Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Polymers and Materials Science

Kinds of Calorimetry

  • cone calorimetry
  • differential scanning calorimetry
  • dynamic differential scanning calorimetry
  • indirect calorimetry
  • isothermal calorimetry
  • isothermal titration calorimetry
  • scanning calorimetry
  • titration calorimetry

  • Terms modified by Calorimetry

  • calorimetry analysis
  • calorimetry data
  • calorimetry experiment
  • calorimetry measurement
  • calorimetry result
  • calorimetry studies

  • Selected Abstracts


    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), at various heating rates (1,30C/min) and water:starch ratios (0.1:1,4:1), was used to study gelatinization phenomena of sago starch. The results showed that the gelatinization temperature and enthalpy (, H) of starches in excess water were 60,77C and 15.5,15.8 J/g, respectively. , H of gelatinization remained substantially the same at excess water contents, but decreased significantly beyond a water:starch ratio of 1.3:1. A single endothermic transition (G) that transformed into a double endotherm (G and M1) and only M1 occurred, respectively, at excess, intermediate and limited water contents. At 50% water content, evidence of the M1 endotherm was observed, and 85C represented the effective conclusion temperature (Tm) at the end of melting for sago starch. The experimental data were treated thermody-namically by applying an equation describing phase transitions of semi-crystalline polymers. The calculated value for the melting point of the undiluted polymer (Tm) was 432 K (R2= 0.96). [source]

    The Dry Limit of Microbial Life in the Atacama Desert Revealed by Calorimetric Approaches

    N. Barros
    Abstract The Atacama desert in Chile is one of the driest and most lifeless environments on Earth. It rains possibly once a decade. NASA examined these soils as a model for the Martian environment by comparing their degradation activity with Martian soil and looking for "the dry limit of life". The existence of heterotrophic bacteria in Atacama soil was demonstrated by DNA extraction and by the isolation of microorganisms. So far, however, no data have been available about the metabolic activities in these soils due to the limitations of the existing methodologies when applied to desert soils. Calorimetry was used to obtain information on the metabolic and thermal properties of eleven soil samples collected at different sites in the Atacama desert. Differential scanning calorimetry and isothermal calorimetry were employed to determine the pyrolysis properties of the carbon-containing matter and to measure biomass and microbial metabolism. They were compared to other soil properties such as total carbon and nitrogen, carbon to nitrogen ratio and pH. There was measurable organic matter in nine of the eleven samples and the heat of pyrolysis of those soils was correlated to the carbon content. In five of the eleven samples no biomass could be detected and the existence of basal microbial metabolism could not be established because all samples showed endothermic activity, probably from inorganic reactions with water. Six samples showed microbial activation after the addition of glucose. Carbon content, nitrogen content and the microbial activity after glucose amendment were correlated to the altitude and to the average minimum temperature of the sampling sites calculated from meteorological data. The detectable microbial metabolism was more dissipative with increasing altitude and decreasing temperature. [source]

    Effect of long-term natural aging on the thermal, mechanical, and viscoelastic behavior of biomedical grade of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene

    H. Fouad
    Abstract In the total joint prostheses, Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) may undergo an oxidative degradation in the long term. The overall properties of UHMWPE are expected to be altered due to the oxidative degradation. The goal of this study is to investigate the effects of natural aging up to 6 years in air on the thermal, mechanical, and viscoelastic properties of UHMWPE that was used in total joint replacement. The changes in UHMWPE properties due to aging are determined using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), uniaxial tensile tests, and Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA). The DSC results show that the lamellar thickness and degree of crystallinity of UHMWPE specimens increase by 38% and 12% due to aging. A small shoulder region in the DSC thermograms is remarked for aged specimens, which is an indication of formation of new crystalline forms within their amorphous region. The tensile properties of aged and nonaged UHMWPE specimens show a significant decrease in the elastic modulus, yield, fracture stresses, and strain at break due to aging. The DM testing results indicate that the storage modulus and creep resistance of UHMWPE specimens decrease significantly due to aging. Also, it is remarked that the , relaxation peak for aged UHMWPE specimens occurs at lower temperature compared to nonaged ones. The significant reduction in the strength and creep resistance of UHMWPE specimens due to aging would affect the long-term clinical performance of the total joint replacement and should be taken into consideration during artificial joint design. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2010 [source]

