Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Earth and Environmental Science

Terms modified by Caves

  • cave deposit
  • cave site
  • cave stream
  • cave system

  • Selected Abstracts

    Interactive editing of digital fault models

    Jordan Van Aalsburg
    Abstract We describe an application to interactively create and manipulate digital fault maps, either by tracing existing (paper) fault maps created from geological surveys, or by directly observing fault expressions and earthquake hypocenters in remote sensing data such as high-resolution (,100k × 100k elevation postings) digital elevation models with draped color imagery. Such fault maps serve as input data to finite-element-method simulations of fault interactions, and are crucial to understand regional tectonic processes causing earthquakes, and have tentatively been used to forecast future seismic events or to predict the shaking from likely future earthquakes. This fault editor is designed for immersive virtual reality environments such as CAVEs, and presents users with visualizations of scanned 2D fault maps and textured 3D terrain models, and a set of 3D editing tools to create or manipulate faults. We close with a case study performed by one of our geologist co-authors (Yikilmaz), which evaluates the use of our fault editor in creating a detailed digital fault model of the North Anatolian Fault in Turkey, one of the largest, seismically active strike-slip faults in the world. Yikilmaz, who was directly involved in program development, used our fault editor both in a CAVE and on a desktop computer, and compares it to the industry-standard software package ArcGIS. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The Polder Computing Environment: a system for interactive distributed simulation

    K. A. Iskra
    Abstract The paper provides an overview of an experimental, Grid-like computing environment, Polder, and its components. Polder offers high-performance computing and interactive simulation facilities to computational science. It was successfully implemented on a wide-area cluster system, the Distributed ASCI Supercomputer. An important issue is an efficient management of resources, in particular multi-level scheduling and migration of tasks that use PVM or sockets. The system can be applied to interactive simulation, where a cluster is used for high-performance computations, while a dedicated immersive interactive environment (CAVE) offers visualization and user interaction. Design considerations for the construction of dynamic exploration environments using such a system are discussed, in particular the use of intelligent agents for coordination. A case study of simulatedabdominal vascular reconstruction is subsequently presented: the results of computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging of a patient are displayed in CAVE, and a surgeon can evaluate the possible treatments by performing the surgeries virtually and analysing the resulting blood flow which is simulated using the lattice-Boltzmann method. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Enveloping triangulation method for detecting internal cavities in proteins and algorithm for computing their surface areas and volumes

    Ján Bu
    Abstract Detection and quantitative characterization of the internal cavities in proteins remain an important topic in studying protein structure and function. Here we propose a new analytical method for detecting the existence of cavities in proteins. The method is based on constructing the special enveloping triangulation enclosing the cavities. Based on this method, we develop an algorithm and a fortran package, CAVE, for computing volumes and surface areas of cavities in proteins. We first test our method and algorithm in some artificial systems of spheres and find that the calculated results are consistent with exact results. Then we apply the package to compute volumes and surface areas of cavities for some protein structures in the Protein Data Bank. We compare our calculated results with those obtained by some other methods and find that our approach is reliable. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Comput Chem, 2009 [source]


    ARCHAEOMETRY, Issue 4 2010
    T. De TORRES
    The age of Neanderthal remains and associated sediments from El Sidrón cave has been obtained through different dating methods (14CAMS, U/TH, OSL, ESR and AAR) and samples (charcoal debris, bone, tooth dentine, stalagmitic flowstone, carbonate-rich sediments, sedimentary quartz grains, tooth enamel and land snail shells). Detrital Th contamination rendered Th/U dating analyses of flowstone unreliable. Recent 14C contamination produced spurious age-values from charcoal samples as well as from inadequately pretreated tooth samples. Most consistent 14C dates are grouped into two series: one between 35 and 40 ka and the other between 48 and 49 ka. Most ESR and AAR samples yielded concordant ages, ranging between 39 and 45 ka; OSL dating results permitted adequate bracketing of the sedimentary layer that contained the human remains. Our results emphasize the value of multi-dating approaches for the establishment of reliable chronologies of human remains. [source]


