CT Examination (ct + examination)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts

A Case of Hemodialysis Patients with Encapsulating Peritoneal Sclerosis (EPS)-like Finding

H Kawanishi
Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) is recognized as a serious complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD). Involvement of the inflammation is indispensable as the EPS emission factor. We experienced the surgery of the EPS-like case that emits it to the hemodialysis (HD) patient without the PD. Patient: In November 1996 the patients, a 47-year old male developed end-stage renal failure due to chronic nephritis and started HD. Before and during HD, he complicated alcohol liver cirrhosis with ascites. In September 2001 he had intestinal obstructive symptoms and recovered with repeated puncture and drainage of ascites. Abdominal CT examination revealed the intestine oppression by the ascites with thick tunic formation. At May 2002, he underwent a laparotomy. Thick capsules formed surroundings to the ascites. This capsules covered parietal peritoneum and intestine surface and oppressed the intestine. The total ablation of small intestine was succeeded. Ascites examinations IL-6 20,350 pg/mL FDP 80 micro-g/mL TAT 1090 micro-g/L, was suspected to conjecture the involvement of inflammation and coagulate-fibrinolysis. Histology of peritoneum showed absence of mesothelium but not fibrosis and sclerosis. Discussion: EPS is caused by the inflammation on the deteriorated peritoneum, resulting in encapsulation after the accumulation of inflammatory products such as fibrin. Even if there is not the peritoneum deterioration, chronic inflammation and stimulation that continues for long-time causing EPS-like findings with encapsulation. The encapsulating ileus findings irrespective of the peritoneum deterioration should call with encapsulated peritonitis (EP). [source]

Lipoma of the right atrium

Oyku Gulmez MD
Abstract A 66-year-old asymptomatic woman was admitted to our hospital with the diagnosis of a right atrial mass detected on an outside transthoracic echocardiogram and confirmed on transesophageal echocardiography. Physical examination and basal electrocardiogram were normal. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed a 3.8 × 2.5 cm echogenic mass in the right atrium. A multislice CT examination demonstrated a right atrial mass with a fat density ranging from ,80 to ,110 HU. The patient had a successful surgical excision of the mass, and the diagnosis of lipoma was confirmed on histopathological examination. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound, 2009 [source]

Magnetic resonance and computed tomographic evaluation of congenital heart disease

Lawrence M. Boxt MD
Abstract Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) provide noninvasive visualization of morphologic changes in pediatric and adult patients with congenital heart disease, as well as the functional changes caused by the underlying morphologic abnormalities. Clinical experience with MRI is richer than that with fast CT, but CT appears to provide accurate and high-quality imagery for diagnosis. The two modalities may be complementary. That is, intracardiac anatomy is so well depicted by MRI, and CT provides exquisite images of the great vessels. Furthermore, in adult patients, MR and CT are helpful in demonstrating and quantitating physiologic changes superimposed by acquired cardiovascular disease on the underlying congenital malformations. Using MRI, spin echo acquisitions provide the image data for evaluation of morphologic changes, and gradient reversal techniques add functional and flow data to complement morphologic changes. Contrast-enhanced electrocardiographic (ECG)-gated multidetector and electron beam CT examination provide morphologic information and may be used as a data set for off-line functional quantitation. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2004;19:827,847. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Radiological review of intercostal artery: Anatomical considerations when performing procedures via intercostal space

S Choi
Abstract Introduction: The aim of this study was to closely examine the course of the intercostal arteries within the intercostal spaces particularly with regard to where the arteries were located in relation to their adjacent ribs. The degree of tortuosity of the arteries was also examined, along with anatomical differences in different age groups. Methods: A total of 81 patients between the age of 30 and 90 years who had underwent a CT examination of the chest for any indication were included in the study. All studies were performed on a dual source 64 slice CT (Siemens Definition Erlangen Germany). Analysis of the intercostal arteries was performed on a CT workstation using volume rendered 3D reconstructions F, or each patient the 10'n intercostals pacesb ilaterally were examined for the course and tortuosity of the intercostal arteries. Results: The ICA is located relatively inferiorly in the intercostal space at costovertebral junction and it gradually becomes more superiorly positioned within the intercostal space it as courses laterally. This finding was consistent in all age groups. In addition, analysis of the data demonstrated increasing intercostal artery tortuosity with advancing age. Conclusion: In this study we have examined the course of the posterior intercostal arteries using MDCT. This study confirms the classical description of the course of ICA. We have shown that in the medial chest, posteriorly, the artery is located in the inferior half of the intercostal space. As it moves away from the costovertebral junction it travels closer to the inferior border of the rib above and reaches the intercostal groove. We have also shown that the artery tends to be more tortuous in elderly patients, decreasing the area of "safe" space for interventions. Both of these findings are relevant to radiologists and non-radiologists performing interventional procedures via the intercostal space. [source]