    Hard Red Winter Wheat/Nutrim-OB Alkaline Fresh Noodles: Processing and Texture Analysis

    Abdellatif A. Mohamed
    ABSTRACT: Nutrim was added at 10%, 20%, and 30% to Hard Red Winter wheat flour to increase soluble fiber content of fresh noodles to a minimum of 0.75 g/noodle serving (one noodle serving is 42 g or 40 g db (dry basis). The effect of Nutrim on the dough characteristics and noodles quality was tackled. The presence of Nutrim increased the final water absorption and dough tolerance as measured by Farinograph whereas the dough stability was decreased. The DSC (Deferential scanning Calorimetry) data showed that Nutrim increased the onset or peak temperatures while the ,H was reduced by 25%. The resilience of Nutrim-enriched noodles was not significantly affected. The chewiness and hardness were reduced by Nutrim added at 20% and 30%, while cohesiveness was significantly increased by all 3 Nutrim levels. RVA (Rapid Visco Amylograph) profile showed higher peak viscosity in the presence of Nutrim. The 20% and 30% Nutrimlevels increased the soluble fiber of the final product from 1.13% to 1.67% and 2.47%. The yellow color of noodles became darker with higher Nutrim amounts added. The addition of Nutrim produced dough with a more compact image with less space between the starch granules as measured by scanning electron microscopy when compared with the control. The rheological testing showed that the presence of Nutrim decreased flour suspension elastic properties. [source]

    Thermal Properties, Heat Sealability and Seal Attributes of Whey Protein Isolate/ Lipid Emulsion Edible Films

    S-J. Kim
    ABSTRACT: From 5% w/v whey protein isolate (WPI), whey protein/lipid emulsion edible films were produced that were sorbitol- or glycerol-plasticized, containing butterfat (0.2% w/v) or candelilla wax (0.8% w/v). Thermal properties of the films determined by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) showed onset temperatures (To) of 126 to 127 C for sorbitol- and 108 to 122 C for glycerol-plasticized films. To values were used as the basis for heat sealing temperatures. Temperature (110, 120, 130 C), pressure (296,445 kPa), and dwell time (1,3 s) affected seal strength. Optimum heat sealing temperature was 130 C for sorbitol- and 110 C for glycerol-plasticized films. All films were heat sealable with an impulse heat-sealer. Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) of the surfaces of both sealed and unsealed films showed increase in hydrogen and covalent bonds involving C-O-H and N-C, which may be the main forces responsible for the sealed joint formation of the films. [source]

    Crystallization Kinetics of Amorphous Lactose as a Function of Moisture Content Using Isothermal Differential Scanning Calorimetry

    C. J. Kedward
    ABSTRACT: Isothermal differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to study the crystallization kinetics of amorphous lactose at 3 moisture contents. Each sample was heated to several temperatures between Tg and Tm. After subtraction of an induction time, the Avrami equation was used to model the data and a Lauritzen-Hoffman like expression used to fit the crystallization rates between Tg and Tm. The highest Tm/Tg ratio and crystallization rate were observed for the sample containing the most moisture. Conversely the lowest Tm/Tg ratio and crystallization rate were observed for the sample containing the least moisture. Evidence for multiple transitions was seen. The Avrami equation may not be the best way to model such data. [source]

    Evaluation of the Self-Heating Tendency of Vegetable Oils by Differential Scanning Calorimetry

    Amlie Baylon M.S.
    Abstract:, The evaluation of the self-heating propensity of a vegetable (or animal) oil may be of significant importance during the investigation of a fire. Unfortunately, iodine value and gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis do not lead to meaningful results in this regard. To the contrary, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), which does not measure the chemical composition of the oil, but rather its thermodynamic behavior, produces valuable results. After a thorough literature review on the autooxidation of vegetable oils, several oils with different self-heating tendencies were analyzed using a Mettler-Toledo differential scanning calorimeter DSC 25 between 40C and 500C. Analyses were carried out both under air and nitrogen atmosphere to identify the phenomena due to autooxidation reactions. Using DSC, it was possible to observe the induction period of the oil (when available), the three different exothermic events, and the autoignition temperature (relatively independent of the oil type). [source]

