Calcite

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Earth and Environmental Science

Kinds of Calcite

  • secondary calcite

  • Terms modified by Calcite

  • calcite cement
  • calcite crystal
  • calcite dissolution
  • calcite precipitation
  • calcite single crystal

  • Selected Abstracts


    EPR OF Mn2+ IMPURITIES IN CALCITE: A DETAILED STUDY PERTINENT TO MARBLE PROVENANCE DETERMINATION,

    ARCHAEOMETRY, Issue 1 2009
    H. WEIHE
    We demonstrate that the electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum of Mn2+ impurities in calcite, and therefore also in marble, may be accurately reproduced by a traditional spin Hamiltonian formalism. The success of such a treatment, however, very much depends on the spin Hamiltonian parameters having the correct signs as well as magnitudes. We present data that determine the sign of the axial anisotropy parameter and thereby facilitate future quantum mechanical characterizations of marble electron paramagnetic resonance spectra that supplement provenance determination. [source]


    Calcite and gypsum solubility products in water-saturated salt-affected soil samples at 25C and at least up to 14 dS m,1

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOIL SCIENCE, Issue 2 2010
    F. Visconti
    Calcite and gypsum are salts of major ions characterized by poor solubility compared with other salts that may precipitate in soils. Knowledge of calcite and gypsum solubility products in water-saturated soil samples substantially contributes to a better assessment of processes involved in soil salinity. The new SALSOLCHEMIS code for chemical equilibrium assessment was parameterized with published analytical data for aqueous synthetic calcite and gypsum-saturated solutions. Once parameterized, SALSOLCHEMIS was applied to calculations of the ionic activity products of calcium carbonate and calcium sulphate in 133 water-saturated soil samples from an irrigated salt-affected agricultural area in a semi-arid Mediterranean climate. During parameterization, sufficiently constant values for the ionic activity products of calcium carbonate and calcium sulphate were obtained only when the following were used in SALSOLCHEMIS: (i) the equations of Sposito & Traina for the free ion activity coefficient calculation, (ii) the assumption of the non-existence of the Ca (HCO 3)+ and CaCO3o ion pairs and (iii) a paradigm of total ion activity coefficients. The value of 4.62 can be assumed to be a reliable gypsum solubility product (pKs) in simple aqueous and soil solutions, while a value of 8.43 can only be assumed as a reliable calcite solubility product (pKs) in simple aqueous solutions. The saturated pastes and saturation extracts were found to be calcite over-saturated, with the former significantly being less so (p IAP = 8.29) than the latter (p IAP = 8.22). The calcite over-saturation of saturated pastes increased with the soil organic matter content. Nevertheless, the inhibition of calcite precipitation is caused by the soluble organic matter from a dissolved organic carbon threshold value that lies between 7 and 12 mm. The hypothesis of thermodynamic equilibrium is more adequate for the saturated pastes than for the saturation extracts. [source]


    Calcite-specific coupling protein in barnacle underwater cement

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 24 2007
    Youichi Mori
    The barnacle relies for its attachment to underwater foreign substrata on the formation of a multiprotein complex called cement. The 20 kDa cement protein is a component of Megabalanus rosa cement, although its specific function in underwater attachment has not, until now, been known. The recombinant form of the protein expressed in bacteria was purified in soluble form under physiological conditions, and confirmed to retain almost the same structure as that of the native protein. Both the protein from the adhesive layer of the barnacle and the recombinant protein were characterized. This revealed that abundant Cys residues, which accounted for 17% of the total residues, were in the intramolecular disulfide form, and were essential for the proper folding of the monomeric protein structure. The recombinant protein was adsorbed to calcite and metal oxides in seawater, but not to glass and synthetic polymers. The adsorption isotherm for adsorption to calcite fitted the Langmuir model well, indicating that the protein is a calcite-specific adsorbent. An evaluation of the distribution of the molecular size in solution by analytical ultracentrifugation indicated that the recombinant protein exists as a monomer in 100 mm to 1 m NaCl solution; thus, the protein acts as a monomer when interacting with the calcite surface. cDNA encoding a homologous protein was isolated from Balanus albicostatus, and its derived amino acid sequence was compared with that from M. rosa. Calcite is the major constituent in both the shell of barnacle base and the periphery, which is also a possible target for the cement, due to the gregarious nature of the organisms. The specificity of the protein for calcite may be related to the fact that calcite is the most frequent material attached by the cement. [source]


    Geochemistry of Extremely Alkaline (pH > 12) Ground Water in Slag-Fill Aquifers

    GROUND WATER, Issue 6 2005
    George S. Roadcap
    Extremely alkaline ground water has been found underneath many shuttered steel mills and slag dumps and has been an impediment to the cleanup and economic redevelopment of these sites because little is known about the geochemistry. A large number of these sites occur in the Lake Calumet region of Chicago, Illinois, where large-scale infilling of the wetlands with steel slag has created an aquifer with pH values as high as 12.8. To understand the geochemistry of the alkaline ground water system, we analyzed samples of ground water and the associated slag and weathering products from four sites. We also considered several potential remediation schemes to lower the pH and toxicity of the water. The principal cause of the alkaline conditions is the weathering of calcium silicates within the slag. The resulting ground water at most of the sites is dominated by Ca2+ and OH, in equilibrium with Ca(OH)2. Where the alkaline ground water discharges in springs, atmospheric CO2 dissolves into the water and thick layers of calcite form. Iron, manganese, and other metals in the metallic portion of the slag have corroded to form more stable low-temperature oxides and sulfides and have not accumulated in large concentrations in the ground water. Calcite precipitated at the springs is rich in a number of heavy metals, suggesting that metals can move through the system as particulate matter. Air sparging appears to be an effective remediation strategy for reducing the toxicity of discharging alkaline water. [source]


    Effect of basin physical characteristics on solute fluxes in nine alpine/subalpine basins, Colorado, USA,

    HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES, Issue 14 2001
    Julie K. Sueker
    Abstract Alpine/subalpine basins may exhibit substantial variability in solute fluxes despite many apparent similarities in basin characteristics. An evaluation of controls on spatial patterns in solute fluxes may allow development of predictive tools for assessing basin sensitivity to outside perturbations such as climate change or deposition of atmospheric pollutants. Relationships between basin physical characteristics, determined from geographical information system (GIS) tools, and solute fluxes and mineral weathering rates were explored for nine alpine/subalpine basins in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, using correlation analyses for 1993 and 1994 data. Stream-water nitrate fluxes were correlated positively with basin characteristics associated with the talus environment; i.e., the fractional amounts of steep slopes (, 30), unvegetated terrain and young debris (primarily Holocene till) in the basins, and were correlated negatively with fractional amounts of subalpine meadow terrain. Correlations with nitrate indicate the importance of the talus environment in promoting nitrate flux and the mitigating effect of areas with established vegetation, such as subalpine meadows. Total mineral weathering rates for the basins ranged from about 300 to 600 mol ha,1 year,1. Oligoclase weathering accounted for 30 to 73% of the total mineral weathering flux, and was positively correlated with the amount of old debris (primarily Pleistocene glacial till) in the basins. Although calcite is found in trace amounts in bedrock, calcite weathering accounted for up to 44% of the total mineral weathering flux. Calcite was strongly correlated with steep slope, unvegetated terrain, and young debris,probably because physical weathering in steep-gradient areas exposes fresh mineral surfaces that contain calcite for chemical weathering. Oligoclase and calcite weathering are the dominant sources of alkalinity in the basins. However, atmospherically deposited acids consume much of the alkalinity generated by weathering of calcite and other minerals in the talus environment. Published in 2001 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    The Microstructure of Biogenic Calcite: A View by High-Resolution Synchrotron Powder Diffraction,

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 18 2006
    B. Pokroy
    Biogenic calcite obtained from different mollusk shells is subjected to heat treatments at elevated temperatures and structurally analyzed by high-resolution synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction. Remarkable broadening of diffraction peaks in samples annealed at temperatures above 200,C is observed (see figure), indicating heat-induced degradation of intra-crystalline proteins occluded in the mineral lattice during biomineralization. [source]


    Calcite,graphite isotope thermometry in amphibolite facies marble, Bancroft, Ontario

    JOURNAL OF METAMORPHIC GEOLOGY, Issue 9 2005
    S. R. DUNN
    Abstract This study presents calcite,graphite carbon isotope fractionations for 32 samples from marble in the northern Elzevir terrane of the Central Metasedimentary Belt, Grenville Province, southern Ontario, Canada. These results are compared with temperatures calculated by calcite,dolomite thermometry (15 samples), garnet,biotite thermometry (four samples) and garnet,hornblende thermometry (three samples). ,cal-gr values vary regularly across the area from >6.5, in the south to 4.0, in the north, which corresponds to temperatures of 525 C in the south to 650 C in the north. Previous empirical calibration of the calcite,graphite thermometer agrees very well with calcite,dolomite, garnet,biotite and garnet,hornblende thermometry, whereas, theoretical calibrations compare less well with the independent thermometry. Isograds in marble based on the reactions rutile + calcite + quartz =titanite and tremolite + calcite + quartz = diopside, span temperatures of 525,600 C and are consistent with calculated temperature,X(CO2) relations. Results of this study compare favourably with large-scale regional isotherms, however, local variation is greater than that revealed by large-scale sampling strategies. It remains unclear whether the temperature,,cal-gr relationship observed in natural materials below 650 C represents equilibrium fractionations or not, but the regularity and consistency apparent in this study demonstrate its utility for thermometry in amphibolite facies marble. [source]


    Occurrence of calcite in Sanbagawa pelitic schists: implications for the formation of garnet, rutile, oligoclase, biotite and hornblende

    JOURNAL OF METAMORPHIC GEOLOGY, Issue 2 2002
    A. Goto
    Abstract The frequency of occurrence of minerals in 1876 samples of Sanbagawa pelitic schist in central Shikoku is summarized on the basis of microscopic observation accompanied, in part, by use of an electron microprobe. All samples contain quartz, plagioclase, phengite, chlorite and graphite. More than 90% of samples contain clinozoisite, titanite and apatite. Garnet is present in 95% of samples from the garnet zone, and biotite is present in 64% of samples from the albite-biotite zone. Calcite is found in about 40% of samples of the pelitic schist collected from outcrop, but occurs in 95% of the pelitic schist from drill cores. Calcite was apparently ubiquitous in the pelitic schist during the Sanbagawa metamorphism, but must have been dissolved recently by the action of surface or ground water. The mineral assemblages of the Sanbagawa pelitic schist have to be analyzed in the system with excess calcite, quartz, albite (or oligoclase), clinozoisite, graphite and fluid that is composed mainly of H2O, CO2 and CH4. In the presence of calcite, reactions that produce garnet, rutile, oligoclase, biotite and hornblende, some of which define isograds of the metamorphic belt, should be written as mixed volatile equilibria that tend to take place at lower temperature than the dehydration reactions that have been proposed. The presence of calcite in pelitic schist suggests that fluid composition is a variable as important in determining mineral assemblages as pressure and temperature. Thus Ca-bearing phases must be taken into account to analyze the phase relations of calcite-bearing pelitic schist, even if CaO content of Sanbagawa pelitic schist is low. As calcite is a common phase, the mineral assemblages of the biotite zone pelitic schist may contravene the mineralogical phase rule and warrant further study. [source]