CT-Soft Tissue Window of the Cranial Abdomen in Clinically Normal Dogs: An Anatomical description using Macroscopic Cross-Sections with Vascular Injection

M. A. Rivero
Summary The aim of this study was to provide a detailed anatomic atlas of the cranial abdomen by means of computed tomography (CT). Three mature dogs, all mixed breed males, were used. The dogs were sedated, anaesthetized and positioned in sternal recumbency. CT scans from the eighth thoracic vertebra to the fourth lumbar vertebra were performed using a third-generation equipment (TOSHIBA 600HQ scanner) with 1 cm slice thickness. CT-images of the cranial abdomen were taken with soft-tissue window (WL: ,14, WW: 658) settings. Dogs were killed and vascular-injection technique was performed: red and blue latex filled the vascular system. Injected dogs were frozen in the same position as used for CT examination and sectioned with an electric bandsaw at 1-cm-thick intervals. The cuts matched as closely as possible to the CT-images. The anatomic sections were compared and studied with the corresponding CT-images, and clinically relevant abdominal anatomic structures were identified and labelled on the corresponding CT-images. The results of our study could be used as a reference for evaluating CT-images of the canine cranial abdomen with abdominal diseases. [source]

Radiographic lung density assessed by computed tomography is associated with extravascular lung water content

Background: We hypothesized that in acute lung injury (ALI), the volume of pulmonary tissue with aqueous density, as determined by spiral computed tomography (CT), is associated with extravascular lung water content. Our aim was to compare tissue volume index, as assessed by CT, before and after oleic acid-induced ALI, with extravascular lung water indexes (EVLWI), determined with single transpulmonary thermodilution (EVLWISTD), thermal-dye dilution (EVLWITDD), and postmortem gravimetry (EVLWIG). Methods: Seven instrumented sheep received an intravenous infusion of oleic acid 0.08 ml/kg (OA group) and four animals had vehicle only (Control group). The day before, and immediately after the experiment, sheep were anesthetized to undergo quantitative CT examinations during a short breath hold. Hemodynamics, oxygenation, EVLWISTD, and EVLWTDD were registered. Linear regression analysis was used to assess the relationships between EVLWISTD, EVLWTDD, EVLWIG, and lung tissue volume index (TVICT) determined with CT. Results: In the OA group, total lung volume increased compared with Controls. Poorly and non-aerated lung volumes increased a 3.6- and 4.9-fold, respectively, and TVICT almost doubled. EVLWISTD, EVLWITDD, and TVICT were associated significantly with EVLWIG (r=0.85, 0.90, and 0.88, respectively; P<0.001). TVICT deviated from the reference EVLWIG values to the greatest extent with a mean bias ± 2SD of 4.0 ± 6.0 ml/kg. Conclusions: In ovine oleic acid-induced ALI, lung tissue volume, as assessed by quantitative CT, is in close agreement with EVLWI, as determined by indicator dilution methods and postmortem gravimetry, but overestimates lung fluid content. [source]

Detection and differential diagnosis of hepatic masses using pulse inversion harmonic imaging during the liver-specific late phase of contrast enhancement with levovist