    Estimation of the fragility index of indomethacin by DSC using the heating and cooling rate dependency of the glass transition

    Joaquim J. Moura Ramos
    Abstract In this study we have investigated the features of the glass transition relaxation of indomethacin using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The purpose of this work is to provide an estimation of the activation energy at the glass transition temperature, as well as of the fragility index, of amorphous indomethacin from DSC data. To do so, the glass transition temperature region of amorphous indomethacin was characterized in both cooling and heating regimes. The activation energy for structural relaxation (directly related to glass fragility) was estimated from the heating and cooling rate dependence of the location of the DSC profile of the glass transition. The obtained results were similar in the heating and in the cooling modes. The results on the fragility index of indomethacin obtained in the present study, m,=,60 in the cooling mode and m,=,56 in the heating mode, are compared with other values previously published in the literature. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 93:1503,1507, 2004 [source]

    Using Differential Scanning Calorimetry to Follow How Gelcasting Proceeds

    BoonSing Ng
    Differential scanning calorimetry studies on aqueous low-toxicity monomer,crosslinker gelcasting systems loaded with zirconia powder provided information on the onset and kinetics of the polymerization reaction. A simple procedure was developed to determine the relative importance of the individual components on the gelation process. It was found that the thermal stability and dissociation of the initiator control the gelation rate and that the zirconia particles accelerate the gelation. [source]

    Illumination of Cellulose with Linearly Polarized Visible Light

    A. Konieczna - Molenda
    Abstract Summary: Aqueous suspensions of cellulose of long polysaccharide chains, were illuminated with visible polarized light (VPL) for 20 and 50 hrs. Crystal structure, thermal properties with Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and degree of polymerization (DP) of the samples were determined. Additionally, kinetic of enzymatic as well as acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of cellulose was estimated. Illumination of cellulose with VPL for 50 hrs increased its DP by 15%. X-ray diffraction patterns revealed that the illumination resulted in an increase in the amount of cellulose crystalline phase. The DSC measurements indicated differences in the water molecules distribution depending on the sample treatment confirming an increase in the crystallinity of the illuminated cellulose. After prolonged illumination, cellulose was resistant to oxidation and had lower susceptibility to enzymatic and acid-catalyzed hydrolysis. [source]

    Effect of EPDM on Morphology, Mechanical Properties, Crystallization Behavior and Viscoelastic Properties of iPP+HDPE Blends

    Nina Vranjes
    Abstract Summary: Blends of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) and high density polyethylene (HDPE) with and without ethylene-propylene-diene (EPDM) terpolymer as compatibilizer were systematically investigated to determine the influence of the EPDM on blends properties. The morphology was studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Mechanical properties of investigated systems: tensile strength at break, elongation at break, yield stress and Izod impact strength were determined. Crystallization behavior was determined by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) was used to determined the storage modulus (E,), loss modulus (E,), and loss tangent (tan ,). The PP+HDPE blend revealed poor adhesion between PP and HDPE phases. Finer morphology was obtained by EPDM addition in PP+HDPE blends and better interfacial adhesion. Addition of HDPE to PP decreased tensile strength at break, elongation and yield stress. Decrease of tensile strength and yield stress is faster with EPDM addition in PP+HDPE blends. Elongation at break and impact strength was significantly increased with EPDM addition. The addition of EPDM in PP+HDPE blends did not significantly change melting points of PP phase, while melting points of HDPE phase was slightly decreased in PP+HDPE+EPDM blends. The EPDM addition increased the percentage of crystallization (Xc) of PP in PP+HDPE blends. The increase of Xc of HDPE was found in the blend with HDPE as matrix. Dynamical mechanical analysis showed glass transitions of PP and HDPE phase, as well as the relaxation transitions of their crystalline phase. By addition of EPDM glass transitions (Tg) of HDPE and PP phases in PP+HDPE blends decreased. Storage modulus (E,) vs. temperatures (T) curves are in the region between E,/T curves of neat PP and HDPE. The decrease of E, values at 25,C with EPDM addition in PP+HDPE blends is more pronounced. [source]

