Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Cm

  • cfu cm
  • erg cm
  • g cm
  • j cm
  • kv cm
  • ma cm
  • mg cm
  • mj cm
  • mw cm
  • n cm
  • u cm

  • Terms modified by Cm

  • cm column
  • cm dbh
  • cm deep
  • cm depth
  • cm diameter
  • cm distal
  • cm effective length
  • cm fork length
  • cm group
  • cm h2o
  • cm height
  • cm high
  • cm incision
  • cm interval
  • cm layer
  • cm length
  • cm line
  • cm long
  • cm lt
  • cm mass
  • cm patient
  • cm proximal
  • cm region
  • cm soil depth
  • cm tall
  • cm telescope
  • cm thick
  • cm total length
  • cm tumor
  • cm v
  • cm visual analogue scale
  • cm wide
  • cm year

  • Selected Abstracts

    Primary tumour diameter as a risk factor for advanced disease features of differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    Frederik A. Verburg
    Summary Objective, To study the relationship between primary tumour size and the risk of advanced disease features (multifocal or locally invasive disease, lymph-node or distant metastases) in differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). Design, A retrospective chart review study. Patients, The study sample comprised 935 papillary (PTC) and 291 follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) patients treated in our hospital from 1978 to 2007. Measurements, Kaplan,Meier analyses and log-rank tests were performed to calculate tumour size-adjusted cumulative risk of advanced disease features. Results, Accounting for primary tumour diameter, there were no significant differences in cumulative risks of multifocal carcinoma (P = 0·12) or distant metastases (P = 0·49) between PTC and FTC. PTC showed higher cumulative risks of local invasion (P < 0·0001) or lymph-node metastases (P < 0·0001). The cumulative risk of tumour multifocality increased 5%/cm of primary tumour diameter. The cumulative risk of local invasion or lymph-node metastases in PTC and of distant metastases in DTC increased exponentially at a threshold tumour diameter of 10 mm. In FTC, lymph-node metastases are associated almost exclusively with primary tumours showing extrathyroidal growth. Conclusions, Starting with a 1 cm primary tumour diameter, increasing tumour size is associated with an exponentially increasing risk of local invasion or lymph-node or distant metastases of DTC. The current classification of carcinomas < 2 cm as T1 is therefore questionable. [source]

    Entrainment by an Extracellular AC Stimulus in a Computational Model of Cardiac Tissue

    Sinusoidal Stimulation of Cardiac Sheet.Introduction: Cardiac tissue can be entrained when subjected to sinusoidal stimuli, often responding with action potentials sustained for the duration of the stimulus. To investigate mechanisms responsible for both entrainment and extended action potential duration, computer simulations of a two-dimensional grid of cardiac cells subjected to sinusoidal extracellular stimulation were performed. Methods and Results: The tissue is represented as a bidomain with unequal anisotropy ratios. Cardiac membrane dynamics are governed by a modified Beeler-Reuter model. The stimulus, delivered by a bipolar electrode, has a duration of 750 to 1,000 msec, an amplitude range of 800 to 3,200 ,A/cm, and a frequency range of 10 to 60 Hz. The applied stimuli create virtual electrode polarization (VEP) throughout the sheet. The simulations demonstrate that periodic extracellular stimulation results in entrainment of the tissue. This phase-locking of the membrane potential to the stimulus is dependent on the location in the sheet and the magnitude of the stimulus. Near the electrodes, the oscillations are 1:1 or 1:2 phase-locked; at the middle of the sheet, the oscillations are 1:2 or 1:4 phase-locked and occur on the extended plateau of an action potential. The 1:2 behavior near the electrodes is due to periodic change in the voltage gradient between VEP of opposite polarity; at the middle of the sheet, it is due to spread of electrotonic current following the collision of a propagating wave with refractory tissue. Conclusion: The simulations suggest that formation of VEP in cardiac tissue subjected to periodic extracellular stimulation is of paramount importance to tissue entrainment and formation of an extended oscillatory action potential plateau. [source]

    ChemInform Abstract: Catalytic Asymmetric Ring-Opening Metathesis/Cross Metathesis (AROM/CM) Reactions.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 50 2001
    Application to Enantioselective Synthesis of Functionalized Cyclopentanes., Mechanism
    Abstract ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a "Full Text" option. The original article is trackable via the "References" option. [source]

    A comparison of concurrent programming and cooperative multithreading under load balancing applications

