Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Candidates

  • anticancer drug candidate
  • appropriate candidate
  • attractive candidate
  • best candidate
  • biomarker candidate
  • donor candidate
  • drug candidate
  • dwarf candidate
  • epilepsy surgery candidate
  • excellent candidate
  • female candidate
  • functional candidate
  • gene candidate
  • good candidate
  • ideal candidate
  • important candidate
  • interesting candidate
  • kidney transplant candidate
  • lead candidate
  • likely candidate
  • liver transplant candidate
  • lt candidate
  • natural candidate
  • new candidate
  • new drug candidate
  • novel candidate
  • other candidate
  • party candidate
  • plausible candidate
  • political candidate
  • poor candidate
  • positional candidate
  • possible candidate
  • potential candidate
  • potential vaccine candidate
  • presidential candidate
  • prime candidate
  • promising candidate
  • reasonable candidate
  • renal transplant candidate
  • selected candidate
  • strong candidate
  • strongest candidate
  • suitable candidate
  • surgery candidate
  • surgical candidate
  • target candidate
  • therapeutic candidate
  • transplant candidate
  • transplantation candidate
  • vaccine candidate
  • very promising candidate
  • viable candidate

  • Terms modified by Candidates

  • candidate ability
  • candidate agent
  • candidate antigen
  • candidate biomarker
  • candidate compound
  • candidate country
  • candidate drug
  • candidate evaluation
  • candidate factor
  • candidate gene
  • candidate gene analysis
  • candidate gene approach
  • candidate gene association studies
  • candidate gene polymorphism
  • candidate gene studies
  • candidate locus
  • candidate marker
  • candidate material
  • candidate mechanism
  • candidate models
  • candidate molecule
  • candidate oncogene
  • candidate performance
  • candidate polymorphism
  • candidate predictor
  • candidate preference
  • candidate probiotic
  • candidate protein
  • candidate quantitative trait gene
  • candidate receptor
  • candidate region
  • candidate regions
  • candidate risk factor
  • candidate selection
  • candidate site
  • candidate species
  • candidate states
  • candidate structure
  • candidate substrate
  • candidate target
  • candidate therapeutic target
  • candidate thesis
  • candidate tumor suppressor
  • candidate tumor suppressor gene
  • candidate tumor-suppressor gene

  • Selected Abstracts


    Yasushi Adachi
    Abnormal activation of growth factor receptors and their signal pathways are required for neoplastic transformation and tumor progression. The concept of targeting specific tumorigenic receptors has been validated by successful clinical application of multiple new drugs, such as those acting against HER2/neu, epidermal growth factor receptor 1, and c-Kit. In this review, we focus on the next promising therapeutic molecular target of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I receptor (IGF-Ir). The IGF/IGF-Ir system is an important modifier of cancer cell proliferation, survival, growth, and treatment sensitivity in a number of neoplastic diseases, including human gastrointestinal carcinomas. Preclinical studies demonstrated that downregulation of IGF-Ir signals reversed the neoplastic phenotype and sensitized cells to antitumor treatments. We summarize a variety of ways to disrupt IGF-Ir function. Then, we introduce our strategy of adenoviruses expressing dominant negative of IGF-Ir (IGF-Ir/dn) against gastrointestinal cancers, including stomach, colon, and pancreas. IGF-Ir/dn suppresses tumorigenicity both in vitro and in vivo and increases stressor-induced apoptosis. IGF-Ir/dn expression upregulates chemotherapy-induced apoptosis and these combination therapies with chemotherapy are very effective against tumors in mice. Some drugs blocking IGF-Ir function are now entering clinical trial, thus IGF-Ir might be a candidate for a therapeutic target in several gastrointestinal malignancies. [source]


    SCOTT HIGHHOUSEArticle first published online: 7 DEC 200
    Although individual assessment is a thriving area of professional practice in industry, it receives little, if any, attention from textbooks on industrial psychology or personnel management. This article is an attempt to establish individual assessment's place in the history of personnel selection, and to examine why the practice has survived despite receiving little attention in research and graduate training. It is argued that the clinical, holistic approach that has characterized individual-assessment practice has survived primarily because the "elementalistic" testing approach, focusing on traits and abilities, has often been dismissed as inadequate for addressing the complexities of the executive profile. Moreover, public displeasure with standard paper-and-pencil testing in the 1960s and 1970s made the holistic approach to assessment an attractive, alternative. The article contrasts individual assessment practice with the current state of knowledge on psychological assessment and personnel decision making. Like psychotherapy in the 1950s, individual psychological assessment appears to have achieved the status of functional autonomy within psychology. [source]