    ARCHAEOMETRY, Issue 3 2009
    Geographical Information Systems (GIS) are being incorporated into archaeology as a technique to improve the understanding of spatial organization and the relationships among finds within specific areas. Although their use as a basic tool in predicting the location of archaeological sites or in assessing the extent of their catchment areas is relatively common, in general, they have less often been applied to the study of the spatial distribution of archaeological remains within individual deposits, and in particular to faunal assemblages. Despite this, they can prove essential to understanding dispersion and grouping patterns within deposits fully, and, together with various correlation analytical techniques, they provide valuable information about the economic organization of settlements and inhabitant lifeways. To demonstrate the potential of this methodology, a zooarchaeological GIS has been prepared for the Middle and Late Magdalenian and Azilian layers in El Mirón Cave (eastern Cantabria, Spain), and the spatial distribution patterns of various attributes of the archaeological record have been analysed. Significant conclusions in terms of type and duration of human occupation have been drawn. [source]


    ARCHAEOMETRY, Issue 1 2009
    The Edera Cave, near Aurisina in the Trieste Karst, retains a stratigraphy that extends from the Mesolithic to the modern era. At Sauveterrian layers, many specimens of Helix cincta are present, which are considerably crushed, and a small percentage of which are also blackened. Chemical analyses show that the blackened specimens were exposed to a temperature of between 500 and 550°C, and suggest that many others were destroyed by fire at temperatures of above 700°C. Consequently, only a part of the Helix cincta shells is assumed to be the residue of human meals, since several factors render plausible an accidental combustion of shells already present in the ground before the lighting of Mesolithic hearths. [source]

    Using Immersive Simulation for Training First Responders for Mass Casualty Incidents

    William Wilkerson MD
    Abstract Objectives:, A descriptive study was performed to better understand the possible utility of immersive virtual reality simulation for training first responders in a mass casualty event. Methods:, Utilizing a virtual reality cave automatic virtual environment (CAVE) and high-fidelity human patient simulator (HPS), a group of experts modeled a football stadium that experienced a terrorist explosion during a football game. Avatars (virtual patients) were developed by expert consensus that demonstrated a spectrum of injuries ranging from death to minor lacerations. A group of paramedics was assessed by observation for decisions made and action taken. A critical action checklist was created and used for direct observation and viewing videotaped recordings. Results:, Of the 12 participants, only 35.7% identified the type of incident they encountered. None identified a secondary device that was easily visible. All participants were enthusiastic about the simulation and provided valuable comments and insights. Conclusions:, Learner feedback and expert performance review suggests that immersive training in a virtual environment has the potential to be a powerful tool to train first responders for high-acuity, low-frequency events, such as a terrorist attack. [source]


    ACTA ARCHAEOLOGICA, Issue 1 2009
    Article first published online: 5 JUL 2010
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    ARCHAEOMETRY, Issue 2 2009
    Ochres were the most common source materials for pigments used in Palaeolithic rock art paintings. This work analyses the petrographic and geochemical signatures of different ochre samples from outcrops inside Tito Bustillo Cave and the Monte Castillo Caves using the most common techniques (petrography, XRD, SEM,EDS and ICP,MS) in archaeological pigment characterization studies. The results obtained permit the identification and characterization of the different source ochre types and, furthermore, allow the establishment of mineralogical and geochemical proxies for the study of questions related to ochre characterization, formation processes and provenance. [source]


    ARCHAEOMETRY, Issue 1 2009
    J. E. ORTIZ
    Here, we provide the first report on the ages of 54 archaeological levels in 38 caves in northern Spain by means of the aspartic acid d/l ratio measurements in Patella shells, with good results. For this purpose, we developed an age calculation algorithm that allows the numerical dating of deposits from other archaeological localities in the area and nearby regions. We conclude that the sample size,that is, the number of shells analysed within a single level,reinforces the importance of analysing numerous specimens per horizon and the understanding of the time-averaging concept. The ultrastructure of different species of Patella shells was also studied, showing calcite in their apexes and aragonite at their margins. [source]