    Raman and infrared spectra of carbonates of calcite structure

    JOURNAL OF RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY, Issue 9 2006
    S. Gunasekaran
    Abstract The Raman and mid-range infrared spectra have been measured on natural limestone and dolomite minerals. The carbonate minerals show four prominent absorption bands in the regions 1450,1420, 890,870, 720,700 and 1000,1100 cm,1. The positions of the wavenumbers are unique for each carbonate mineral and are thus diagnostic of their mineralogy. Calcite and dolomite groups are characterized by the Raman wavenumbers at 288 and 309 cm,1 and the infrared absorption bands at 712 and 728 cm,1, respectively. The principal wavenumber at 1092 cm,1 in the limestone spectra is accompanied by two satellites with values of 1062 and 1075 cm,1. The observed non-split peaks ,2 and ,4 in the infrared spectra of limestone indicate the presence of calcite structure in all these samples. The principal reflections occurring at the d -spacings, 3.03482, 1.91658 and 1.87962 , confirm the presence of calcite structure in limestone minerals. The principal reflections occurring at the d -spacings, 3.037, 1.79179 and 2.19750 , confirm the existence of dolomite structure in the dolomite minerals. The calculated lattice parameters for the limestone minerals are: a = 4.9781 , c = 17.1188 and V = 367.392()3 and the corresponding values for the dolomite minerals are: a = 4.8247 , c = 15.9868 and V = 322.28 ()3. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Electron Backscatter Diffraction Study of Brachiopod Shell Calcite , Microscale Phase and Texture Analysis of a Polycrystalline Biomaterial

    PARTICLE & PARTICLE SYSTEMS CHARACTERIZATION, Issue 5-6 2008
    Wolfgang W. Schmahl
    Abstract Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) is an easy to use and highly automated microdiffraction method suitable for the determination of crystallographic phase and crystallite orientation. The high level of hierarchical structural organization in the shells of marine organisms was studied. Calcite brachiopod shell materials were found to belong to three types of microstructure: nano- to microcrystalline layers of acicular crystals, fiber composites with calcite single crystal fibers with [uv0] morphological axes, and material formed by columnar crystals with [001] morphological axes selected by competitive growth. [source]


    REE, Mn, Fe, Mg and C, O Isotopic Geochemistry of Calcites from Furong Tin Deposit, South China: Evidence for the Genesis of the Hydrothermal Ore-forming Fluids

    RESOURCE GEOLOGY, Issue 1 2010
    Yan Shuang
    Abstract The Furong tin deposit in the central Nanling region, South China, consists of three main types of mineralization ores, i.e. skarn-, altered granite- and greisen-type ores, hosted in Carboniferous and Permian strata and Mesozoic granitic intrusions. Calcite is the dominant gangue mineral intergrown with ore bodies in the orefield. We have carried out REE, Mn, Fe, and Mg geochemical and C, and O isotopic studies on calcites to constrain the source and evolution of the ore-forming fluids. The calcites from the Furong deposit exhibit middle negative Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu*= 0.311,0.921), except for one which has an Eu/Eu* of 1.10, with the total REE content of 5.49,133 ppm. The results show that the calcites are characterized by two types of REE distribution patterns: a LREE-enriched pattern and a flat REE pattern. The LREE-enriched pattern of calcites accompanying greisen-type ore and skarn-type ore are similar to those of Qitianling granite. The REE, Mn, Fe, and Mg abundances of calcites exhibit a decreasing tendency from granite rock mass to wall rock, i.e. these abundances of calcites associated with altered granite-type and greisen-type ores are higher than those associated with skarn-type ores. The calcites from primary ores in the Furong deposit show large variation in carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions. The ,13C and ,18O of calcites are ,0.4 to ,12.7, and 2.8 to 16.4,, respectively, and mainly fall within the range between mantle or magmatic carbon and marine carbonate. The calcites from greisen and altered granite ores in the Furong deposit display a negative correlation in the diagram of ,13C versus ,18O, probably owing to the CO2 -degassing of the ore-forming fluids. From the intrusion to wall-rock, the calcites display an increasing tendency with respect to ,13C values. This implies that the carbon isotopic compositions of the ore-bearing fluids have progressively changed from domination by magmatic carbon to sedimentary carbonate carbon. In combination with other geological and geochemical data, we suggest that the ore-forming fluids represent magmatic origin. We believe that the fluids exsolved from fractionation of the granitic magma, accompanying magmatism of the Qitianling granite complex, were involved in the mineralization of the Furong tin polymetallic deposit. [source]


    Oxygen and Carbon Isotope Study of Calcite and Dolomite in the Disseminated Au-Ag Telluride Bulawan Deposit, Negros Island, Philippines

    RESOURCE GEOLOGY, Issue 2 2001
    Victor B. MAGLAMBAYAN
    Abstract: The disseminated Au-Ag telluride Bulawan deposit, Negros island, Philippines, is hosted by dacite porphyry breccia pipes which formed in a Middle Miocene dacite porphyry stock. Electrum and Au-Ag tellurides occur mostly as grains intergrown with or filling voids between sphalerite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, galena and tennantite. Calcite, quartz and rare dolomite are the principal gangue minerals. Four types of alteration were recognized in the deposit, namely; propylitic, K-feldspar-sericitic, sericitic and carbonate alteration. Carbonate alteration is correlatable to the gold deposition stage and occurs mostly along fault zones. The ,18O and ,13C compositions of calcite and dolomite in propylite zone and ore-stage dacite porphyry breccia were determined. The ,18O values of calcite in propylitized andesite range from +12.2 to +14.7%, and their ,13C values range from -6.1 to -1.0%. The ,18O values of calcite and dolomite in sericite- and carbonate-altered, mineralized dacite porphyry breccia and dacite porphyry rocks range from +15.1 to +23.1%, and the ,13C values of calcite and dolomite range from -3.9 to +0.9%. The ,18O and ,13C values of the hydrothermal fluids were estimated from inferred temperatures of formation on the basis of fluid inclusion microthermometry. The ,18O values of hydrothermal fluid for the propylitic alteration were calculated to be +8.5 - +9.5%, assuming 375C. On the other hand, the ,18O values of ore solutions for base metal and Au mineralization were computed to be +13.6 - +14.6%, assuming 270C. The hydrothermal fluids that formed the Bulawan deposit are dilute and 18O-enriched fluids which reacted with 18O- and 13C-rich wallrocks such as limestone. [source]