    Generate and Repair Machine Translation

    Kanlaya Naruedomkul
    We propose Generate and Repair Machine Translation (GRMT), a constraint,based approach to machine translation that focuses on accurate translation output. GRMT performs the translation by generating a Translation Candidate (TC), verifying the syntax and semantics of the TC and repairing the TC when required. GRMT comprises three modules: Analysis Lite Machine Translation (ALMT), Translation Candidate Evaluation (TCE) and Repair and Iterate (RI). The key features of GRMT are simplicity, modularity, extendibility, and multilinguality. An English,Thai translation system has been implemented to illustrate the performance of GRMT. The system has been developed and run under SWI,Prolog 3.2.8. The English and Thai grammars have been developed based on Head,Driven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG) and implemented on the Attribute Logic Engine (ALE). GRMT was tested to generate the translations for a number of sentences/phrases. Examples are provided throughout the article to illustrate how GRMT performs the translation process. [source]

    Mesoporous Anatase TiO2 Beads with High Surface Areas and Controllable Pore Sizes: A Superior Candidate for High-Performance Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 21 2009
    Dehong Chen
    Mesoporous anatase TiO2 beads with high surface areas and controllable pore sizes are prepared by using a combined sol,gel and solvothermal process. Dye-sensitized solar cells made from these mesoporous beads gave a total power conversion efficiency of 7.20% under AM 1.5 sunlight, higher than that obtained using Degussa P25 films of similar thickness (5.66%). [source]

    Ga2Te3Sb5,A Candidate for Fast and Ultralong Retention Phase-Change Memory

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 17 2009
    Kin-Fu Kao
    Incongruent melting phenomenon shows the feasibility of multilevel control using the phase-change material Ga2Te3Sb5 (Ga-TS). Electrical results showed that Ga-TS cells require 25% less RESET current than do GST cells. Meanwhile it possesses a high programming speed, ultralong data retention extrapolated to one million years at 120,°C, and superior thermal properties for phase-change random-access-memory applications. [source]

    Risk factors for allergic rhinitis in Costa Rican children with asthma

    ALLERGY, Issue 2 2010
    S. Bunyavanich
    To cite this article: Bunyavanich S, Soto-Quiros ME, Avila L, Laskey D, Senter JM, Celedón JC. Risk factors for allergic rhinitis in Costa Rican children with asthma. Allergy 2010; 65; 256,263 DOI: 10.1111/j.1398-9995.2009.02159.x. Abstract Background:, Risk factors for allergic rhinitis (AR) in asthmatics are likely distinct from those for AR or asthma alone. We sought to identify clinical and environmental risk factors for AR in children with asthma. Methods:, We performed a cross-sectional study of 616 Costa Rican children aged 6,14 years with asthma. Candidate risk factors were drawn from questionnaire data, spirometry, methacholine challenge testing, skin testing, and serology. Two outcome measures, skin test reaction (STR)-positive AR and physician-diagnosed AR, were examined by logistic regression. Results:, STR-positive AR had high prevalence (80%) in Costa Rican children with asthma, and its independent risk factors were nasal symptoms after exposure to dust or mold, parental history of AR, older age at asthma onset, oral steroid use in the past year, eosinophilia, and positive IgEs to dust mite and cockroach. Physician-diagnosed AR had lower prevalence (27%), and its independent risk factors were nasal symptoms after pollen exposure, STR to tree pollens, a parental history of AR, inhaled steroid and short-acting ,2 agonist use in the past year, household mold/mildew, and fewer older siblings. A physician's diagnosis was only 29.5% sensitive for STR-positive AR. Conclusions:, Risk factors for AR in children with asthma depend on the definition of AR. Indoor allergens drive risk for STR-positive AR. Outdoor allergens and home environmental conditions are risk factors for physician-diagnosed AR. We propose that children with asthma in Costa Rica and other Latin American nations undergo limited skin testing or specific IgE measurements to reduce the current under-diagnosis of AR. [source]

    The Role of an African-American Candidate on Psychological Engagement and Political Discussion in a Local Election

    POLITICS & POLICY, Issue 2 2009
    There have been numerous studies of African-American political participation, but little research investigating the effect of African-American candidates on political discussion. This is surprising, given the importance of political discussion in democratic theory and the increased attention it has received in the literature. We address this gap by examining the effect of a successful African-American Democratic candidate on psychological engagement and political discussion in a majority white, majority Republican local election in the Deep South. Our findings reveal a paradox,African-American voters paid more attention to the election and reported being more informed and more satisfied with the candidates, but were less likely to have discussed the election. The negative effect of race was less than in other concurrent races, indicating that the presence of an African-American candidate may limit but not erase participation differentials in political discussion. [source]

    The Challenging Estrogen Receptor-Negative/ Progesterone Receptor-Negative/HER-2-Negative Patient: A Promising Candidate for Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-Targeted Therapy?

