the Potential Impact of Cane Toads on Australian Snakes

    CONSERVATION BIOLOGY, Issue 6 2003
    BEN L. PHILLIPS
    Anecdotal reports suggest that the invasion of toads into an area is followed by dramatic declines in the abundance of terrestrial native frog-eating predators, but quantitative studies have been restricted to nonpredator taxa or aquatic predators and have generally reported minimal impacts. Will toads substantially affect Australian snakes? Based on geographic distributions and dietary composition, we identified 49 snake taxa as potentially at risk from toads. The impact of these feral prey also depends on the snakes' ability to survive after ingesting toad toxins. Based on decrements in locomotor (swimming) performance after ingesting toxin, we estimate the LD50 of toad toxins for 10 of the at-risk snake species. Most species exhibited a similar low ability to tolerate toad toxins. Based on head widths relative to sizes of toads, we calculate that 7 of the 10 taxa could easily ingest a fatal dose of toxin in a single meal. The exceptions were two colubrid taxa (keelbacks [ Tropidonophis mairii] and slatey-grey snakes [ Stegonotus cucullatus]) with much higher resistance to toad toxins (up to 85-fold) and one elapid (swamp snakes [ Hemiaspis signata]) with low resistance but a small relative head size and thus low maximum prey size. Overall, our analysis suggests that cane toads threaten populations of approximately 30% of terrestrial Australian snake species. Resumen: Los sapos (Bufo marinus) son anuros grandes muy tóxicos que fueron introducidos a Australia en 1937. Reportes anecdóticos sugieren que la invasión de sapos a un área es seguida de declinaciones dramáticas en la abundancia de depredadores terrestres nativos que se alimentan de ranas, pero los estudios cuantitativos se han restringido a taxones no depredadores o a depredadores acuáticos y generalmente han indicado impactos mínimos. ¿Los sapos afectarán sustancialmente a las serpientes australianas? Basado en la distribución geográfica y la composición de la dieta, identificamos 49 taxones de serpientes como potencialmente en riesgo por los sapos. El impacto de estas presas también depende de la habilidad de las serpientes para sobrevivir después de ingerir toxinas, estimamos la LD50 de toxinas de sapo para 10 de las especies de serpientes "en riesgo." La mayoría de las especies presentaron la misma poca habilidad para tolerar toxinas de sapo. Tomando en cuenta la anchura del cráneo en relación al tamaño de los sapos, calculamos que 7 de las 10 especies podrían fácilmente ingerir una dosis letal en una sola comida. Las excepciones fueron dos taxones de colúbridos (Tropidonophis mairii y Stegonotus cucullatus) con mucha más resistencia (hasta 85 veces más) a toxinas de sapos y un elápido (Hemiaspis signata) con resistencia baja pero de tamaño cefálico relativamente pequeño (y por lo tanto, tamaño máximo de presa pequeño). En general, nuestro análisis sugiere que los sapos amenazan a 30% de las poblaciones de especies de serpientes terrestres de Australia aproximadamente. [source]


    Sublethal costs associated with the consumption of toxic prey by snakes

    AUSTRAL ECOLOGY, Issue 2 2009
    JOHN S. LLEWELYN
    Abstract Costs of plant defences to herbivores have been extensively studied, but costs of chemical defences to carnivores are less well understood. We examine the costs to Australian keelback snakes (Tropidonophis mairii, Gray 1841) of consuming cane toads (Bufo[Rhinella]marinus Linnaeus 1758). Cane toads (an invasive species in Australia) are highly toxic. Although keelbacks can consume toads without dying (unlike most Australian snakes), we show that cane toads are poor quality prey for keelbacks. Toads are of low net nutritional value, take longer to consume than do native frogs and reduce the snake's locomotor performance for up to 6 h after ingestion of a meal. These latter effects may increase a snake's vulnerability to predation. Nutritional content of vertebrate prey is not the only factor driving the evolution of foraging behaviour; other more subtle costs, such as risk of predation, may be widespread. [source]