    REE and C-O Isotopic Geochemistry of Calcites from the World-class Huize Pb-Zn Deposits, Yunnan, China: Implications for the Ore Genesis

    ACTA GEOLOGICA SINICA (ENGLISH EDITION), Issue 3 2010
    Zhilong HUANG
    Abstract: The world-class Huize Pb-Zn deposits of Yunnan province, in southwestern China, located in the center of the Sichuan-Yunnan-Guizhou Pb-Zn polymetallic metallogenic province, has Pb+Zn reserves of more than 5 million tons at Pb+Zn grade of higher than 25% and contains abundant associated metals, such as Ag, Ge, Cd, and Ga. The deposits are hosted in the Lower Carboniferous carbonate strata and the Permian Emeishan basalts which distributed in the northern and southwestern parts of the orefield. Calcite is the only gangue mineral in the primary ores of the deposits and can be classified into three types, namely lumpy, patch and vein calcites in accordance with their occurrence. There is not intercalated contact between calcite and ore minerals and among the three types of calcite, indicating that they are the same ore-forming age with different stages and its forming sequence is from lumpy to patch to vein calcites. This paper presents the rare earth element (REE) and C-O isotopic compositions of calcites in the Huize Pb-Zn deposits. From lumpy to patch to vein calcites, REE contents decrease as LREE/HREE ratios increase. The chondrite-normalized REE patterns of the three types of calcites are characterized by LREE-rich shaped, in which the lumpy calcite shows (La)N < (Ce)N < (Pr)N, (Nd)N with Eu/Eu* < 1, the patch calcite has (La)N < (Ce)N < (Pr)N, (Nd)N with Eu/Eu* > 1, and the vein calcite displays (La)N > (Ce)N > (Pr)N > (Nd)N with Eu/Eu* > 1. The REE geochemistry of the three types of calcite is different from those of the strata of various age and Permian Emeishan basalt exposed in the orefield. The ,13CPDB and ,18OSMOW values of the three types of calcites vary from ,3.5, to ,2.1, and 16.7, to 18.6,, respectively, falling within a small field between primary mantle and marine carbonate in the ,13CPDB vs ,18OSMOW diagram. Various lines of evidence demonstrate that the three types of calcites in the deposits are produced from the same source with different stages. The ore-forming fluids of the deposits resulted from crustal-mantle mixing processes, in which the mantle-derived fluid components might be formed from degassing of mantle or/and magmatism of the Permian Emeishan basalts, and the crustal fluid was mainly provided by carbonate strata in the orefield. The ore-forming fluids in the deposits were homogenized before mineralization, and the ore-forming environment varied from relatively reducing to oxidizing. [source]


    REE, Mn, Fe, Mg and C, O Isotopic Geochemistry of Calcites from Furong Tin Deposit, South China: Evidence for the Genesis of the Hydrothermal Ore-forming Fluids

    RESOURCE GEOLOGY, Issue 1 2010
    Yan Shuang
    Abstract The Furong tin deposit in the central Nanling region, South China, consists of three main types of mineralization ores, i.e. skarn-, altered granite- and greisen-type ores, hosted in Carboniferous and Permian strata and Mesozoic granitic intrusions. Calcite is the dominant gangue mineral intergrown with ore bodies in the orefield. We have carried out REE, Mn, Fe, and Mg geochemical and C, and O isotopic studies on calcites to constrain the source and evolution of the ore-forming fluids. The calcites from the Furong deposit exhibit middle negative Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu*= 0.311,0.921), except for one which has an Eu/Eu* of 1.10, with the total REE content of 5.49,133 ppm. The results show that the calcites are characterized by two types of REE distribution patterns: a LREE-enriched pattern and a flat REE pattern. The LREE-enriched pattern of calcites accompanying greisen-type ore and skarn-type ore are similar to those of Qitianling granite. The REE, Mn, Fe, and Mg abundances of calcites exhibit a decreasing tendency from granite rock mass to wall rock, i.e. these abundances of calcites associated with altered granite-type and greisen-type ores are higher than those associated with skarn-type ores. The calcites from primary ores in the Furong deposit show large variation in carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions. The ,13C and ,18O of calcites are ,0.4 to ,12.7, and 2.8 to 16.4,, respectively, and mainly fall within the range between mantle or magmatic carbon and marine carbonate. The calcites from greisen and altered granite ores in the Furong deposit display a negative correlation in the diagram of ,13C versus ,18O, probably owing to the CO2 -degassing of the ore-forming fluids. From the intrusion to wall-rock, the calcites display an increasing tendency with respect to ,13C values. This implies that the carbon isotopic compositions of the ore-bearing fluids have progressively changed from domination by magmatic carbon to sedimentary carbonate carbon. In combination with other geological and geochemical data, we suggest that the ore-forming fluids represent magmatic origin. We believe that the fluids exsolved from fractionation of the granitic magma, accompanying magmatism of the Qitianling granite complex, were involved in the mineralization of the Furong tin polymetallic deposit. [source]


    REE and C-O Isotopic Geochemistry of Calcites from the World-class Huize Pb-Zn Deposits, Yunnan, China: Implications for the Ore Genesis