    THE BREAST JOURNAL, Issue 4 2006
    Kalliopi P. Siziopikou MD
    Abstract: While epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted therapy has been very promising in a number of human malignancies, to date these targeted biologic agents have not proven effective in breast cancer. However, the EGFR tyrosinase inhibitors have been used indiscriminately against all types of breast tumors, perhaps missing a subpopulation of patients who may be prime candidates for EGFR-targeted therapy. In this communication we propose that patients with estrogen receptor (ER)-negative/progesterone receptor (PR)-negative/HER-2-negative tumors, which currently present a therapeutic challenge for the oncologist, may be the subgroup of breast cancer patients that might benefit from specific EGFR-targeted therapies., [source]

    Identification of a 1,2,4,5-Tetraoxane Antimalarial Drug-Development Candidate (RKA,182) with Superior Properties to the Semisynthetic Artemisinins

    ANGEWANDTE CHEMIE, Issue 33 2010

    Etappensieg gegen Wirkstoffresistenz: Aus einer Bibliothek von über 150 1,2,4,5-Tetraoxanen wurde ein Kandidat, RKA,182, für die präklinische Entwicklung von Malariatherapeutika selektiert. RKA,182 zeigt herausragende In-vitro-Aktivität gegen resistente Stämme von P.,falciparum und wirkt auch gegen südostasiatische Isolate, bei denen die Artemisinin-basierte Kombinationstherapie versagt. [source]

    Double-Layered Photoanodes from Variable-Size Anatase TiO2 Nanospindles: A Candidate for High-Efficiency Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    ANGEWANDTE CHEMIE, Issue 21 2010
    Yongcai Qiu
    Klein und groß: Die im Titel beschriebene zweilagige Photoanode erreicht in einer farbstoffsensibilisierten Solarzelle eine Energieumwandlungsausbeute von 8.3,% (siehe Skizze). Eine Schicht dient als Matrix für Farbstoffmoleküle, die andere erhöht die Lichtsammelausbeute durch Mehrfachstreuung. [source]

    Conformational Analysis of R207910, a New Drug Candidate for the Treatment of Tuberculosis, by a Combined NMR and Molecular Modeling Approach

    Sandrine Gaurrand
    R207910 is an enantiomeric compound from a new class of antimycobacterial agents, the diarylquinolines [Science; 307:223 (2005)]. As enantiospecific interaction is required for biologic activity, we have undertaken a combined nuclear magnetic resonance and molecular modeling study to gain new insights into its conformation in solution and its absolute configuration. A conformational analysis using a Monte-Carlo method has been performed on each of the four possible stereomers of this compound leading to the identification of their most stable conformation. Additional ab initio calculation was performed with emphasis on the strength of the observed intramolecular hydrogen bond. Simultaneously, a complete structural identification has been carried out by a set of monodimensional and bidimensional 1H- 13C-NMR experiments. Determination of inter-proton distances has been achieved by a series of 1H- 1H ROESY NMR experiments with different mixing times followed by a volume quantification of the correlations peaks. These experimental data were compared with the theoretical distances obtained from the conformational analysis. The remarkable match shows that R207910 adopts one of the low-energy conformations predicted by molecular modeling and belongs to the (RS, SR) couple of diastereoisomers. A posteriori validation of our approach has been performed by X-ray structure determination that concluded for the RS configuration. [source]

    Stereoselective Synthesis of (2S,7S)-7-(4-Phenoxymethyl)-2-(1-N-hydroxyureidyl-3-butyn-4-yl)oxepane: A Potential Antiasthmatic Drug Candidate.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 30 2005
    Mukund K. Gurjar
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Etiprednol Dicloacetate, a New Soft Glucocorticoid Drug Candidate.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 35 2004
    Development of Chemistry.
    Abstract For Abstract see ChemInform Abstract in Full Text. [source]