    Native Australian frogs avoid the scent of invasive cane toads

    AUSTRAL ECOLOGY, Issue 1 2009
    LÍGIA PIZZATTO
    Abstract Invasive species can affect the ecosystems they colonize by modifying the behaviour of native taxa; for example, avoidance of chemical cues from the invader may modify habitat use (shelter site selection) by native species. In laboratory trials, we show that metamorphs of most (but not all) native frog species on a tropical Australian floodplain avoid the scent of invasive cane toads (Bufo marinus Linnaeus 1758). Cane toads also avoid conspecific scent. This response might reduce vulnerability of metamorph frogs and toads to larger predatory toads. However, similar avoidance of one type of pungency control (garlic), and the presence of this avoidance behaviour in frogs at the toad invasion front (and hence, with no prior exposure to toads), suggest that this may not be an evolved toad-specific response. Instead, our data support the simpler hypothesis that the metamorph anurans tend to avoid shelter sites that contain strong and unfamiliar scents. Temporal and spatial differences in activity of frogs versus toads, plus the abundance of suitable retreat sites during the wet season (the primary time of frog activity), suggest that avoiding toad scent will have only a minor impact on the behaviour of native frogs. However, this behavioural impact may be important when environmental conditions bring toads and frogs into closer contact. [source]


    Modelling species distributions without using species distributions: the cane toad in Australia under current and future climates

    ECOGRAPHY, Issue 4 2008
    Michael Kearney
    Accurate predictions of the potential distribution of range-shifting species are required for effective management of invasive species, and for assessments of the impact of climate change on native species. Range-shifting species pose a challenge for traditional correlative approaches to range prediction, often requiring the extrapolation of complex statistical associations into novel environmental space. Here we take an alternative approach that does not use species occurrence data, but instead captures the fundamental niche of a species by mechanistically linking key organismal traits with spatial data using biophysical models. We demonstrate this approach with a major invasive species, the cane toad Bufo marinus in Australia, assessing the direct climatic constraints on its ability to move, survive, and reproduce. We show that the current range can be explained by thermal constraints on the locomotor potential of the adult stage together with limitations on the availability of water for the larval stage. Our analysis provides a framework for biologically grounded predictions of the potential for cane toads to expand their range under current and future climate scenarios. More generally, by quantifying spatial variation in physiological constraints on an organism, trait-based approaches can be used to investigate the range-limits of any species. Assessments of spatial variation in the physiological constraints on an organism may also provide a mechanistic basis for forecasting the rate of range expansion and for understanding a species' potential to evolve at range-edges. Mechanistic approaches thus have broad application to process-based ecological and evolutionary models of range-shift. [source]


    Vulnerability of an Australian anuran tadpole assemblage to the toxic eggs of the invasive cane toad (Bufo marinus)

    AUSTRAL ECOLOGY, Issue 2 2010
    MICHAEL R. CROSSLAND
    Abstract The invasion of cane toads (Bufo marinus) across tropical Australia has fatally poisoned many native predators; the most frequent victims may be tadpoles of native frogs, which die when they consume the toxic eggs of the toads. Field studies have documented high and species-specific mortality of tadpoles following toad spawning. To clarify the determinants of tadpole vulnerability, we conducted 1593 laboratory trials in which single tadpoles were exposed to 10 toad eggs, either with or without an alternative food source (lettuce). At least some tadpoles within all 15 species tested consumed toad eggs. Interspecific variance in survival rates (from 0 to >70%) was driven by feeding responses not by physiological tolerance to toxins: almost all native tadpoles that consumed eggs died rapidly. Tadpole mortality was decreased by the presence of an alternative food source in four species, increased in two species, and not affected in seven species. In three of four taxa where we tested both small (early-stage) and large (late-stage) tadpoles, both mean survival rates and the effects of alternative food on survival shifted with tadpole body size. Trials with one species (Limnodynastes convexiusculus) showed no significant inter-clutch variation in feeding responses or tolerance to toxins. Overall, our data show that cane toad eggs are highly toxic to native anuran tadpoles, but that whether or not a tadpole is killed by encountering toad eggs depends upon a complex interaction between the native anuran's species, its body size, and whether or not alternative food was present. In nature, larval vulnerability also depends upon the seasonal timing and location of spawning events, and habitat selection and foraging patterns of the tadpoles. Our results highlight the complexity of vulnerability determinants, and identify ecological factors (rather than physiology or feeding behaviour) as the primary determinants of cane toad impact on native tadpoles. [source]


    Spawning site selection by feral cane toads (Bufo marinus) at an invasion front in tropical Australia