    Rendering: Input and Output

    H. Rushmeier
    Rendering is the process of creating an image from numerical input data. In the past few years our ideas about methods for acquiring the input data and the form of the output have expanded. The availability of inexpensive cameras and scanners has influenced how we can obtain data needed for rendering. Input for rendering ranges from sets of images to complex geometric descriptions with detailed BRDF data. The images that are rendered may be simply arrays of RGB images, or they may be arrays with vectors or matrices of data defined for each pixel. The rendered images may not be intended for direct display, but may be textures for geometries that are to be transmitted to be rendered on another system. A broader range of parameters now need to be taken into account to render images that are perceptually consistent across displays that range from CAVEs to personal digital assistants. This presentation will give an overview of how new hardware and new applications have changed traditional ideas of rendering input and output. [source]

    Interactive editing of digital fault models

    Jordan Van Aalsburg
    Abstract We describe an application to interactively create and manipulate digital fault maps, either by tracing existing (paper) fault maps created from geological surveys, or by directly observing fault expressions and earthquake hypocenters in remote sensing data such as high-resolution (,100k × 100k elevation postings) digital elevation models with draped color imagery. Such fault maps serve as input data to finite-element-method simulations of fault interactions, and are crucial to understand regional tectonic processes causing earthquakes, and have tentatively been used to forecast future seismic events or to predict the shaking from likely future earthquakes. This fault editor is designed for immersive virtual reality environments such as CAVEs, and presents users with visualizations of scanned 2D fault maps and textured 3D terrain models, and a set of 3D editing tools to create or manipulate faults. We close with a case study performed by one of our geologist co-authors (Yikilmaz), which evaluates the use of our fault editor in creating a detailed digital fault model of the North Anatolian Fault in Turkey, one of the largest, seismically active strike-slip faults in the world. Yikilmaz, who was directly involved in program development, used our fault editor both in a CAVE and on a desktop computer, and compares it to the industry-standard software package ArcGIS. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Cathedral Cave, Wellington Caves, New South Wales, Australia.

    A multiphase, non-fluvial cave
    Abstract Cathedral Cave is an outstanding example of a class of multiphase caves with largely non-fluvial origins. It contains large cavities such as cathedrals and cupolas, characteristic of excavation by convection currents in rising waters. Smaller-scale features such as rising half-tubes, pseudonotches, curved juts, projecting corners, blades and bridges indicate intersection and exhumation of older cavities during the formation of younger ones. It is possible to recognize at least ten significant phases of speleogenesis by morphostratigraphy, in addition to the four generations of cave-filling palaeokarst deposits intersected by the cave. The cave we see today results from the progressive integration of a number of previously disconnected or poorly connected solution cavities. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Preliminary soil micromorphology studies of landscape and occupation history at Tabon Cave, Palawan, Philippines

    Helen Lewis
    Preliminary soil micromorphology study of cultural sediments at Tabon Cave, Philippines, supports interpretations of sporadic occupation in the Paleolithic. The presence in some deposits of authigenic minerals potentially related to altered cultural materials, such as ash, needs further investigation. Later in the sequence there is a marked change in local depositional processes, with the onset of significant quartz sand deposition in layers dating from the Middle to Late Holocene. This could relate to beach development in the area. Future sedimentological study and dating would confirm this interpretation, which suggests that in appropriate settings, stratified cave sediments could be useful for the study of regional sea level rise. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    Late Wisconsinan Port Eliza Cave deposits and their implications for human coastal migration, Vancouver Island, Canada

    M. Al-Suwaidi
    Sediments of Port Eliza Cave provide a record of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) on Vancouver Island that has important implications for human migration along the debated coastal migration route. Lithofacies changes from nonglacial diamict to glacial laminated silt and clay and till, then a return to nonglacial conditions with oxidized clay, colluvial block beds, and speleothems, along with radiocarbon and U/Th dates, define glacial,nonglacial transitions. Scanning electron microscope studies and clay mineralogy confirm that the laminated fines represent glaciation. Preglacial faunal evidence shows a diverse range from small species, including birds, fish, vole, and marmot, to larger species, such as mountain goat. Pollen data from the same unit show a cold, dry tundra environment with sparse trees. Deglaciation occurred prior to an age of 12.3 ka B.P. based on dated mountain goat bone. These data support the viability of the coastal migration route for humans prior to ,16 ka B.P. and then as early as ,13 ka B.P. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    Integrating geochemistry and micromorphology to interpret feature use at Dust Cave, a Paleo-Indian through middle-archaic site in Northwest Alabama