    Preparation and properties of polyurethane/montmorillonite nanocomposites cured under room temperature

    POLYMER COMPOSITES, Issue 5 2006
    Hangbin Jiang
    The polyurethane/C16C18 -MMT (the montmorillonite modified with cetyloctadecyldimethyl ammonium bromide) nanocomposites were synthesized by intercalative polymerization and cured under room temperature. The d -spacing and the dispersion of the C16C18 -MMT in the nanocomposites were measured by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). The mechanical and thermal properties of the nanocomposites were measured by Universal Testing System, Electric Anti-fold Instrument, Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). It was found out that introducing C16C18 -montmorillonite (MMT) in the polyurethane (PU) displayed good mechanical properties and thermal stability. Rheology behavior in liquid state showed that the addition of the C16C18 -MMT to PU resulted in low gel time and high viscosity. POLYM. COMPOS. 27:470,474, 2006. 2006 Society of Plastics Engineers. [source]

    Synthesis and characterization of styrene butadiene rubber,Bentonite clay nanocomposites

    Sugata Chakraborty
    In the present study, naturally occurring unfractionated bentonite clay was used to prepare styrene butadiene rubber/bentonite clay nanocomposite by latex stage blending. The bentonite clay was organo-modified by in situ resol formation by the reaction of resorcinol and formaldehyde. The latex clay mixture was co-coagulated with acid. The resulting clay masterbatch was compounded and evaluated by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Scanning Electron Microscopy, Thermogravimetric analysis, and Differential Scanning Calorimetry. XRD showed that the interplanar distance of the in situ resol-modified bentonite clay increased from 1.23 to 1.41 nm for the unmodified bentonite. TEM analysis indicated partial exfoliation and/or intercalation. EDS (Si and Al mapping) of the clay revealed the nature of the dispersion in the nanocomposites vis--vis the conventional styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR)/bentonite clay composite. Thermogravimetric analysis was used to compare the decomposition trends of the SBR/clay nanocomposites with the SBR/clay composite. The glass transition temperature of SBR/clay nanocomposites increased as compared with that of neat SBR. Substantial improvement in most of the other mechanical properties was also observed in case of the nanocomposites. POLYM. ENG. SCI., 2009. 2009 Society of Plastics Engineers [source]

    Relaxation map of PETg-montmorillonite composites: Nanofiller concentration influence on , and , relaxation processes,

    H. Couderc
    Samples of polyethylene-1.4-cyclohexylenedimethylene terephthalate glycol (PETg) with different filler contents were prepared by a master batch process. The intercalated dispersion state of montmorillonite (MMT) was characterized using X-Ray Diffraction. Two different sample series are put in evidence with different basal distances (3.31 and 3.48 nm). The influence of nanofiller on , and , relaxations was studied by Dielectric Relaxation Spectroscopy and Differential Scanning Calorimetry. The use of these two techniques allowed us to determine accurately the fragility index m at the glass transition temperature Tg. For Tg, m, the Kauzmann temperature TK, and the relaxation time at Tg ,(Tg), we showed a decrease of the values more important for 3.48 nm basal distance than for 3.31 nm. The , did not seem affected in its apparent activation energy Ea by the MMT addition. POLYM. ENG. SCI., 2009. 2008 Society of Plastics Engineers [source]

    Evaluation of three methods for the measurement of crystallinity of pet resins, preforms, and bottles

    Z. Bashir
    The control of crystallization is important at all processing stages of the PET bottle industry, from the manufacture of bottle resins to the fabrication of preforms and bottles. In this work, we sought to evaluate critically three methods of crystallinity measurement. We have used density, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), and Modulated Differential Scanning Calorimetry (MDSC) to study the crystallinity of PET chips, preforms, and bottles. The accuracy, precision, and general validity of each technique and the problems of interpretation are discussed. [source]