    Signaling and Election Motivations in a Voting Model with Common Values and Responsive Candidates

    ECONOMETRICA, Issue 4 2003
    Ronny Razin
    In this paper we focus on strategic voting behavior when both an election and a signaling motivation affect voters' behavior. We analyze a model of elections with two candidates competing on a one-dimensional policy space. Voters are privately and imperfectly informed about a common shock affecting the electorate's preferences. Candidates are assumed to choose policy in response to information gleaned from election results and according to exogenous factors that may lead to polarization in candidates' policy choices. We analyze a subset of symmetric equilibria in which strategies are symmetric to candidates' names and private signals (CSS equilibria). We show that signaling and election motivations pull voters to vote in different directions. We provide conditions that show the relation between the amount of information aggregated in the election and the motivation that influences voting behavior the most. Finally, we show that when candidates are responsive and polarized, all CSS equilibria are inefficient in the limit. [source]

    Subtraction SPECT Coregistered to MRI in Focal Malformations of Cortical Development: Localization of the Epileptogenic Zone in Epilepsy Surgery Candidates

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 4 2004
    Terence J. O'Brien
    Summary: Purpose: To determine the extent to which periictal subtraction single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) may improve detection and definition of the epileptogenic zone in patients with focal malformations of cortical development (MCDs). Methods: Subtraction SPECT coregistered to magnetic resonance (MR) images (SISCOM) were constructed for 22 consecutive patients with focal MCDs who underwent periictal SPECT injection (18 ictal and four postictal). In the 17 patients who had epilepsy surgery, concordance between the site of SISCOM localization and site of surgical resection was determined by coregistration of SISCOM images with postoperative MRIs. Results: SISCOM images were localizing in 19 (86%) patients, including eight of the 10 with nonlocalizing MRI. Concordance of SISCOM localization was 91% with MRI localization, 93% with scalp ictal EEG localization, and 100% with intracranial EEG localization. Eight patients whose SISCOM localization was concordant with the surgical resection site had lower postoperative seizure frequency scores (SFSs; p = 0.04) and greater postoperative improvement in SFSs (p = 0.05) than the nine patients whose SISCOM was either nonconcordant or nonlocalizing. On multiple regression analysis, a model combining SISCOM concordance with surgical resection site and extent of MRI lesion resection was predictive of postoperative SFS (R2= 0.47; p = 0.03). Conclusions: Periictal subtraction SPECT using the SISCOM technique provides useful information for seizure localization in patients with focal MCDs, even when MRI is nonlocalizing. [source]

    Cognitive Skills in Children with Intractable Epilepsy: Comparison of Surgical and Nonsurgical Candidates

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 6 2002
    Mary Lou Smith
    Summary: ,Purpose: To compare neuropsychological performance of two groups of children with intractable epilepsy: those who are surgical candidates, and those who are not. Methods: Intelligence, verbal memory, visual memory, academic skills, and sustained attention were measured in children aged 6,18 years. The effects of number of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), seizure frequency, age at seizure onset, and duration of seizure disorder were examined. Results: Both groups had high rates of impairment. Group differences were found only on the verbal memory task. Children who experienced seizures in clusters had higher IQ, reading comprehension, and arithmetic scores. Age at seizure onset and proportion of life with seizures were related to IQ. Performance did not vary with AED monotherapy versus polytherapy. Conclusions: Few differences exist in cognitive performance between children with intractable seizures who are and those who are not surgical candidates. These findings suggest that children who are not surgical candidates can serve as good controls in studies on cognitive outcome of surgery. [source]

    Rethinking the OSCE as a Tool for National Competency Evaluation

    M. A. Boyd
    The relatively recent curriculum change to Problem-Based Learning/Case-Based Education has stimulated the development of new evaluation tools for student assessment. The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) has become a popular method for such assessment. The National Dental Examining Board of Canada (NDEB) began using an OSCE format as part of the national certification testing process for licensure of beginning dentists in Canada in 1996. The OSCE has been well received by provincial licensing authorities, dental schools and students. ,Hands on' clinical competency is trusted to the dental programs and verified through NDEB participation in the Accreditation process. The desire to refine the OCSE has resulted in the development of a new format. Previously OSCE stations consisted of case-based materials and related multiple-choice questions. The new format has case-based material with an extended match presentation. Candidates ,select one or more correct answers' from a group of up to15 options. The blueprint is referenced to the national competencies for beginning practitioners in Canada. This new format will be available to students on the NDEB website for information and study purposes. Question stems and options will remain constant. Case histories and case materials will change each year. This new OSCE will be easier to administer and be less expensive in terms of test development. Reliability and validity is enhanced by involving content experts from all faculties in test development, by having the OSCE verified by general practitioners and by making the format available to candidates. The new OSCE will be pilot tested in September 2004. Examples will be provided for information and discussion. [source]