    Lara K. Homsey
    The authors develop an integrated method using geochemistry and micromorphology to examine the use of archaeological features at Dust Cave, a Paleo-Indian through Middle Archaic (10,650,3600 cal. B.C.) site in northwest Alabama. Samples analyzed using ICP-AES for aluminum (Al), barium (Ba), calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), sodium (Na), phosphorous (P), strontium (Sr), sulfur (S), and zinc (Zn) and suggest that cultural features differ chemically from geogenic sediments in several ways: (a) K-means cluster analyses indicate that features of known origin and suspected features of the same origin cluster together, thereby allowing for a preliminary separation into discrete functionalities; (b) phosphorus serves as an indicator of human occupation intensity; and (c) Sr/Ca and K/P ratios help identify anthropogenic materials. Micromorphological observations allow for a finer subdivision of feature types and help highlight postdepositional processes affecting cave sediments, and interpretation of activity at the site. These findings show that feature diversity and occupation intensity increased through time, peaking during the Middle Archaic. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    Geochronology, sediment provenance, and fossil emplacement at Sumidouro Cave, a classic late Pleistocene/early Holocene Paleoanthropological site in eastern Brazil

    Luís B. Piló
    Peter Wilhelm Lund's (1845a) heavily debated suggestion of a contemporaneity between Paleo-Indians and extinct Pleistocene fauna at Sumidouro Cave was re-examined through detailed sedimentological and geochronological analyses of sediment and both human and faunal remains. Sources of the cave's sediment include both entrances as well as ceiling fissures. Non-human fossils, on the other hand, were probably carried by floodwater through the once more-spacious swallet entrance. Seasonal flooding reworked and mixed these two highly asynchronous assemblages. U-series and radiocarbon ages indicate that there are at least two distinct episodes of sediment input in the cave, at ,240,000 yr B.P. and ,8000 yr B.P. Human remains represent a later emplacement event, probably at ,8400 cal yr B.P. Although the human remains are of considerable age, the cave's complex stratigraphy, flooding dynamics, and extensive removal of the cave's filling during earlier excavations do not allow the determination of an unequivocal co-existence between Paleo-Indians and extinct megafauna at the site. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    The formation and sedimentary infilling of the Cave of Hearths and Historic Cave complex, Makapansgat, South Africa

    A.G. Latham
    The archaeology of caves is best served by including a study of natural effects prior to and during anthropogenic input. This is especially true for the Cave of Hearths because not only has erosion determined the area of occupation, but also subsequent undermining has caused collapse of some of the rearward parts of the site during Early Stone Age (Acheulian) and later times; and this had a major impact on excavation. The key to understanding the nature of the collapsed layers was the rediscovery of a lower part of the cavern below the whole site. This lower cavern is no longer accessible, but the evidence for it was revealed in a swallow hole by R.J. Mason, and in archived material at the Department of Archaeology, University of Witwatersrand. The creation and dissolution of dolomite fragments in the upper layers has resulted in the formation of thick, carbonate-cemented breccia that has preserved underlying layers and prevented further collapse. We agree with Mason that further archaeological and hominid finds await excavation under the proximate Historical Cave west entrance. This area has the potential for archaeological and palaeoanthropological material that predates the layers in the Cave of Hearths. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    New archaeo-stratigraphic data for the TD6 level in relation to Homo antecessor (Lower Pleistocene) at the site of Atapuerca, north-central Spain

    Antoni Canals
    The sediments of the TD6 level of Gran Dolina Cave at Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain, consist of a series of mud flows with angular clasts. The TD6 deposit has two parts: an upper part, known as the Aurora stratum, which yields Homo antecessor remains, and a lower part with rather homogeneous sediment. The excavation of TD6 level did not reveal a sequence of diachronic occupations. Instead, the contextual and stratigraphic studies permitted us to describe and delimit the micro-units forming the TD6 deposit. The study of the distribution of archaeological remains based on vertical archaeological profiles, using an archaeo-stratigraphic method, allowed us to document the occurrence of a series of archaeological levels within the apparent homogeneous deposit. Variations in the density of archaeological remains along the archaeo-stratigraphic levels permitted us to define two occupational cycles in TD6. These cycles seemingly show increased activities through time, culminating in the Aurora level with the presence of cannibalized Homo antecessor remains. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    The microstratigraphic record of abrupt climate changes in cave sediments of the Western Mediterranean