    Toxic gas release caused by the thermal decomposition of a bulk powder blend containing sodium dichloroisocyanurate

    Andrew R. Carpenter P.E.
    A thermal runaway reaction occurred during the mixing of a batch of a bulk powder that resulted in the production and release of toxic gases. The mixture consisted of an oxidizer (sodium dichloroisocyanurate), some organic compounds, and inert compounds. This toxic release led to the evacuation of the building and resulted in extensive damage to the facility. This was only the fourth time an 1,100-pound batch of this material had been mixed in this equipment. Prior to this production run, the material had been prepared in small batches of 2 to 50 kilograms. Accelerated Rate Calorimetry (ARC) testing had been performed prior to the scale-up to production batches. This paper looks into the root causes of this particular accident and demonstrates how proper analysis of the testing data and other warning signs observed during the bench testing could have revealed the likelihood of this accident. Further, this paper will consider how simple design changes to the manufacturing process resulted in an inherently safer design. [source]

    Phosphorylated Human Lectin Galectin-3: Analysis of Ligand Binding by Histochemical Monitoring of Normal/Malignant Squamous Epithelia and by Isothermal Titration Calorimetry

    P. Szabo
    Summary The human lectin galectin-3 is a multifunctional effector with special functions in regulation of adhesion and apoptosis. Its unique trimodular organization includes the 12-residue N-terminal sequence, a substrate for protein kinase CK1-dependent phosphorylation. As a step towards elucidating its significance, we prepared phosphorylated galectin-3, labelled it and used it as a tool in histochemistry. We monitored normal and malignant squamous epithelia. Binding was suprabasal with obvious positive correlation to the degree of differentiation and negative correlation to proliferation. The staining pattern resembled that obtained with the unmodified lectin. Basal cell carcinomas were invariably negative. The epidermal positivity profile was akin to distribution of the desmosomal protein desmoglein, as also seen with keratinocytes in vitro. In all cases, binding was inhibitable by the presence of lactose, prompting further investigation of the activity of the lectin site by a sensitive biochemical method, i.e. isothermal titration calorimetry. The overall affinity and the individual enthalpic and entropic contributions were determined. No effect of phosphorylation was revealed. This strategic combination of histo- and biochemical techniques applied to an endogenous effector after its processing by a protein kinase thus enabled a detailed monitoring of the binding properties of the post-translationally modified lectin. It underscores the value of using endogenous lectins as a histochemical tool. The documented approach has merit for applications beyond lectinology. [source]

    Development of a large-scale biocalorimeter to monitor and control bioprocesses

    D. Voisard
    Abstract Calorimetry has shown real potential at bench-scale for chemical and biochemical processes. The aim of this work was therefore to scale-up the system by adaptation of a standard commercially available 300-L pilot-scale bioreactor. To achieve this, all heat flows entering or leaving the bioreactor were identified and the necessary instrumentation implemented to enable on-line monitoring and dynamic heat balance estimation. Providing that the signals are sufficiently precise, such a heat balance would enable calculation of the heat released or taken up during an operational (bio)process. Two electrical Wattmeters were developed, the first for determination of the power consumption by the stirrer motor and the second for determination of the power released by an internal calibration heater. Experiments were designed to optimize the temperature controller of the bioreactor such that it was sufficiently rapid so as to enable the heat accumulation terms to be neglected. Further calibration experiments were designed to correlate the measured stirring power to frictional heat losses of the stirrer into the reaction mass. This allows the quantitative measurement of all background heat flows and the on-line quantitative calculation of the (bio)process power. Three test fermentations were then performed with B. sphaericus 1593M, a spore-forming bacterium pathogenic to mosquitoes. A first batch culture was performed on a complex medium, to enable optimization of the calorimeter system. A second batch culture, on defined medium containing three carbon sources, was used to show the fast, accurate response of the heat signal and the ability to perfectly monitor the different growth phases associated with growth on mixed substrates, in particular when carbon sources became depleted. A maximum heat output of 1100 W was measured at the end of the log-phase. A fed-batch culture on the same defined medium was then carried out with the feed rate controlled as a function of the calorimeter signal. A maximum heat output of 2250 W was measured at the end of the first log-phase. This work demonstrates that real-time quantitative calorimetry is not only possible at pilot-scale, but could be readily applied at even larger scales. The technique requires simple, readily available devices for determination of the few necessary heat flows, making it a robust, cost-effective technique for process development and routine monitoring and control of production processes. 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 80: 125,138, 2002 [source]