    ACTA GEOLOGICA SINICA (ENGLISH EDITION), Issue 3 2010
    Zhilong HUANG
    Abstract: The world-class Huize Pb-Zn deposits of Yunnan province, in southwestern China, located in the center of the Sichuan-Yunnan-Guizhou Pb-Zn polymetallic metallogenic province, has Pb+Zn reserves of more than 5 million tons at Pb+Zn grade of higher than 25% and contains abundant associated metals, such as Ag, Ge, Cd, and Ga. The deposits are hosted in the Lower Carboniferous carbonate strata and the Permian Emeishan basalts which distributed in the northern and southwestern parts of the orefield. Calcite is the only gangue mineral in the primary ores of the deposits and can be classified into three types, namely lumpy, patch and vein calcites in accordance with their occurrence. There is not intercalated contact between calcite and ore minerals and among the three types of calcite, indicating that they are the same ore-forming age with different stages and its forming sequence is from lumpy to patch to vein calcites. This paper presents the rare earth element (REE) and C-O isotopic compositions of calcites in the Huize Pb-Zn deposits. From lumpy to patch to vein calcites, REE contents decrease as LREE/HREE ratios increase. The chondrite-normalized REE patterns of the three types of calcites are characterized by LREE-rich shaped, in which the lumpy calcite shows (La)N < (Ce)N < (Pr)N, (Nd)N with Eu/Eu* < 1, the patch calcite has (La)N < (Ce)N < (Pr)N, (Nd)N with Eu/Eu* > 1, and the vein calcite displays (La)N > (Ce)N > (Pr)N > (Nd)N with Eu/Eu* > 1. The REE geochemistry of the three types of calcite is different from those of the strata of various age and Permian Emeishan basalt exposed in the orefield. The ,13CPDB and ,18OSMOW values of the three types of calcites vary from ,3.5, to ,2.1, and 16.7, to 18.6,, respectively, falling within a small field between primary mantle and marine carbonate in the ,13CPDB vs ,18OSMOW diagram. Various lines of evidence demonstrate that the three types of calcites in the deposits are produced from the same source with different stages. The ore-forming fluids of the deposits resulted from crustal-mantle mixing processes, in which the mantle-derived fluid components might be formed from degassing of mantle or/and magmatism of the Permian Emeishan basalts, and the crustal fluid was mainly provided by carbonate strata in the orefield. The ore-forming fluids in the deposits were homogenized before mineralization, and the ore-forming environment varied from relatively reducing to oxidizing. [source]


    Differential distribution of spicule matrix proteins in the sea urchin embryo skeleton

    DEVELOPMENT GROWTH & DIFFERENTIATION, Issue 4 2000
    Takashi Kitajima
    Spicule matrix proteins are the products of primary mesenchyme cells, and are present in calcite spicules of the sea urchin embryo. To study their possible roles in skeletal morphogenesis, monoclonal antibodies against SM50, SM30 and another spicule matrix protein (29 kDa) were obtained. The distribution of these proteins in the embryo skeleton was observed by immunofluorescent staining. In addition, their distribution inside the spicules was examined by a ,spicule blot' procedure, direct immunoblotting of proteins embedded in crystallized spicules. Our observations showed that SM50 and 29 kDa proteins were enriched both outside and inside the triradiate spicules of the gastrulae, and also existed in the corresponding portions of growing spicules in later embryos and micromere cultures. The straight extensions of the triradiate spicules and thickened portions of body rods in pluteus spicules were also rich in these proteins. The SM30 protein was only faintly detected along the surface of spicules. By examination using the spicule blot procedure, however, SM30 was clearly detectable inside the body rods and postoral rods. These results indicate that SM50 and 29 kDa proteins are concentrated in radially growing portions of the spicules (normal to the c-axis of calcite), while SM30 protein is in the longitudinally growing portions (parallel to the c-axis). Such differential distribution suggests the involvement of these proteins in calcite growth during the formation of three-dimensionally branched spicules. [source]


    Patterns of damage in igneous and sedimentary rocks under conditions simulating sea-salt weathering

    EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS, Issue 1 2003
    C. Cardell
    Abstract A saline-spray artificial ageing test was used to simulate the effects produced in granites and sedimentary rocks (calcarenites, micrites and breccia) under conditions in coastal environments. Three main points were addressed in this study: the durability of the different kinds of rock to salt decay, the resulting weathering forms and the rock properties involved in the weathering processes. For this, mineralogical and textural characterization of each of the different rocks was carried out before and after the test. The soluble salt content at different depths from the exposed surfaces was also determined. Two different weathering mechanisms were observed in the granite and calcareous rocks. Physical processes were involved in the weathering of granite samples, whereas dissolution of calcite was also involved in the deterioration of the calcareous rocks. We also showed that microstructural characteristics (e.g. pore size distribution), play a key role in salt damage, because of their influence on saline solution transport and on the pressures developed within rocks during crystallization. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    The nature of calcareous deposits along pan margins in eastern central Namibia

    EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS, Issue 7 2002
    Florias MeesArticle first published online: 13 JUN 200
    Abstract In a region along the western margin of the Kalahari in eastern Namibia and western Botswana, many pan basins have mainly calcareous deposits along part of their margins. These are typically lined by low vertical scarps. In Namibia, these pans are mainly located in dry river beds. The petrographical study of these deposits demonstrates that they consist of lacustrine sediments that have to a varying extent been affected by early-diagenetic processes and by the formation of late-diagenetic features. The original composition of the deposits ranges from highly calcareous sediments, typically with ostracod, diatom and charophyte remains, to entirely non-calcareous diatomites. The deposits generally show an upward increase in total carbonate content, which is mainly a synsedimentary feature. The early-diagenetic processes that affected the deposits include the formation of orthic siliceous nodules. At a later stage, secondary calcite enrichment occurred, leaving only the silica-impregnated sections unaffected. This enrichment partly accounts for the upward increase in total carbonate content in some profiles and often resulted in the development of a highly calcareous surface horizon. Sepiolite and amorphous silica that are part of the groundmass of the deposits may also partly have formed at this stage. Late-diagenetic features include various forms of secondary calcite and silica. This study of pan basins in eastern central Namibia indicates that a lacustrine rather than purely pedogenic origin should also be considered for calcareous deposits that commonly occur along pan margins in other parts of southern Africa. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Complete elimination of carbonates: A critical step in the accurate measurement of organic and black carbon in sediments

    ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY & CHEMISTRY, Issue 9 2005
    Marta T. Lukasewycz
    Abstract Accurate measurement of organic carbon (OC) and black carbon (BC) in sediments requires the complete removal of coexisting inorganic carbonates from the sample before instrumental analysis. The removal of carbonates from sediments is achieved with acidification, which causes the dissolution and decomposition of carbonates with accompanying effervescence. This effervescence, or the lack of it, is commonly used as an indicator for the presence or absence of carbonates. We have found that the lack of effervescence endpoint used with the direct acidification method (adding aliquots of acid to samples) is not a reliable indicator for complete removal of carbonates from sediment samples. The ineffectiveness of the lack of effervescence endpoint, we believe, is caused by the presence of carbonates with dissolution rates much slower than those of calcite, resulting in much slower rates of visible effervescence. We propose and demonstrate a method for determining the amount of acid required for complete elimination of all carbonates using Lake Michigan (USA) sediment samples. Based on our experiences with the lack of effervescence endpoint, we recommend that in any scheme for analysis of OC and/or BC, a minimum of two samples be treated with three different levels of acidification, with the lowest level being the same as that planned for all the OC and/or BC analyses. There can be no significant differences among the OC and BC contents measured using the three different levels of acidification. [source]


    Calcite and gypsum solubility products in water-saturated salt-affected soil samples at 25C and at least up to 14 dS m,1

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOIL SCIENCE, Issue 2 2010
    F. Visconti
    Calcite and gypsum are salts of major ions characterized by poor solubility compared with other salts that may precipitate in soils. Knowledge of calcite and gypsum solubility products in water-saturated soil samples substantially contributes to a better assessment of processes involved in soil salinity. The new SALSOLCHEMIS code for chemical equilibrium assessment was parameterized with published analytical data for aqueous synthetic calcite and gypsum-saturated solutions. Once parameterized, SALSOLCHEMIS was applied to calculations of the ionic activity products of calcium carbonate and calcium sulphate in 133 water-saturated soil samples from an irrigated salt-affected agricultural area in a semi-arid Mediterranean climate. During parameterization, sufficiently constant values for the ionic activity products of calcium carbonate and calcium sulphate were obtained only when the following were used in SALSOLCHEMIS: (i) the equations of Sposito & Traina for the free ion activity coefficient calculation, (ii) the assumption of the non-existence of the Ca (HCO 3)+ and CaCO3o ion pairs and (iii) a paradigm of total ion activity coefficients. The value of 4.62 can be assumed to be a reliable gypsum solubility product (pKs) in simple aqueous and soil solutions, while a value of 8.43 can only be assumed as a reliable calcite solubility product (pKs) in simple aqueous solutions. The saturated pastes and saturation extracts were found to be calcite over-saturated, with the former significantly being less so (p IAP = 8.29) than the latter (p IAP = 8.22). The calcite over-saturation of saturated pastes increased with the soil organic matter content. Nevertheless, the inhibition of calcite precipitation is caused by the soluble organic matter from a dissolved organic carbon threshold value that lies between 7 and 12 mm. The hypothesis of thermodynamic equilibrium is more adequate for the saturated pastes than for the saturation extracts. [source]


    Calcite-specific coupling protein in barnacle underwater cement

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 24 2007
    Youichi Mori
    The barnacle relies for its attachment to underwater foreign substrata on the formation of a multiprotein complex called cement. The 20 kDa cement protein is a component of Megabalanus rosa cement, although its specific function in underwater attachment has not, until now, been known. The recombinant form of the protein expressed in bacteria was purified in soluble form under physiological conditions, and confirmed to retain almost the same structure as that of the native protein. Both the protein from the adhesive layer of the barnacle and the recombinant protein were characterized. This revealed that abundant Cys residues, which accounted for 17% of the total residues, were in the intramolecular disulfide form, and were essential for the proper folding of the monomeric protein structure. The recombinant protein was adsorbed to calcite and metal oxides in seawater, but not to glass and synthetic polymers. The adsorption isotherm for adsorption to calcite fitted the Langmuir model well, indicating that the protein is a calcite-specific adsorbent. An evaluation of the distribution of the molecular size in solution by analytical ultracentrifugation indicated that the recombinant protein exists as a monomer in 100 mm to 1 m NaCl solution; thus, the protein acts as a monomer when interacting with the calcite surface. cDNA encoding a homologous protein was isolated from Balanus albicostatus, and its derived amino acid sequence was compared with that from M. rosa. Calcite is the major constituent in both the shell of barnacle base and the periphery, which is also a possible target for the cement, due to the gregarious nature of the organisms. The specificity of the protein for calcite may be related to the fact that calcite is the most frequent material attached by the cement. [source]


    Speleothem preservation and diagenesis in South African hominin sites implications for paleoenvironments and geochronology

    GEOARCHAEOLOGY: AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL, Issue 5 2009
    Philip J. Hopley
    Plio-Pleistocene speleothems from australopithecine-bearing caves of South Africa have the potential to yield paleoenvironmental and geochronological information using isotope geochemistry. Prior to such studies it is important to assess the preservation of geochemical signals within the calcitic and aragonitic speleothems, given the tendency of aragonitic speleothems to recrystallize to calcite. This study documents the geochemical suitability of speleothems from the principal hominin-bearing deposits of South Africa. We use petrography, together with stable isotope and trace element analysis, to identify the occurrence of primary aragonite, primary calcite, and secondary calcite. This study highlights the presence of diagenetic alteration at many of the sites, often observed as interbedded primary and secondary fabrics. Trace element and stable isotopic values distinguish primary calcite from secondary calcite and offer insights into geochemical aspects of the past cave environment. ,13C values of the primary and secondary calcites range from +6 to ,9, and ,18O values range from ,4 to ,6,. The data are thus typical of meteoric calcites with highly variable ,13C and relatively invariant ,18O. High carbon isotope values in these deposits are associated with the effects of recrystallization and rapid outgassing of CO2 during precipitation. Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios differ between primary and secondary calcite speleothems, aiding their identification. Carbon and oxygen isotope values in primary calcite reflect the proportion of C3 and C4 vegetation in the local environment and the oxygen isotope composition of rainfall. Primary calcite speleothems preserve the pristine geochemical signals vital for ongoing paleoenvironmental and geochronological research. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


    Geochemistry and petrography of basalt grindstones from the Karak Plateau, central Jordan