    Marie-Agnès Courty
    The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how calcareous sediments from Pleistocene and Holocene rockshelters and open caves of the Western Mediterranean can provide a stratigraphic record of abrupt climate change. The method proposed here is based on microstratigraphic examination of sedimentary sequences using microscopic techniques. The most important processes for characterizing the sensitivity of each cave to climate variables are: (1) the modes and rate of carbonate sediment production, (2) the nature and intensity of the pedogenic processes responsible for the synchronous alteration of carbonate materials (either those derived from the cave walls or those deposited on the ground surface), and (3) the supply of allogenic sediments, particularly by eolian activity. The cave sediment sequences presented record the marked coolings known as Dansgaard-Oeschger stadials and Heinrich events that occurred during the Pleistocene and the Holocene, as demonstrated by the high resolution records from ice and deep sea cores. At Abric Romanì in northeastern Spain, a series of sharp climatic deteriorations of increasing severity is shown to have occurred synchronously with the transition from the Middle to the Upper Paleolithic, with a period of seasonal frost and strong winds at ca. 37,000 yr B.P., tentatively correlated with Heinrich event 4. At Pigeon Cave, Taforalt (northern Morocco), the transition from the Aterian to Ibero-Maurusian/Epipalaeolithic cultures is dated to around 24,000,20,000 yr B.P. and is punctuated by a series of short cold pulses with evidence for seasonal freezing, soil erosion, and minimal evapotranspiration. In El Miron cave in north-central Spain, the exceptional nature of the Younger Dryas cooling produced a marked destabilization of the cave walls and roof. At El Miron, the stratigraphic evidence for sediment removal due to the rapid percolation of snow melt under a degraded soil cover allows us to reconstruct the nature of the negative excursion at ca. 8200 yr B.P. This example also illustrates how climate-controlled pedogenic processes can create a stratigraphic signature which has often been confused with a sedimentary hiatus. We conclude that cave sediments provide a valuable record of Pleistocene and Holocene climate changes. In appropriate contexts, these sequences allow us to examine the ecological stress generated by these unique global events at a local and regional level and improve our understanding of the complex anthropological processes that occurred at the same time. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. [source]

    The sedimentary records in Mediterranean rockshelters and caves: Archives of environmental change

    Jamie C. Woodward
    It is important to develop rigorous methods and robust conceptual models for the interpretation of rockshelter and cave sediment records so that the cultural sequences they contain can be considered in their proper environmental context. Much of what we know about the prehistory of the Mediterranean region and adjacent areas has largely been pieced together from materials excavated from sedimentary sequences in these environments. The rockshelters and caves of the region form important environmental and sedimentary archives. Recent work has begun to consider if the remarkable climatic variability evident in the high resolution lacustrine and ice core records is manifest in the rockshelter and cave sediment records of the area. In this context, the two main characteristics of a rockshelter or cave site which control its usefulness as an archive of environmental change are the temporal resolution of the sedimentary record and the environmental sensitivity of the site. Many rockshelters and caves can be described as either Active Karst Settings (AKS) or Passive Karst Settings (PKS) and site type is an important influence on climatic sensitivity with a direct influence upon the usefulness of the sedimentary sequence as a proxy record of climate change. It is now clear that some sites may preserve detailed paleoclimatic records and the climatic signal may be represented by distinctive suites of micromorphological features, by variations in the input of allogenic sediment, or by fluctuations in the mineral magnetic properties of the fine sediment fraction. It can be argued that data derived from the analysis of bulk coarse-grained samples often lacks the stratigraphic resolution and environmental sensitivity that can be obtained from other approaches. The most favorable sites for detailed paleoclimatic reconstruction appear to be in active karst settings such as Theopetra Cave (Greece) and Pigeon Cave (Morocco) where micromorphological analyses offer insights into the stratigraphic record that are not otherwise obtainable. The temporal resolution of a site can only be established through a rigorous stratigraphic analysis and a comprehensive dating program. These are fundamental considerations in the study of rockshelter sediment records, especially when attempting to correlate between sites and draw comparisons with other proxy records of environmental change derived from sedimentary environments with rather different characteristics. Rockshelters and caves are part of a wider sediment system, and their investigation must be accompanied by detailed geomorphological, sedimentological, paleoecological, and geochronological studies of the off-site Quaternary record. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. [source]