    Prevention of embolic stroke by catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation

    C. Stöllberger
    Background and purpose:, Radiofrequency-catheter-ablation of atrial fibrillation is now commonly performed. Aim of this short review is to summarize questions and uncertainties concerning radiofrequency ablation of atrial fibrillation with respect to therapeutic mechanisms, long-term efficacy and stroke-prevention. Results:, The majority of atrial fibrillation patients is too old for radiofrequency ablation. Candidates for radiofrequency ablation belong to a subgroup with a low embolic risk. The radiofrequency ablation procedure itself may increase the embolic risk, and at present it is uncertain how long this embolic risk persists after the procedure. Conclusion:, We doubt if radiofrequency ablation prevents embolism in atrial fibrillation. [source]

    Microarray analysis yields candidate markers for rotation resistance in the western corn rootworm beetle, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera

    Lisa M. Knolhoff
    Abstract As pest species may evolve resistance to chemical controls, they may also evolve resistance to cultural control methods. Yearly rotation of corn (Zea mays) with another crop interrupts the life cycle of the western corn rootworm beetle (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), but behavioral resistance to crop rotation is now a major problem in the Midwest of the USA. Resistant adult females exhibit reduced fidelity to corn as a host and lay their eggs in the soil of both corn and soybean (Glycine max) fields. Behavioral assays suggest that the adaptation is related to increased locomotor activity, but finding molecular markers has been difficult. We used microarray analysis to search for gene expression differences between resistant and wild-type beetles. Candidates validated with real-time polymerase chain reaction exhibit predicted patterns from the microarray in independent samples across time and space. Many genes more highly expressed in the rotation-resistant females have no matches to known proteins, and most genes that were more lowly expressed are involved in antimicrobial defense. [source]

    Syntheses and Properties of Fluorous Quaternary Phosphonium Salts that Bear Four Ponytails; New Candidates for Phase Transfer Catalysts and Ionic Liquids

    Charlotte Emnet
    Abstract The fluorous tertiary phosphine [Rf6(CH2)2]3P [Rfn=CF3(CF2)n,1] and excess PhCH2Br, CH3(CH2)3OSO2CF3, or Rf6(CH2)2OSO2CF3 react (CF3C6H5, 45,110,°C) to give the phosphonium salts (PhCH2)[Rf6(CH2)2]3P+ Br, (2, 71,%), [CH3(CH2)3][Rf6(CH2)2]3P+ CF3SO3, (3, 65,%), or [Rf6(CH2)2]4P+ CF3SO3, (4, 83,%). The phosphines [Rf6(CH2)2]2[Rf8(CH2)2]P and [Rf8(CH2)2]3P are similarly elaborated with Rf6(CH2)2I, Rf8(CH2)2I, or Rf8(CH2)2Br (DMF, 115,°C) to [Rf8(CH2)2]4- x[Rf6(CH2)2]xP+ I, (x=3, 7; 2, 8; 1, 9; 0, 10) or [Rf8(CH2)2]4P+ Br, (80,60,%). The salts exhibit melting points between 110,°C and 43,°C, with lower values favored by less symmetrical cations, Rf6 segments, and triflate and bromide anions. Solubilities decrease in the solvent sequence CF3C6F5 (all salts at least moderately soluble, room temperature)>acetone>THF>CF3C6H5>CF3C6F11>CH3C6H5, Et2O, CH2Cl2, hexane (all salts insoluble at elevated temperatures); some appreciably increase upon heating. Partition coefficients are very biased towards fluorous phases (>93:<7). The salts can be quite efficient at extracting picrate from water into CF3C6F5 (97,86,% for 2, 4, 9, 10) or CF3C6H5 (85,66,% for 2 - 4), demonstrating their potential for phase transfer catalysis. A CF3C6F5 solution of Rf8(CH2)3I and aqueous NaCl react at 100,°C in the presence (but not the absence) of 9 to give Rf8(CH2)3Cl. [source]