    AUSTRAL ECOLOGY, Issue 5 2006
    MATTIAS HAGMAN
    Abstract Spawning sites are a critical and often scarce resource for aquatic-breeding amphibians, including invasive species such as the cane toad (Bufo marinus). If toads select spawning sites based on habitat characteristics, we can potentially manipulate those characteristics to either enhance or reduce their suitability as breeding sites. We surveyed 25 spawning sites used by cane toads, and 25 adjacent unused sites, in an area of tropical Australia recently invaded by these feral anurans. Water chemistry (pH, conductivity, salinity, turbidity) was virtually identical between the two sets of waterbodies, but habitat characteristics were very different. Toads selectively oviposited in shallow pools with gradual rather than steep slopes, and with open (unvegetated) gradually sloping muddy banks. They avoided flowing water, and pools with steep surrounds. In these respects, cane toads broadly resemble previously studied toad species in other parts of the world, as well as conspecifics within their natural range in South America. [source]


    A retrospective report of 90 dogs with suspected cane toad (Bufo marinus) toxicity

    AUSTRALIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL, Issue 10 2004
    MP REEVES
    Objective To report the clinical characteristics of toad toxicity in domestic dogs in Brisbane. Design A retrospective analysis of clinical cases. Procedure All cases of toad poisoning which presented to a northern suburbs emergency clinic in Brisbane over a 30-month period beginning in April 1999 were reviewed. Results A total of 90 canine cases of suspected toad poisoning were reviewed. Small breed dogs accounted for 76% of cases. Jack Russell, Silky, and Fox Terriers were the most represented breeds. Cases were reported year round, with fewest cases over the winter months. The most common clinical signs were increased salivation (78% of cases), and red oral mucous membranes (63% cases). Seizures occurred in 31% of cases. Generally the outcome was excellent with 96% survival. [source]


    Assessing the Potential Impact of Cane Toads on Australian Snakes

    CONSERVATION BIOLOGY, Issue 6 2003
    BEN L. PHILLIPS
    Anecdotal reports suggest that the invasion of toads into an area is followed by dramatic declines in the abundance of terrestrial native frog-eating predators, but quantitative studies have been restricted to nonpredator taxa or aquatic predators and have generally reported minimal impacts. Will toads substantially affect Australian snakes? Based on geographic distributions and dietary composition, we identified 49 snake taxa as potentially at risk from toads. The impact of these feral prey also depends on the snakes' ability to survive after ingesting toad toxins. Based on decrements in locomotor (swimming) performance after ingesting toxin, we estimate the LD50 of toad toxins for 10 of the at-risk snake species. Most species exhibited a similar low ability to tolerate toad toxins. Based on head widths relative to sizes of toads, we calculate that 7 of the 10 taxa could easily ingest a fatal dose of toxin in a single meal. The exceptions were two colubrid taxa (keelbacks [ Tropidonophis mairii] and slatey-grey snakes [ Stegonotus cucullatus]) with much higher resistance to toad toxins (up to 85-fold) and one elapid (swamp snakes [ Hemiaspis signata]) with low resistance but a small relative head size and thus low maximum prey size. Overall, our analysis suggests that cane toads threaten populations of approximately 30% of terrestrial Australian snake species. Resumen: Los sapos (Bufo marinus) son anuros grandes muy tóxicos que fueron introducidos a Australia en 1937. Reportes anecdóticos sugieren que la invasión de sapos a un área es seguida de declinaciones dramáticas en la abundancia de depredadores terrestres nativos que se alimentan de ranas, pero los estudios cuantitativos se han restringido a taxones no depredadores o a depredadores acuáticos y generalmente han indicado impactos mínimos. ¿Los sapos afectarán sustancialmente a las serpientes australianas? Basado en la distribución geográfica y la composición de la dieta, identificamos 49 taxones de serpientes como potencialmente en riesgo por los sapos. El impacto de estas presas también depende de la habilidad de las serpientes para sobrevivir después de ingerir toxinas, estimamos la LD50 de toxinas de sapo para 10 de las especies de serpientes "en riesgo." La mayoría de las especies presentaron la misma poca habilidad para tolerar toxinas de sapo. Tomando en cuenta la anchura del cráneo en relación al tamaño de los sapos, calculamos que 7 de las 10 especies podrían fácilmente ingerir una dosis letal en una sola comida. Las excepciones fueron dos taxones de colúbridos (Tropidonophis mairii y Stegonotus cucullatus) con mucha más resistencia (hasta 85 veces más) a toxinas de sapos y un elápido (Hemiaspis signata) con resistencia baja pero de tamaño cefálico relativamente pequeño (y por lo tanto, tamaño máximo de presa pequeño). En general, nuestro análisis sugiere que los sapos amenazan a 30% de las poblaciones de especies de serpientes terrestres de Australia aproximadamente. [source]