    Temporal and spatial variations in the discharge and dissolved organic carbon of drip waters in Beijing Shihua Cave, China

    Fengmei Ban
    Abstract To detect the causal relationship between cave drip waters and stalagmite laminae, which have been used as a climate change proxy, three drip sites in Beijing Shihua Cave were monitored for discharge and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Drip discharges and DOC were determined at 0 to 14-day intervals over the period 2004,2006. Drip discharges show two types of response to surface precipitation variations: (1) a rapid response; and (2) a time-lagged response. Intra-annual variability in drip discharge is significantly higher than inter-annual variability. The content of DOC in all drip waters varies inter- and intra-annually and has good correlation with drip water discharge at the rapid response sites. High DOC was observed in July and August in the three years observed. The flushing of soil organic matter is dependent upon the intensity of rain events. The DOC content of drip water increases sharply above a threshold rainfall intensity (>50 mm d,1) and shows several pulses corresponding with intense rain events (>25 mm d,1). The DOC content was lower and less variable during the dry period than during the rainy period. The shape of DOC peak also varies from year to year as it is influenced by the intensity and frequency of rainfall. The different drip sites show marked differences in DOC response, which are dominated by hydrological behaviour linked to the recharge of the soil and karst micro-fissure/porosity network. The results explain why not all stalagmite laminae are consistent with climate changes and suggest that the structure of the rainy season events could be preserved in speleothems. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Mandibular hypodontia and osteoarthritis in prehistoric bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) in eastern Washington State, USA

    R. Lee Lyman
    Abstract Mandibular hypodontia of the p2 was found to occur in 3 out of 21 individual prehistoric Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis) from Moses Coulee Cave in eastern Washington State, similar to its frequency of occurrence in modern bighorn. There is no evidence of lumpy jaw (mandibular osteomyelitis) in the Moses Coulee Cave collection. Evidence from Moses Coulee Cave aligns with the hypothesis that low frequencies of hypodontia and lumpy jaw occur in healthy, evolutionarily old (maintenance) populations in order to maintain the occlusal area and thus maximise efficiency of food procurement and processing. Osteoarthritis was found to occur in 1 out of 70 individual Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis) astragali in the Moses Coulee Cave collection. This prevalence is unsurprising given a population dominated by prime-age individuals. Osteoarthritis was likely selected against given that individuals must be agile to effectively use rugged terrain to escape predation and as a general measure suggests a healthy population. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Carnivores and their prey in the Wezmeh Cave (Kermanshah, Iran): a Late Pleistocene refuge in the Zagros

    M. Mashkour
    Abstract Wezmeh Cave is located on the northeastern edge of the Islamabad plain, a high intermontane valley in the western-central Zagros. In 1999 a disturbed but large faunal assemblage was recovered from this site. The abundant and extremely diverse faunal spectra present at Wezmeh Cave has highlighted the importance of this assemblage. Carnivore remains constitute the bulk of the assemblage; red fox (Vulpes vulpes) has the highest number of identified specimens followed by spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta), brown bear (Ursus arctos), wolf (Canis lupus), felids (lion, leopard, lynx/caracal and wildcat), mustelids (badger, polecat, marten) and viverrids (mongoose). Artiodactyls (bovid, cervid, suid), equids, rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sp.) and small animals (Cape hare, porcupine, tortoise, snake, birds) are also present. According to U-series dating, the site was occupied from around 70 ka BP through to sub-recent periods by carnivores. Amongst this rich assemblage, a human fossil tooth was also found and dated by non-invasive spectrometry gamma dating to 20,25 ka BP. A preliminary zooarchaeological and taphonomic study shows that Wezmeh Cave was used by multiple carnivore species, a unique phenomenon in the Zagros Mountains in particular and southwest Asia in general. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Disentangling the Harrisson archive to interpret the spatial and temporal distribution of vertebrate remains at Niah Caves, Sarawak