    Influence of N-Terminal Hydrophobicity of Cationic Peptides on Thermodynamics of their Interaction with Plasmid DNA

    Geetha N. Goparaju
    There is a need to understand the thermodynamics of interaction of cationic peptides with DNA to design better peptide based non-viral gene delivery vectors. The main aim of this study was to understand the influence of N-terminal hydrophobicity of cationic amphiphilic peptides on thermodynamics of interaction with plasmid DNA. The model peptides used were TATPTD and TATPTDs modified at the N-terminal with hydrophobic amino acids. The thermodynamic binding data from isothermal titration calorimetry were compared with ethidium bromide analysis and ultrafiltration to correlate the binding parameters with the structural features of the various peptides used. It was observed that peptides having a smaller hydrophobic domain at the N-terminal have good DNA condensing ability compared with the ones with a longer hydrophobic domain. Calorimetry of peptides that reached saturation binding indicated that enthalpy and entropy are favorable for the interaction. Moreover, the interaction of these peptides with DNA appears to be predominantly electrostatic. [source]

    Phase Transitions in [Ca(H2O)4](NO3)2 Studied by Differential Scanning Calorimetry, X-Ray Single Crystal Diffraction and Neutron Powder Diffraction.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 25 2007
    Part 1.
    Abstract ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 200 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract, please click on HTML or PDF. [source]

    System Ln,Fe,O (Ln: Ho, Er): Thermodynamic Properties of Ternary Oxides Using Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Solid-State Electrochemical Cells.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 37 2006
    S. C. Parida
    Abstract ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 200 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract, please click on HTML or PDF. [source]

    ChemInform Abstract: Calorimetry and Thermal Effects in Catalysis

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 3 2002
    several authors several authors
    Abstract ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a "Full Text" option. The original article is trackable via the "References" option. [source]

    ChemInform Abstract: Standard Enthalpies of Formation of Some Lanthanide Gallides by High Temperature Direct Synthesis Calorimetry

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 31 2001
    S. V. Meschel
    Abstract ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a "Full Text" option. The original article is trackable via the "References" option. [source]

    Calculation of the Specific Rate of Catabolic Activity (Ac) from the Heat Flow Rate of Soil Microbial Reactions Measured by Calorimetry: Significance and Applications

    Nieves Barros
    The calculation of parameters involved in the kinetics of the microbial soil reactions linked to the carbon cycle is strongly limited by the methodologies employed. Hence, a mathematical model is proposed to quantify easily the specific rate of catabolic activity Ac by microcalorimetry based on Belaich's model. It permits to quantify Ac from the plots of the heat flow rate vs. time recorded from soil samples amended with glucose. It was applied for several soil samples collected in the Amazon. The results obtained were compared, and statistical and graphical analyses were used to provide the biophysical significance of Ac in soils. Results suggest that Ac could be used as an empirical measure of stress. It correlates positively with the heat yield, YQ/X, of the soil microbial growth reactions, indicating that higher specific rates of catabolic activity cause higher dissipation of energy per unit of cell, yielding less-efficient metabolic reactions, which could affect negatively the soil quality. It is strongly affected by the initial microbial population and by the percentage of nitrogen in the samples. The statistical analysis also demonstrated that Ac is more sensitive to changing environmental conditions than YQ/X, yielding more-accurate information about the soil metabolic processes. [source]

    Pressure Perturbation Calorimetry: A New Technique Provides Surprising Results on the Effects of Co-solvents on Protein Solvation and Unfolding Behaviour

    CHEMPHYSCHEM, Issue 4 2004
    Revanur Ravindra Dr.
    Exquisitely sensitive, pressure perturbation calorimetry was used by the authors to study the solvation and volumetric properties of proteins in their native and unfolded states. The magnitude and even sign of the volume change on unfolding drastically depends on the co-solvent concentration (see graphic). [source]