    Modelling species distributions without using species distributions: the cane toad in Australia under current and future climates

    ECOGRAPHY, Issue 4 2008
    Michael Kearney
    Accurate predictions of the potential distribution of range-shifting species are required for effective management of invasive species, and for assessments of the impact of climate change on native species. Range-shifting species pose a challenge for traditional correlative approaches to range prediction, often requiring the extrapolation of complex statistical associations into novel environmental space. Here we take an alternative approach that does not use species occurrence data, but instead captures the fundamental niche of a species by mechanistically linking key organismal traits with spatial data using biophysical models. We demonstrate this approach with a major invasive species, the cane toad Bufo marinus in Australia, assessing the direct climatic constraints on its ability to move, survive, and reproduce. We show that the current range can be explained by thermal constraints on the locomotor potential of the adult stage together with limitations on the availability of water for the larval stage. Our analysis provides a framework for biologically grounded predictions of the potential for cane toads to expand their range under current and future climate scenarios. More generally, by quantifying spatial variation in physiological constraints on an organism, trait-based approaches can be used to investigate the range-limits of any species. Assessments of spatial variation in the physiological constraints on an organism may also provide a mechanistic basis for forecasting the rate of range expansion and for understanding a species' potential to evolve at range-edges. Mechanistic approaches thus have broad application to process-based ecological and evolutionary models of range-shift. [source]


    Predator behaviour and morphology mediates the impact of an invasive species: cane toads and death adders in Australia

    ANIMAL CONSERVATION, Issue 1 2010
    B. L. Phillips
    Abstract The arrival of an invasive species can have severe impacts on native species. The extent of the impact, as well as the speed at which native species may mount an adaptive response, depend upon the correlation between impact and the individual phenotypes of the native species. Strong correlation between phenotype and impact within the native species raises the possibility of rapid adaptive response to the invader. Here, we examine the impact of a dangerous newly arrived prey species (the highly toxic cane toad Bufo marinus) on naïve predators (death adders Acanthophis praelongus) in northern Australia. During laboratory trials and field radiotracking, toads killed 48% of the adders we studied. Long-term monitoring of the population also suggests a massive decline (>89%) in recent years concurrent with the arrival of toads. Variation in snake physiology (resistance to toad toxin) had little bearing on snake survival in the field. Snake behaviour (tendency to attack toads) and morphology (body size and head size), however, were strong predictors of snake survival. Smaller snakes with relatively small heads, and snakes that were unwilling to attack toads in the laboratory, had much higher survival rates in the field. These results show that toads have a massive impact on death adder populations, but that snake phenotypes strongly mediate this impact. Thus natural selection is operating on these adder populations and an adaptive response is a possibility. If these adders can rapidly shift toad-relevant morphological and behavioural traits (either through plastic or evolved means), they will ultimately face a lowered impact from this toxic invader. [source]


    Species-specific communication systems in an introduced toad compared with native frogs in Australia

    AQUATIC CONSERVATION: MARINE AND FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS, Issue 6 2009
    Mattias Hagman
    Abstract 1.Lineage-specific communication systems may offer innovative ways of targeting control measures at invasive species. 2.Recent work has identified such a scenario in invasive cane toads (Bufo marinus) in Australia: toad tadpoles flee from chemical cues derived from crushed conspecifics, and this ,alarm pheromone' reduces tadpole survival rates and reduces body size at metamorphosis. 3.Before this method can be applied in the field, however, the signal's specificity needs to be tested against a wide range of Australian frog taxa, especially tropical species sympatric with cane toads. A signal that affected native frogs as well as toads clearly would be of little use for toad control. 4.Laboratory studies on cane toads and nine native frog taxa from the wet,dry tropics of the Northern Territory (Cyclorana australis, C. longipes, Limnodynastes convexiusculus, Litoria caerulea, L. dahlii, L. nasuta, L. rothii, L. rubella, Opisthodon ornatus) show that toad tadpoles rarely react to chemical cues from crushed frog tadpoles, and that frog tadpoles rarely react to chemical cues from crushed toad tadpoles. Crushed toad tadpoles occasionally elicited low-level attraction (to a potential food source) by frog tadpoles. 5.Overall, frog tadpoles were less responsive to chemical cues (either from crushed conspecifics or crushed toads) than were toad tadpoles. The low level of cross-lineage reactivity is encouraging for the feasibility of using cane toad alarm pheromones to control this invasive species in Australia; the risk of collateral damage to sympatric native frogs appears to be minimal. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Behavioural responses of carnivorous marsupials (Planigale maculata) to toxic invasive cane toads (Bufo marinus)