    GEOARCHAEOLOGY: AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL, Issue 1 2004
    Brandon G. Watts
    Seventeen basalt grindstone fragments from central Jordan's Karak Plateau were studied. Most of these artifacts are vesicular or amygdaloidal with calcite as the dominant mineral filling the voids. The major minerals are olivine (with iddingsite rims), plagioclase, clinopyroxene, magnetite, and apatite. Glass is present in some samples. One basalt fragment is quite different in appearance and composition and may have come from flows closer to the Dead Sea. Grindstone fragment compositions plot in the tephrite-basanite and basalt fields. A plot of the concentrations of niobium, zirconium, and yttrium reveal that the sample compositions plot in the "within-plate alkali basalt" and "within-plate tholeiite" fields. The acquisition of basalts for preparing such implements appears to have been random. Some may have been introduced through trade and migration. Archaeological and environmental studies on the Karak Plateau are urgently needed because Jordan's population growth and economic development are destroying many sites and their environmental contexts. 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


    Investigation of Islamic ceramics from Tell Tuneinir using X-ray diffraction

    GEOARCHAEOLOGY: AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL, Issue 8 2001
    M.L. Eiland
    In this study, X-ray diffraction (XRD) is applied to select ceramics, particularly dating to the Ayyoubid (A.D. 1174,1250) period from Tell Tuneinir in Syria. Because XRD has not been commonly applied to archaeological ceramics, a thorough background of the technique is given, with emphasis on quantitative measurements of quartz and calcite tempers. Several compositional groups based on raw materials and firing conditions emerge. While most ceramic samples are of local manufacture, Islamic stonepaste wares, and the "grenade" sample emerge as likely imports. We conclude that XRD is a powerful tool in characterizing archaeological ceramics and may be used to semi-quantitatively gauge the amount of quartz, calcite, and feldspars in a sample. 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. [source]


    Analysis of hopanes and steranes in single oil-bearing fluid inclusions using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS)

    GEOBIOLOGY, Issue 1 2010
    S. SILJESTRM
    Steranes and hopanes are organic biomarkers used as indicators for the first appearance of eukaryotes and cyanobacteria on Earth. Oil-bearing fluid inclusions may provide a contamination-free source of Precambrian biomarkers, as the oil has been secluded from the environment since the formation of the inclusion. However, analysis of biomarkers in single oil-bearing fluid inclusions, which is often necessary due to the presence of different generations of inclusions, has not been possible due to the small size of most inclusions. Here, we have used time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) to monitor in real time the opening of individual inclusions trapped in hydrothermal veins of fluorite and calcite and containing oil from Ordovician source rocks. Opening of the inclusions was performed by using a focused C60+ ion beam and the in situ content was precisely analysed for C27,C29 steranes and C29,C32 hopanes using Bi3+ as primary ions. The capacity to unambiguously detect these biomarkers in the picoliter amount of crude oil from a single, normal-sized (15,30 ,m in diameter) inclusion makes the approach promising in the search of organic biomarkers for life's early evolution on Earth. [source]


    Unravelling the microbial role in ooid formation , results of an in situ experiment in modern freshwater Lake Geneva in Switzerland

    GEOBIOLOGY, Issue 4 2008
    K. PLEE
    ABSTRACT The microbial role in the formation of the cortex of low-Mg calcite freshwater ooids in western part of Lake Geneva in Switzerland has been suggested previously, but not demonstrated conclusively. Early work mostly concentrated in hypersaline milieus, and hence little is known about their genesis in freshwater environments. We designed an in situ experiment to mimic the natural process of low-Mg calcite precipitation. A special device was placed in the ooid-rich bank of the lake. It contained frosted glass (SiO2) slides, while quartz (SiO2) is the most abundant mineral composition of ooid nuclei that acted as artificial substrates to favour microbial colonization. Microscopic inspection of the slides revealed a clear seasonal pattern of carbonate precipitates, which were always closely associated with biofilms that developed on the surface of the frosted slides containing extracellular polymeric substance, coccoid and filamentous cyanobacteria, diatoms and heterotrophic bacteria. Carbonate precipitation peaks during early spring and late summer, and low-Mg calcite crystals mostly occur in close association with filamentous and coccoid cyanobacteria (e.g. Tolypothrix, Oscillatoria and Synechococcus, Anacystis, respectively). Further scanning electron microscope inspection of the samples revealed low-Mg calcite with crystal forms varying from anhedral to euhedral rhombohedra, depending on the seasons. Liquid cultures corroborate the in situ observations and demonstrate that under the same physicochemical conditions the absence of biofilms prevents the precipitation of low-Mg calcite crystals. These results illustrate that biofilms play a substantial role in low-Mg calcite ooid cortex formation. It further demonstrates the involvement of microbes in the early stages of ooid development. Combined with ongoing microbial cultures under laboratory-controlled conditions, the outcome of our investigation favoured the hypothesis of external microbial precipitation of low-Mg calcite as the main mechanism involved in the early stage of ooid formation in freshwater Lake Geneva. [source]


    Seawater Mg/Ca controls polymorph mineralogy of microbial CaCO3: A potential proxy for calcite-aragonite seas in Precambrian time

