CTX-M Types (ctx-m + type)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The first major extended-spectrum ,-lactamase outbreak in Scandinavia was caused by clonal spread of a multiresistant Klebsiella pneumoniae producing CTX-M-15,

APMIS, Issue 4 2008
Between May and December 2005, 64 multidrug-resistant isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae were detected from patients admitted to Uppsala University Hospital. This represented a dramatic increase in ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae compared to previous years. To investigate the epidemiology and to characterize the resistance mechanisms of the isolates, a study was initiated. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by means of the Etest and the disc diffusion method. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production was identified by clavulanic acid synergy test and confirmed with PCR amplification followed by DNA sequencing. DNA profiles of the isolates were examined with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). All isolates were resistant or exhibited reduced susceptibility to cefadroxil, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, aztreonam, piperacillin/tazobactam, ciprofloxacin, tobramycin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. They produced ESBL of the CTX-M-15 type, and the involvement of a single K. pneumoniae clone was shown. This is the first major clonal outbreak of multiresistant ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae in Scandinavia. The outbreak demonstrates the epidemic potential of enterobacteria containing ESBLs of the CTX-M type, even in a country with a relatively low selective pressure and a low prevalence of multiresistant bacteria. [source]

Prevalence and resistance patterns of extended-spectrum and AmpC ,-lactamase in Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Salmonella serovar Stanley in a Korean tertiary hospital

APMIS, Issue 10 2010
Park SD, Uh Y, Lee G, Lim K, Kim JB, Jeong SH. Prevalence and resistance patterns of extended-spectrum and AmpC ,-lactamase in Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Salmonella serovar Stanley in a Korean tertiary hospital. APMIS 2010; 118: 801,8. A total of 100 clinical isolates of Escherichia coli (n = 35), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 63), Proteus mirabilis (n = 1), and Salmonella serovar Stanley (n = 1), showing resistance to cefoxitin, or returning positive in extended-spectrum ,-lactamase (ESBL) by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) ESBL confirmatory method, were studied. The isolates were examined by the boronic acid (BA) disk test, polymerase chain reaction, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to investigate genetic similarities. The concurrence rates for ESBLs by the CLSI and the BA disk test were 97% for E. coli and 96.7% for K. pneumoniae. A total of 41 isolates showing cefoxitin resistance yielded all positive by the BA disk test. All the 33 K. pneumoniae isolates, which showed positive by the BA disk test, were carrying AmpC genes. The TEM and CTX-M types were predominant in E. coli and the SHV and the CIT and/or DHA types were predominant in K. pneumoniae. PFGE analysis showed almost 75% of genetic similarities among K. pneumoniae isolates producing ESBLs and/or AmpC ,-lactamases (AmpCs) as each K. pneumoniae carried variable genes and showed variable antibiotic patterns. Clearly, the BA disk test was a useful method for the detection of ESBLs and AmpCs. In particular, cefoxitin resistance and BA-positive trait of K. pneumoniae do reflect the presence of AmpC genes in the organism. [source]

High prevalence of blaCTX-M extended-spectrum ,-lactamase genes in Escherichia coli isolates from pets and emergence of CTX-M-64 in China

Y. Sun
Clin Microbiol Infect 2010; 16: 1475,1481 Abstract As a cause of community-acquired infections, extended-spectrum ,-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli constitute an emerging public-health concern. Few data on the molecular epidemiology of ESBL-producing E. coli isolates from pets are available in China. Detection and characterization of ESBL genes (blaCTX-M, blaSHV and blaTEM) was conducted among 240 E. coli isolates recovered from healthy and sick pets in South China from 2007 to 2008. The clonal relatedness of ESBL-producing E. coli isolates was assessed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. ESBL-encoding genes were identified in 97 (40.4%) of the 240 isolates and 96 (40.0%) of them harbored CTX-M. The most common CTX-M types were CTX-M-14 (n = 45) and CTX-M-55 (n = 24). The recently reported CTX-M-64 was identified in three isolates. Isolates producing CTX-M-27, -15, -65, -24, -3 and -9 were also identified. Ten isolates carried two or three CTX-M types, with the combination of CTX-M-14 and CTX-M-55 being the most frequent (n = 6). ISEcp1 was identified in the upstream region of 93 out of the 107 blaCTX-M genes (86.9%). The sequence of the spacer region (45 bp) between ISEcp1 and the start codon of all blaCTX-M-55 genes (except four) was identical to that of blaCTX-M-64. No major clonal relatedness was observed among these CTX-M producers. It is suggested that the horizontal transfer of blaCTX-M genes, mediated by mobile elements, contributes to their dissemination among E. coli isolates from pets. Our finding of high prevalence of ESBL in E. coli of companion animal origin illustrates the importance of molecular surveillance in tracking CTX-M-producing E. coli strains in pets. [source]