    Strategies for identifying genes that play a role in spinal cord regeneration

    JOURNAL OF ANATOMY, Issue 1 2004
    M. Wintzer
    Abstract A search for genes that promote or block CNS regeneration requires numerous approaches; for example, tests can be made on individual candidate molecules. Here, however, we describe methods for comprehensive identification of genes up- and down-regulated in neurons that can and cannot regenerate after injury. One problem concerns identification of low-abundance genes out of the 30 000 or so genes expressed by neurons. Another difficulty is knowing whether a single gene or multiple genes are necessary. When microchips and subtractive differential display are used to identify genes turned on or off, the numbers are still too great to test which molecules are actually important for regeneration. Candidates are genes coding for trophic, inhibitory, receptor and extracellular matrix molecules, as well as unknown genes. A preparation useful for narrowing the search is the neonatal opossum. The spinal cord and optic nerve can regenerate after injury at 9 days but cannot at 12 days after birth. This narrow window allows genes responsible for the turning off of regeneration to be identified. As a next step, sites at which they are expressed (forebrain, midbrain, spinal cord, neurons or glia, intracellular or extracellular) must be determined. An essential step is to characterize proteins, their levels of expression, and their importance for regeneration. Comprehensive searches for molecular mechanisms represent a lengthy series of experiments that could help in devising strategies for repairing injured spinal cord. [source]

    Improved Survival of Cardiac Transplantation Candidates with Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Therapy:

    Role of Beta-Blocker or Amiodarone Treatment
    Introduction: Survival in patients awaiting cardiac transplantation is poor due to the severity of left ventricular dysfunction and the susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmia. The potential role of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) in this group of patients has been the subject of increasing interest. The aims of this study were to ascertain whether ICDs improve the survival rate of patients on the waiting list for cardiac transplantation and whether any improvement is independent of concomitant beta-blocker or amiodarone therapy. Methods and Results: Data comprised findings from 310 consecutive patients at a single center who were evaluated and deemed suitable for cardiac transplantation and placed on the waiting list. Kaplan-Meier actuarial approach was used for survival analysis. Survival analysis censored patients at time of transplantation or death. Of the 310 patients, 111 (35.8%) underwent successful cardiac transplantation and 164 (52.9%) died while waiting; 35 patients remain on the waiting list. Fifty-nine (19%) patients had ICD placement for ventricular arrhythmias prior to or after being listed. Twenty-nine (49.1%) ICD patients survived until cardiac transplantation, 13 (22%) patients died, and 17 (28.8%) remain on the waiting list. Among non-ICD patients, 82 (32.7%) received transplants, 151 (60.2%) died, and 18 (7.2%) remain on the waiting list. Survival rates at 6 months and 1, 2, 3, and 4 years were better for all ICD patients compared to non-ICD patients (log-rankx2, P = 0.0001). By multivariate analysis, ICD therapy and beta-blocker treatment were the strongest predictors of survival. Further, ICD treatment was associated with improved survival independent of concomitant treatment with beta-blocker or amiodarone. Among ICD and non-ICD patients treated with a beta-blocker or amiodarone, survivals at the 1 and 4 years were 93% vs 69% and 57% vs 32%, respectively (log-rankx2, P = 0.003). Conclusion: ICD therapy is associated with improved survival in high-risk cardiac transplant candidates, and ICD benefit appears to be independent of concomitant treatment. (J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol, Vol. 14, pp. 578-583, June 2003) [source]

    Identifying Early Cardiovascular Disease to Target Candidates for Treatment

    Daniel A. Duprez MD
    Most attempts to identify individuals at risk for cardiovascular morbid events have involved screening for risk factors. These traditional risk factors do not identify the underlying atherosclerotic disease nor assess the severity of disease in individual patients. The goal for identifying a marker or markers for early cardiovascular disease that could serve as a surrogate for disease progression and ultimate morbid events is to improve the precision for early detection and treatment. The authors utilize a variety of techniques, which consist of 7 vascular tests (large and small artery elasticity, resting blood pressure and exercise blood pressure response, optic fundus photography, carotid intimal-media thickness, and microalbuminuria) and 3 cardiac tests (electrocardiography, [N-terminal pro-] B-type natriuretic peptide, and left ventricular ultrasonography). Each test is individually scored, and the total disease score is the sum of all the test scores. A study is ongoing to compare the new disease score vs the classical Framingham risk estimate in the prediction of cardiovascular events. [source]