    GEOBIOLOGY, Issue 2 2008
    J. B. RIES
    ABSTRACT A previously published hydrothermal brine-river water mixing model driven by ocean crust production suggests that the molar Mg/Ca ratio of seawater (mMg/Casw) has varied significantly (~1.0,5.2) over Precambrian time, resulting in six intervals of aragonite-favouring seas (mMg/Casw > 2) and five intervals of calcite-favouring seas (mMg/Casw < 2) since the Late Archaean. To evaluate the viability of microbial carbonates as mineralogical proxy for Precambrian calcite-aragonite seas, calcifying microbial marine biofilms were cultured in experimental seawaters formulated over the range of Mg/Ca ratios believed to have characterized Precambrian seawater. Biofilms cultured in experimental aragonite seawater (mMg/Casw = 5.2) precipitated primarily aragonite with lesser amounts of high-Mg calcite (mMg/Cacalcite = 0.16), while biofilms cultured in experimental calcite seawater (mMg/Casw = 1.5) precipitated exclusively lower magnesian calcite (mMg/Cacalcite = 0.06). Furthermore, Mg/Cacalcite varied proportionally with Mg/Casw. This nearly abiotic mineralogical response of the biofilm CaCO3 to altered Mg/Casw is consistent with the assertion that biofilm calcification proceeds more through the elevation of , via metabolic removal of CO2 and/or H+, than through the elevation of Ca2+, which would alter the Mg/Ca ratio of the biofilm's calcifying fluid causing its pattern of CaCO3 polymorph precipitation (aragonite vs. calcite; Mg-incorporation in calcite) to deviate from that of abiotic calcification. If previous assertions are correct that the physicochemical properties of Precambrian seawater were such that Mg/Casw was the primary variable influencing CaCO3 polymorph mineralogy, then the observed response of the biofilms' CaCO3 polymorph mineralogy to variations in Mg/Casw, combined with the ubiquity of such microbial carbonates in Precambrian strata, suggests that the original polymorph mineralogy and Mg/Cacalcite of well-preserved microbial carbonates may be an archive of calcite-aragonite seas throughout Precambrian time. These results invite a systematic evaluation of microbial carbonate primary mineralogy to empirically constrain Precambrian seawater Mg/Ca. [source]


    A likely role for anoxygenic photosynthetic microbes in the formation of ancient stromatolites

    GEOBIOLOGY, Issue 2 2007
    T. BOSAK
    ABSTRACT Although cyanobacteria are the dominant primary producers in modern stromatolites and other microbialites, the oldest stromatolites pre-date geochemical evidence for oxygenic photosynthesis and cyanobacteria in the rock record. As a step towards the development of laboratory models of stromatolite growth, we tested the potential of a metabolically ancient anoxygenic photosynthetic bacterium to build stromatolites. This organism, Rhodopseudomonas palustris, stimulates the precipitation of calcite in solutions already highly saturated with respect to calcium carbonate, and greatly facilitates the incorporation of carbonate grains into proto-lamina (i.e. crusts). The appreciable stimulation of the growth of proto-lamina by a nonfilamentous anoxygenic microbe suggests that similar microbes may have played a greater role in the formation of Archean stromatolites than previously assumed. [source]


    Micro-scale sulphur isotope evidence for sulphur cycling in the late Archean shallow ocean

    GEOBIOLOGY, Issue 1 2007
    B. S. KAMBER
    ABSTRACT We report in situ secondary ion mass spectrometer sulphur isotope data for sedimentary pyrite from the 2.52 Ga Upper Campbellrand Subgroup, Transvaal, South Africa. The analysed sedimentary rocks represent a transition in depositional environment from very shallow to deeper water, with strong sedimentological, facies distribution and geochemical evidence for the presence of a shallow redox chemocline. Data were obtained directly in thin section in order to preserve petrographic context. They reveal a very large extent of isotopic fractionation both in mass-independent (MIF) and in mass-dependent fractionation (MDF) on unprecedentedly small scale. In the shallow-water microbical carbonates, three types of pyrite were identified. The texturally oldest pyrite is found as small, isotopically little fractionated grains in the microbial mats. Large (several mm) spheroidal pyrite concretions, which postdate the mat pyrite, record strong evidence for an origin by bacterial sulphate reduction. Rare pyrite surrounding late fenestral calcite is inferred to have formed from recycled bacterial pyrite on account of the slope of its correlated MIF and MDF array. This latter type of pyrite was also found in an interbedded black shale and a carbonate laminite. In a deeper water chert, pyrite with very heavy sulphur indicates partial to almost complete sulphate reduction across a chemocline whose existence has been inferred independently. The combined picture from all the studied samples is that of a sulphate availability-limited environment, in which sulphur was cycled between reservoirs according to changing redox conditions established across the chemocline. Cycling apparently reduced the extent of recorded sulphur isotope fractionation relative to what is expected from projection in the correlated MIF and MDF arrays. This is consistent with regionally relatively high free oxygen concentrations in the shallow water, permitting locally strong MDF. Our new observations add to the growing evidence for a complex, fluctuating evolution of free atmospheric oxygen between c. 2.7 Ga and 2.3 Ga. [source]


    Living under an atomic force microscope

    GEOBIOLOGY, Issue 3 2005
    An optimized approach for in vivo investigations on surface alterations towards biomineral nucleation on cyanobacterial cells
    ABSTRACT An approach for long-term in vivo investigations on cyanobacterial cell surface changes at high spatial resolution by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was developed in this study. Until recently, changes of bacterial cell surfaces due to changes of the chemical environment could neither be investigated in situ nor in vivo. However, in vivo investigations give insights into kinetics of cell response to environmental changes and mineral nucleation at the cell's surface. Continuously cultured cyanobacteria of the representative freshwater strain Synechococcus leopoliensis (PCC 7942) were washed and artificially immobilized on poly-l-lysine-coated glass slides. Both immobilization and environmental conditions were optimized in order to facilitate long-term experiments (> 100 h) with living cells. AFM samples were investigated in situ in two different solutions: Culture medium was used for cultivation experiments and nutrient-free NaHCO3/CaCl2 solutions (supersaturated with respect to calcite) for long-term characterizations of the changes in cell surface topography. Cell viability under these conditions was investigated by AFM, TEM and epifluorescence microscopy, independently. No indications for extended starvation were found within the relevant timescales. Analysing the influence of Ca2+ on the surface of S. leopoliensis, we found significant changes compared to a Ca-free solution. Few hours after CaCl2 was added to the circumfluent solution, small protuberances were observed on the cell surface. These are promising results to environmental scientists for a wide range of applications, as cell response to environmental changes can now be monitored online and in vivo at timescales, which are relevant for natural processes. Most especially studies of biomineralization and mineral nucleation on bacterial cell surfaces will profit from this new approach. [source]