    AUSTRAL ECOLOGY, Issue 5 2010
    JOHN LLEWELYN
    Abstract The arrival of a toxic invasive species may impose selection on local predators to avoid consuming it. Feeding responses may be modified via evolutionary changes to behaviour, or via phenotypic plasticity (e.g. learning, taste aversion). The recent arrival of cane toads (Bufo marinus) in the Northern Territory of Australia induced rapid aversion learning in a predatory marsupial (the common planigale, Planigale maculata). Here, we examine the responses of planigales to cane toads in north-eastern Queensland, where they have been sympatric for over 60 years, to investigate whether planigale responses to cane toads have been modified by long-term exposure. Responses to toads were broadly similar to those documented for toad-naïve predators. Most Queensland planigales seized (21 of 22) and partially consumed (11 of 22) the first toad they were offered, but were likely to ignore toads in subsequent trials. However, unlike their toad-naïve conspecifics from the Northern Territory, the Queensland planigales all survived ingestion of toad tissue without overt ill effects and continued to attack toads in a substantial proportion of subsequent trials. Our data suggest that (i) learning by these small predators is sufficiently rapid and effective that selection on behaviour has been weak; and (ii) physiological tolerance to toad toxins may be higher in planigales after 60 years (approximately 60 generations) of exposure to this toxic prey. [source]


    Vulnerability of an Australian anuran tadpole assemblage to the toxic eggs of the invasive cane toad (Bufo marinus)

    AUSTRAL ECOLOGY, Issue 2 2010
    MICHAEL R. CROSSLAND
    Abstract The invasion of cane toads (Bufo marinus) across tropical Australia has fatally poisoned many native predators; the most frequent victims may be tadpoles of native frogs, which die when they consume the toxic eggs of the toads. Field studies have documented high and species-specific mortality of tadpoles following toad spawning. To clarify the determinants of tadpole vulnerability, we conducted 1593 laboratory trials in which single tadpoles were exposed to 10 toad eggs, either with or without an alternative food source (lettuce). At least some tadpoles within all 15 species tested consumed toad eggs. Interspecific variance in survival rates (from 0 to >70%) was driven by feeding responses not by physiological tolerance to toxins: almost all native tadpoles that consumed eggs died rapidly. Tadpole mortality was decreased by the presence of an alternative food source in four species, increased in two species, and not affected in seven species. In three of four taxa where we tested both small (early-stage) and large (late-stage) tadpoles, both mean survival rates and the effects of alternative food on survival shifted with tadpole body size. Trials with one species (Limnodynastes convexiusculus) showed no significant inter-clutch variation in feeding responses or tolerance to toxins. Overall, our data show that cane toad eggs are highly toxic to native anuran tadpoles, but that whether or not a tadpole is killed by encountering toad eggs depends upon a complex interaction between the native anuran's species, its body size, and whether or not alternative food was present. In nature, larval vulnerability also depends upon the seasonal timing and location of spawning events, and habitat selection and foraging patterns of the tadpoles. Our results highlight the complexity of vulnerability determinants, and identify ecological factors (rather than physiology or feeding behaviour) as the primary determinants of cane toad impact on native tadpoles. [source]