    Leadership quality and follower affect: A study of U.S. presidential candidates

    M. David Albritton
    Using the tripartite model of attitude structure as a conceptual basis, this article investigates voter attitudes toward presidential candidates, including cognitive and affective assessments of these leaders as well as behavioral intentions and voting behavior. Data collected from the seven most recent U.S. presidential elections were used to compare Democratic and Republican Party candidates who were successful in securing votes to those who were unsuccessful. Here, follower perceptions of leader intelligence, feelings of pride and hope, as well as feelings of fear and anger were found to be statistically different between the two groups. Additionally, regression analysis using follower assessments of candidates' leadership quality, as dependent upon certain perceptual traits of that leader, are presented. Candidates perceived to be higher in intelligence, considered to possess stronger degrees of inspirational quality, and judged more "likeable," in terms of generating stronger degrees of positive follower affect and lower degrees of negative follower affect, are considered better quality leaders. Followers' perceptions of these traits are found to be key predictors of whether that follower will consider a leader to be of high quality. [source]

    University of life or academia?

    A review of community matrons/case managers continuing professional development; accessing a post-graduate programme without meeting the current academic entry criteria
    Aims, To inform managers and gatekeepers of the pre-requisites for staff engaging in post-graduate level study. To acknowledge the support students in new roles require in clinical practice and continuing professional development (CPD). Background, A post - graduate course for case managers/community matrons was developed as a rapid response to government policy. As a result, candidates entered this programme with non-traditional requirements. However, this did not appear to hinder their success. Evaluation, Student entry data and their achievements on completion were collected and compared with another post-graduate course that did require standard entry academic requirements. Final results were analysed and a narrative obtained from students and mentors. Key issues, Gatekeepers should recognize the importance of past experience and motivation of candidates in relation to CPD and also the student's insight and self-awareness when accessing courses. Conclusion, Candidates accessing post-graduate courses can achieve learning outcomes at an advanced level when given the right support and are capable of undertaking the role of case manager/community matron . Implications for nursing management, The article is relevant in light of the current financial constraints for Trusts to ration the funding of CPD. Choosing the right person to attend the right course often depends on the manager's discretion and not necessarily the candidates' ability or motivation. It highlights the importance of not only recognizing the candidates' academic level but also their motivation to study, and with careful selection candidates should be allowed the opportunity to access higher levels of CPD. Fitness to practice is also an important aspect to consider on completion of a course and this can be achieved with the mapping of competencies in relation to the post holder's specific job. [source]


    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to investigate whether the sensory performance of assessors in a sensory panel maybe explained by complexity of evaluated product. We aimed to investigate whether we could observe a decline in sensory performance when increasing the complexity of the product. The products increased in number of constituents from mixtures of sucrose, sodium chloride, citric acid and caffeine in water, to the foods ice tea and tomato soup constituting different levels of the same substances. Candidates who succeeded evaluating one product were not always successful evaluating others. Few subjects were successful in everything. The conclusion was that there is only minor systematic decline with increasing complexity of products. The authors emphasize that definition of complexity involves more than just counting number of constituents and taste sensations, and suggest that minor differences in the task given to the assessor might explain different performances. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Practical use of the research presented in the present paper is in a sensory evaluation context. It is important for the users of sensory data to find out how the profiling should be organized to achieve optimum output, and in specific, the need for extensive training when dealing with a more complex product. The present study hypothesized that sensory assessors would have more difficulties evaluating a more complex product. However, the results showed that panel leaders should be more concerned with the task variables in the sensory evaluation. Even a minor shift in task variables had a stronger impact on the performance and reliability of the assessors than increasing number of constituents and/or stimuli sensations of the product. This study did not demonstrate a need for extensive training when dealing with a more complex product as hypothesized. [source]

    Use of a High-Risk Alcohol Relapse Scale in Evaluating Liver Transplant Candidates

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 8 2000
    Andrea DiMartini
    Background: Methods to improve assessment, selection, and monitoring of patients with alcoholic cirrhosis who pursue liver transplantation are sought continuously. We chose to investigate the use of the High-Risk Alcohol Relapse (HRAR) scale in our transplant population in the hope that it would improve our ability to identify and follow patients at highest risk for alcohol relapse. Methods: Detailed alcohol histories of 207 patients evaluated for liver transplantation were collected and graded for severity by using the HRAR. The HRAR provides information on the duration of alcohol use (a measure of chronicity), daily quantity of alcohol use, and rehabilitation experiences (treatment responsiveness). Posttransplant alcohol use was monitored through clinical follow-up in the transplant clinic. Results: Although men and women had similar years of heavy drinking pretransplant, women's daily alcohol consumption was significantly less than men's. HRAR scores did not distinguish those listed for transplant from those not listed or those who drank posttransplant from those who did not. Transplant patients were predominantly in the low-risk group (83% had an HRAR score <4). Conclusions: The HRAR did not have predictive ability in our transplant population. Few of our patients were rated as high risk, and few drank posttransplant. Nevertheless, identifying patients at high risk may improve clinical care and decrease the rate of posttransplant alcohol consumption. [source]