    P. J. Piper
    Abstract During the 1950s and 1960s, excavations by the Sarawak Museum at Niah Cave in northwest Borneo produced an enormous archive of records and artefacts, including in excess of 750,000 macro- and micro-vertebrate remains. The excellent state of preservation of the animal bone, dating from the Late Pleistocene (c. 40,kya) to as recently as c. 500 years ago had the potential to provide unparalleled zooarchaeological information about early hunter-gatherer resource procurement, temporal changes in subsistence patterning, and the impact of peoples on the local and regional environment in Island Southeast Asia. However, the coarse-grained methods of excavation employed during the original investigations and the sheer scale of the archaeological record and bone assemblages dissuaded many researchers from attempting to tackle the Niah archives. This paper outlines how important information on the nature of the archaeological record at Niah has now finally been extracted from the archive using a combination of zooarchaeological analysis and reference to the extensive archaeological records from the site. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Taphonomy and zooarchaeology of the Upper Palaeolithic cave of Dzudzuana, Republic of Georgia

    G. Bar-Oz
    Abstract We present the results of a detailed taphonomic and zooarchaeological study of the faunal remains from the Upper Palaeolithic layers of Dzudzuana Cave, Republic of Georgia. This study presents the first carefully analysed Upper Palaeolithic faunal assemblage from the southern Caucasus and thus serves as a significant point of reference for inter-regional studies of Upper Palaeolithic subsistence in Eurasia. A series of intra-site taphonomic comparisons are employed to reconstruct the depositional history of the bone assemblages within the different occupational phases at the site and to investigate subsistence, meat procurement and bone-processing strategies. Caucasian tur (Capra caucasica), aurochs (Bos primigenius) and steppe bison (Bison priscus) were the major prey species throughout the Upper Palaeolithic. Their frequencies do not change significantly over time, and nor does bone preservation vary by layer. The assemblage is characterised by significant density-mediated biases, caused by both human bone-processing behaviours and in situ post-burial bone attrition. Bone marrow extraction produced large numbers of unidentified bone fragments, many exhibiting green bone fractures. The density and size of bone assemblages and the extent of fragmentation indicate that Dzudzuana Cave was repeatedly occupied by Upper Palaeolithic foragers over many years. Skeletal part representation and butchery marks from all stages of carcass processing suggest that prey occasionally underwent field butchery. Intra-site taphonomic comparisons highlight uniform patterns of cultural and economic behaviours related to food procurement and processing strategies. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Vanishing carnivores: what can the disappearance of large carnivores tell us about the Neanderthal world?

    Jordí Estévez
    Abstract This paper examines the relationship between the extinction of carnivores and the disappearance of the Neanderthals. The Iberian Peninsula, as the westernmost point of Eurasia, is the key for an understanding of either the replacement or the continuity of hominids. Cave bear evolutionary history shares some trends with that of the Neanderthals. This means that most of the causes cited to explain the disappearance of Neanderthals have some implications that are linked with this carnivore's history. Some of the causes for the extinction of both are presented together and discussed. We analyse the contrast between the evidence from both central Europe and the Iberian Peninsula, which suggests a cause different from mere climatic stress for the extinction. The problems of the Iberian archaeological record are revised and we stress the need for a large European research programme to verify the data. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Isotopic climate record in a Holocene stalagmite from Ursilor Cave (Romania)