    Interaction of Ru(II) Complex with Yeast tRNA Studied by Isothermal Titration Calorimetry

    Xu Hong
    Abstract The interaction of metal complex with RNA has been studied by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) for the first time. ITC experiments show that complex [Ru(phen)2MPIP]2+ {phen=1,10-phenanthroline, MPIP=2-(4-methylphenyl)imidazo[4,5- f]-1,10-phenanthroline} interacts with yeast tRNA in terms of a model for a single set of identical sites through intercalation, which is consistent with our previous observation obtained from spectroscopic methods, and this binding process was driven by a moderately favorable enthalpy decrease in combination with a moderately favorable entropy increase, suggesting that ITC is an effective method for deep studying the interactions of metal complexes with RNA. [source]

    Crystal structures and isotope effect on Na5H3(SeO4)42H2O and Na5D3(SeO4)42D2O crystals

    T. Fukami
    Abstract Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction measurements have been performed on pentasodium trihydrogen tetraselenate dihydrate Na5H3(SeO4)42H2O and deuterated Na5D3(SeO4)42D2O crystals. Any distinct anomaly around 428 K in the DSC curves for both crystals is suggested to be caused by a chemical reaction of thermal decomposition with hydrolysis at high temperature. The space group symmetry (triclinic P) and the structure parameters are determined at room temperature. The hydrogen atom in the centrosymmetric O-H(D)-O hydrogen bond of both crystals is found to be equally distributed at two equivalent sites in the bond. The expansions of two O-H-O hydrogen bonds by the substitution of deuterium are observed to be 0.016(6) and 0.011(4) . The geometric isotope effect on hydrogen bonds is confirmed to be existed in Na5H3(SeO4)42H2O. ( 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Smectic phases of liquid crystals based on dinuclear palladium(II) complexes with carboxylato bridge

    V. Crcu
    Abstract In this paper we present the preparation and the investigation of the liquid crystal properties of a series of dinuclear carboxylato bridge Pd(II) complexes bearing six alkoxy peripheral chains in the molecule. Their structures were assigned based on elemental analysis, IR and 1H NMR spectroscopy whereas the thermal behaviour was investigated by polarizing optical microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The monotropic smectic A phase displayed by these materials was identified by miscibility studies with a previously reported mesogen. It was found that the transition temperatures and the SmA mesophase stability depend on the alkyl chain length of the carboxylato bridge. ( 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Thermal and EPR investigations of thallium gallium disulphide single crystal

    M. Acikgoz
    Abstract In this research, the results of the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) investigations of TlGaS2 single crystal are presented. Specific heat capacity (Cp) anomalies of layered TlGaS2 have been obtained by using a new DSC technique for such crystals. Remarkable heat capacity anomalies have been revealed at the temperatures of 137.7 K, 174.5 K and 238.5 K. It is found that the anomalies appear at maximum with a small deviation (by 3-4%) from the regular values, and Cp discontinuity amounted to approximately 5%. Additionally, EPR spectra of Fe doped TlGaS2 single crystals have been recorded at various temperatures down to 6 K for different orientations of the applied magnetic field. Transformations of present EPR spectra are not sufficient for the confirmation of structural phase transitions, in contrast to the cases in iso structural TlInS2 and TlGaSe2 compounds. ( 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Flux growth and characterization of Ti- and Ni-doped forsterite single crystals

    A. Bloise
    Abstract Forsterite monocrystals doped with Ti and Ni were grown by the flux growth technique. A suitable mixture of flux (MoO3, V2O5, Li2CO3) and nutrient was slowly cooled down to 750 C from 1250 C or 1350 C. The crystals were then characterized by powder and single-crystal X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Variations observed in crystal size were attributed by both the varying experimental conditions in which they had been obtained, and to the amount of Ni substituted for Mg in the structure. High abundances of doped forsterite required a cooling rate of 1.8 K h -1. These synthetic, well-characterized Ti and Ni doped forsterite crystals may have potential for exploitation in industrial fields. ( 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]