    Elections and Economic Turbulence in Brazil: Candidates, Voters, and Investors

    Anthony P. Spanakos
    ABSTRACT The relation between elections and the economy in Latin America might be understood by considering the agency of candidates and the issue of policy preference congruence between investors and voters. The preference congruence model proposed in this article highlights political risk in emerging markets. Certain risk features increase the role of candidate campaign rhetoric and investor preferences in elections. When politicians propose policies that can appease voters and investors, elections may have a limited effect on economic indicators, such as inflation. But when voter and investor priorities differ significantly, deterioration of economic indicators is more likely. Moreover, voter and investor congruence is more likely before stabilization, when an inverted Philips curve exists, as opposed to following stabilization, when a more traditional Philips curve emerges. [source]

    Live donor/split liver grafts for adult recipients: When should we use them?

    Peter Neuhaus
    Key Points 1Split liver transplantation for a child and an adult recipient is standard today. Living donor liver transplantation for small children should only be necessary in exceptional situations in a country with a well-organized organ donation program. 2True split liver transplantation for two adults is still not very common. In the United States between April 2000 and May 2001, 89 surgical teams transplanted only 15 left lobes and 13 right lobes. Especially left lobes from deceased donors have a poor outcome; in Europe the ELTR shows a 1-year graft survival of 47%. 3While in Asia left lobes, right lateral segments, and dual left lateral segments are more frequently used, living donor liver transplantation for adults in Europe and the United States is predominantly performed with right lobes.7, 8 This carries a significant morbidity and mortality risk for the donor. Outcome compared to deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLTx) is similar with a trend towards more short-term and long-term biliary complications. 4Living donor and split liver transplantation should be used mainly in an elective situation. Candidates are tumor patients, patients with cholestatic liver disease, and elective patients with bile disease. 5Urgent liver transplantation is not a good option for living donor and split liver transplantation. Hepatic assist devices may change the picture in the future. 6Living donor liver transplantation for metabolic disorders like Alpha-1-Antitrypsin deficiency, Hyperoxaluria, and others cannot be recommended at present since the genetically related donor and the patient may carry an unknown risk. (Liver Transpl 2005;11:S6,S9.) [source]

    Achieving acceptable reliability in oral examinations: an analysis of the Royal College of General Practitioners membership examination's oral component

    MEDICAL EDUCATION, Issue 2 2003
    Val Wass
    Background, The membership examination of the Royal College of General Practitioners (RCGP) uses structured oral examinations to assess candidates' decision making skills and professional values. Aim, To estimate three indices of reliability for these oral examinations. Methods, In summer 1998, a revised system was introduced for the oral examinations. Candidates took two 20-minute (five topic) oral examinations with two examiner pairs. Areas for oral topics had been identified. Examiners set their own topics in three competency areas (communication, professional values and personal development) and four contexts (patient, teamwork, personal, society). They worked in two pairs (a quartet) to preplan questions on 10 topics. The results were analysed in detail. Generalisability theory was used to estimate three indices of reliability: (A) intercase (B) pass/fail decision and (C) standard error of measurement (SEM). For each index, a benchmark requirement was preset at (A) 0·8 (B) 0·9 and (C) 0·5. Results, There were 896 candidates in total. Of these, 87 candidates (9·7%) failed. Total score variance was attributed to: 41% candidates, 32% oral content, 27% examiners and general error. Reliability coefficients were: (A) intercase 0·65; (B) pass/fail 0·85. The SEM was 0·52 (i.e. precise enough to distinguish within one unit on the rating scale). Extending testing time to four 20-minute oral examinations, each with two examiners, or five orals, each with one examiner, would improve intercase and pass/fail reliabilities to 0·78 and 0·94, respectively. Conclusion, Structured oral examinations can achieve reliabilities appropriate to high stakes examinations if sufficient resources are available. [source]