Cem Yücel MD
Abstract Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate whether late-phase pulse inversion harmonic imaging (PIHI) increases conspicuity in hepatic masses, helps to differentiate benign from malignant lesions, and demonstrates a greater number of and smaller metastatic lesions than do conventional (fundamental) sonography and helical CT. Methods Thirty patients (17 women and 13 men; age range, 35,77 years; mean age, 54 years) with known or suspected liver masses were evaluated using both fundamental sonography and contrast-enhanced PIHI during the liver-specific late phase of Levovist. The patients also underwent contrast-enhanced triphasic helical CT examinations within 1 week after sonography. In 4 of the patients, gadolinium-enhanced MRI was also performed as a part of their clinical work-up. Results The increase in the lesions' conspicuity on PIHI compared with fundamental sonography was significantly greater in malignant lesions than in benign lesions (p< 0.001). An echogenic rim was observed on PIHI in 8 (53%) of 15 malignant lesions. The mean number of metastatic lesions visualized on PIHI (5.5 ± 5.3) was significantly higher than the mean number visualized on fundamental sonography (2.5 ± 2.1, p < 0.05). Although lesions as small as 3 mm were observed on PIHI, the mean sizes of the smallest lesions demonstrated using fundamental sonography, PIHI, and helical CT were not significantly different. Conclusions Late-phase PIHI is a useful technique for characterizing hepatic lesions and demonstrating both a greater number of and smaller metastases. It may help to differentiate benign from malignant liver masses and may obviate unnecessary and expensive further imaging. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 30:203,212, 2002; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience. wiley.com). DOI: 10.1002/jcu.10053 [source]

B0 Images Obtained From Diffusion-Weighted Echo Planar Sequences for the Detection of Intracerebral Bleeds

ABSTRACT Background and Purpose. To evaluate the accuracy of B0 echo planar imaging (EPI) sequences for the detection of intracerebral bleeds. Methods. One hundred patients with acute strokes had magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography (CT) examinations performed within 48 hours after the onset of symptoms. The detectability of intracerebral bleeds by the B0 EPI sequences was assessed. The results were compared to the gradient echo (GRE) sequence and CT brain examinations. The results of the GRE sequences were used as the gold standard. Results. The B0 EPI sequences detected 11 out of 11 acute, intracerebral hematomas; 6 out of 8 acute hemorrhagic strokes; 2 out of 2 acute, intraventricular hemorrhages; 8 out of 8 old hemorrhagic infarcts; 1 out of 1 subarachnoid hemorrhages; and 11 out of 22 patients with microbleeds. For the detection of acute, intracerebral hematomas and acute, hemorrhagic infarcts, B0 EPI sequences had a sensitivity of 89.5%, a specificity of 100%, and an accuracy of 98%. CT had a sensitivity of 57.9%, a specificity of 100%, and an accuracy of 92%. B0 EPI sequences did not miss any acute or chronic hemorrhages detected by CT examinations. Conclusions. B0 EPI sequences could not replace GRE images for the detection of both acute and chronic hemorrhages. Their sensitivity for the detection of acute and chronic blood products, however, was comparable, if not superior, to that of CT examinations. [source]

Computed Tomography of Temporal Bone Fractures and Temporal Region Anatomy in Horses

S. Pownder
Background: In people, specific classifications of temporal bone fractures are associated with clinical signs and prognosis. In horses, similar classifications have not been evaluated and might be useful establishing prognosis or understanding pathogenesis of certain types of trauma. Hypothesis/Objectives: We hypothesized associations between temporal bone fracture location and orientation in horses detected during computed tomography (CT) and frequency of facial nerve (CN7) deficit, vestibulocochlear nerve (CN8) deficit, or temporohyoid osteoarthropathy (THO). Complex temporal region anatomy may confound fracture identification, and consequently a description of normal anatomy was included. Animals: All horses undergoing temporal region CT at our hospital between July 1998 and May 2008. Methods: Data were collected retrospectively, examiners were blinded, and relationships were investigated among temporal bone fractures, ipsilateral THO, ipsilateral CN7, or ipsilateral CN8 deficits by Chi-square or Fischer's exact tests. Seventy-nine horses had CT examinations of the temporal region (158 temporal bones). Results: Sixteen temporal bone fractures were detected in 14 horses. Cranial nerve deficits were seen with fractures in all parts of the temporal bone (petrosal, squamous, and temporal) and, temporal bone fractures were associated with CN7 and CN8 deficits and THO. No investigated fracture classification scheme, however, was associated with specific cranial nerve deficits. Conclusions and Clinical Importance: Without knowledge of the regional anatomy, normal structures may be mistaken for a temporal bone fracture or vice versa. Although no fracture classification scheme was associated with the assessed clinical signs, simple descriptive terminology (location and orientation) is recommended for reporting and facilitating future comparisons. [source]