    Bogdan Petroniu Onac
    Abstract The PU-2 stalagmite from Ursilor Cave provides the first dated Romanian isotope record for the Holocene. The overall growth rate of the speleothem was 3.5 cm kyr,1, corresponding to a temporal resolution of 142 y between each isotope analysis. The ,Hendy' tests indicate that isotopic equilibrium conditions occurred during the formation of PU-2, and hence that it is suitable for palaeoclimatic studies. The relationship between ,18O and temperature was found to be positive. This can be interpreted either as rain-out with distance from the west-northwest ocean source of evaporation or shifts in air mass source with changing North Atlantic Oscillation indices. Applying five U,Th thermal ionisation mass spectrometric (TIMS) dates to a 17.5 cm isotope profile (,18O and ,13C) along the stalagmite growth axis enabled a tentative interpretation of the palaeoclimate signal over the past 7.1 kyr. Spikes of depleted isotopic ,18O values are centred near ca. 7, ca. 5.2 and ca. 4 ka, reflecting cool conditions. The record shows two warm intervals between ca. 3.8 and ca. 3.2 ka (the maximum warmth) and from ca. 2 to ca. 1.4 ka, when the ,18O values were less negative than present. The ,Holocene Climate Optimum' spanning the time interval from ca. 6.8 to ca. 4.4 ka is not well expressed in the PU-2 stalagmite. Individual spikes of lighter ,13C are interpreted as indicative of periods of heavy rainfall, at ca. 7, ca. 5.5, and ca. 3.5 ka. The overall trend to lighter ,13C in the PU-2 stalagmite may reflect a gradual decrease in water,rock interaction. The results demonstrate that the effect of North Atlantic oceanic changes extended to the investigated area. Nevertheless, some differences in temporal correlation and intensity of stable isotopic response to these climatic events have been found, but the exact nature of these differences and the underlying mechanism is yet to be determined. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Gary O. Graening
    ABSTRACT: Subterranean ecosystems harbor globally rare fauna and important water resources, but ecological processes are poorly understood and are threatened by anthropogenic stresses. Ecosystem analyses were conducted from 1997 to 2000 in Cave Springs Cave, Arkansas, situated in a region of intensive land use, to determine the degree of habitat degradation and viability of endangered fauna. Organic matter budgeting quantified energy flux and documented the dominant input as dissolved organic matter and not gray bat guano (Myotis grisescens). Carbon/nitrogen stable isotope analyses described a trophic web of Ozark cavefish (Amblyopsis rosae) that primarily consumed cave isopods (Caecidotea stiladactyla), which in turn appeared to consume benthic matter originating from a complex mixture of soil, leaf litter, and anthropogenic wastes. Septic leachate, sewage sludge, and cow manure were suspected to augment the food web and were implicated in environmental degradation. Water, sediment, and animal tissue analyses detected excess nutrients, fecal bacteria, and toxic concentrations of metals. Community assemblage may have been altered: sensitive species-grotto salamanders (Typhlotriton spelaeus) and stygobro-mid amphipods,were not detected, while more resilient isopods flourished. Reduction of septic and agricultural waste inputs may be necessary to restore ecosystem dynamics in this cave ecosystem to its former undisturbed condition. [source]

    Pharmacokinetics of oxytetracycline in the American horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus

    M. W. NOLAN
    The American horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus, is regularly cultured and maintained in research laboratories and public aquaria. Rising concerns over the health of these captive animals makes the diagnosis and treatment of pathological conditions in L. polyphemus essential. This study investigated the kinetics of oxytetracyline following either intravascular or oral dosing. Oxytetracylcine is a broad-spectrum antibiotic used in the treatment of various bacterial diseases of aquatic animals. A noncompartmental model was developed to describe the pharmacokinetics of oxytetracycline (OTC) in the horseshoe crab. The following parameters were determined for a single intravascular bolus of 25 mg/kg OTC: AUC = 9524.60 ,g·h/mL, MRT = 443.65 h, Clb = 0.044 mL/min/kg, Vd(ss) = 1.164 L/kg, t1/2 = 128.3 h, Cmax = 55.90 ,g/mL, Cave = 27.39 ,g/mL. Following a single oral bolus of 25 mg/kg, these parameters were calculated: AUC = 5861.81 ,g·h/mL, MRT = 395.89 h, Clb = 0.071 mL/min/kg, Vd(ss) = 1.688 L/kg, t1/2 = 210.0 h, Cmax = 7.83 ,g/mL, Cave = 2.89 ,g/mL, F = 61.56%. [source]