    Sublethal costs associated with the consumption of toxic prey by snakes

    AUSTRAL ECOLOGY, Issue 2 2009
    JOHN S. LLEWELYN
    Abstract Costs of plant defences to herbivores have been extensively studied, but costs of chemical defences to carnivores are less well understood. We examine the costs to Australian keelback snakes (Tropidonophis mairii, Gray 1841) of consuming cane toads (Bufo[Rhinella]marinus Linnaeus 1758). Cane toads (an invasive species in Australia) are highly toxic. Although keelbacks can consume toads without dying (unlike most Australian snakes), we show that cane toads are poor quality prey for keelbacks. Toads are of low net nutritional value, take longer to consume than do native frogs and reduce the snake's locomotor performance for up to 6 h after ingestion of a meal. These latter effects may increase a snake's vulnerability to predation. Nutritional content of vertebrate prey is not the only factor driving the evolution of foraging behaviour; other more subtle costs, such as risk of predation, may be widespread. [source]


    Native Australian frogs avoid the scent of invasive cane toads

    AUSTRAL ECOLOGY, Issue 1 2009
    LÍGIA PIZZATTO
    Abstract Invasive species can affect the ecosystems they colonize by modifying the behaviour of native taxa; for example, avoidance of chemical cues from the invader may modify habitat use (shelter site selection) by native species. In laboratory trials, we show that metamorphs of most (but not all) native frog species on a tropical Australian floodplain avoid the scent of invasive cane toads (Bufo marinus Linnaeus 1758). Cane toads also avoid conspecific scent. This response might reduce vulnerability of metamorph frogs and toads to larger predatory toads. However, similar avoidance of one type of pungency control (garlic), and the presence of this avoidance behaviour in frogs at the toad invasion front (and hence, with no prior exposure to toads), suggest that this may not be an evolved toad-specific response. Instead, our data support the simpler hypothesis that the metamorph anurans tend to avoid shelter sites that contain strong and unfamiliar scents. Temporal and spatial differences in activity of frogs versus toads, plus the abundance of suitable retreat sites during the wet season (the primary time of frog activity), suggest that avoiding toad scent will have only a minor impact on the behaviour of native frogs. However, this behavioural impact may be important when environmental conditions bring toads and frogs into closer contact. [source]


    Spawning site selection by feral cane toads (Bufo marinus) at an invasion front in tropical Australia

    AUSTRAL ECOLOGY, Issue 5 2006
    MATTIAS HAGMAN
    Abstract Spawning sites are a critical and often scarce resource for aquatic-breeding amphibians, including invasive species such as the cane toad (Bufo marinus). If toads select spawning sites based on habitat characteristics, we can potentially manipulate those characteristics to either enhance or reduce their suitability as breeding sites. We surveyed 25 spawning sites used by cane toads, and 25 adjacent unused sites, in an area of tropical Australia recently invaded by these feral anurans. Water chemistry (pH, conductivity, salinity, turbidity) was virtually identical between the two sets of waterbodies, but habitat characteristics were very different. Toads selectively oviposited in shallow pools with gradual rather than steep slopes, and with open (unvegetated) gradually sloping muddy banks. They avoided flowing water, and pools with steep surrounds. In these respects, cane toads broadly resemble previously studied toad species in other parts of the world, as well as conspecifics within their natural range in South America. [source]


    An invasive species imposes selection on life-history traits of a native frog

    BIOLOGICAL JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY, Issue 2 2010
    MATTHEW J. GREENLEES
    As well as their direct ecological impacts on native taxa, invasive species can impose selection on phenotypic attributes (morphology, physiology, behaviour, etc.) of the native fauna. In anurans, body size at metamorphosis is a critical life-history trait: for most challenges faced by post-metamorphic anurans, larger size at metamorphosis probably enhances survival. However, our studies on Australian frogs (Limnodynastes convexiusculus) show that this pattern can be reversed by the arrival of an invasive species. When metamorph frogs first encounter invasive cane toads (Bufo marinus), they try to eat the toxic invader and, if they are able to do so, are likely to die from poisoning. Because frogs are gape-limited predators, small metamorphs cannot ingest a toad and thus survive long enough to disperse away from the natal pond (and thus from potentially deadly toads). These data show that larger size at metamorphosis can reduce rather than increase anuran survival rates, because larger metamorphs are more easily able to ingest (and thus be poisoned by) metamorph cane toads. Our results suggest that patterns of selection on life-history traits of native taxa (such as size and age at metamorphosis, seasonal timing of breeding and duration of pondside aggregation prior to dispersal) can be modified by the arrival of an invasive species. © 2010 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2010, 100, 329,336. [source]