    Justin T. Maris
    Abstract Two models of thread execution are the general concurrent programming execution model (CP) and the cooperative multithreading execution model (CM). CP provides nondeterministic thread execution where context switches occur arbitrarily. CM provides threads that execute one at a time until they explicitly choose to yield the processor. This paper focuses on a classic application to reveal the advantages and disadvantages of load balancing during thread execution under CP and CM styles; results from a second classic application were similar. These applications are programmed in two different languages (SR and Dynamic C) on different hardware (standard PCs and embedded system controllers). An SR-like run-time system, DesCaRTeS, was developed to provide interprocess communication for the Dynamic C implementations. This paper compares load balancing and non-load balancing implementations; it also compares CP and CM style implementations. The results show that in cases of very high or very low workloads, load balancing slightly hindered performance; and in cases of moderate workload, both SR and Dynamic C implementations of load balancing generally performed well. Further, for these applications, CM style programs outperform CP style programs in some cases, but the opposite occurs in some other cases. This paper also discusses qualitative tradeoffs between CM style programming and CP style programming for these applications. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The politics of community mediation: A study of community mediation in Israel

    Lee Li-On
    What is community mediation (CM), and how does it affect communities? Drawing on research that examined the politics of CM in the context of a complex, multicultural setting, this article portrays CM as a multifaceted discourse that stakeholders may use to achieve their particular goals. CM, it is suggested, is linked to multiple sources of power and is used by both state and residents to make contesting social claims. This article challenges the apolitical view of CM and its capacity to explain the complex character of power. It proposes considering CM from another perspective, suggesting that examining CM as discourse enables a broader understanding of its social role and significance and facilitates development of appropriate practice. The author suggests that to be socially meaningful CM should be practiced within a broader approach, in terms of social intervention, based on informed, context-related training and practice. Such an approach requires that the role, policies, and practices of community mediation programs (CMPs), and mediators' roles and training, be reconsidered. [source]

    Changes in perfectionism following cognitive-behavioral treatment for social phobia,

    Andrea Ashbaugh M.A.
    Abstract Previous studies have found that social phobia (social anxiety disorder) is associated with elevated levels of perfectionism, particularly concerns over making mistakes (CM) and doubts about actions (DA). This study investigated the extent to which various dimensions of perfectionism change as a result of participating in a 12-session cognitive-behavioral group treatment for social phobia. One hundred seven individuals completed the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale before and after treatment. Participants improved on several measures of social anxiety, generalized anxiety, and depression. With respect to perfectionism, significant reductions were seen on total perfectionism scores and scores on particular dimensions (CM, DA, organization), but not on other dimensions (personal standards, parental expectations, parental criticism). Furthermore, changes in DA and to some extent CM predicted posttreatment levels of social anxiety after controlling for pretreatment levels of social anxiety and changes in anxiety and depression. Implications of these findings are discussed. Depression and Anxiety 24:169,177, 2007. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Noninvasive Imaging, Treatment, and Microscopic Confirmation of Clearance of Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Mark Goldgeier MD
    BACKGROUND. The diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is generally established by skin biopsy followed by tissue preparation and microscopic analysis. Treatment of BCC is often accomplished by surgical excision. Objective. To confirm the presence of BCC with a noninvasive imaging technique, to treat the patient with a topical immune response modifier, and to confirm the clearance of BCC noninvasively. METHODS. Confocal microscopy (CM) is a noninvasive technique for real-time imaging of skin in vivo. Imiquimod, an immune response modifier, is applied topically by the patient to the skin lesion. RESULTS. The presence of BCC was confirmed with CM. Posttreatment CM imaging confirmed the clearance of BCC from the entire treatment field. Both the pretreatment and the posttreatment CM findings were confirmed by invasive biopsy. CONCLUSION. The ability to use CM to image in real time without discomfort to the patient makes it a powerful tool to assist in the diagnosis of skin disease. [source]

    Auditory neuropathy/dys-synchrony: Diagnosis and management

    Charles I. Berlin
    Abstract Auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) and otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) are objective measures of auditory function, but are not hearing tests. Normal OAEs reflect normal cochlear outer hair cell function, and an ABR indicates a synchronous neural response. It is quite possible for a patient to have normal OAEs but absent or grossly abnormal ABR and a behavioral audiogram that is inconsistent with either test. These patients, who may constitute as much as 10% of the diagnosed deaf population, have auditory neuropathy/dys-synchrony (AN/AD). To diagnose AN/AD accurately, ABRs are obtained in response to condensation and rarefaction clicks to distinguish cochlear microphonics (CM) from neural responses. Appropriate management is confounded by variation among patients and changes in auditory function in some patients over time. Recommendations for management include visual language exposure through methods such as American Sign Language (ASL), Cued Speech, or baby signs, and closely following patients. MRDD Research Reviews 2003;9:225,231. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Severe falciparum malaria and acquired childhood language disorder

    Julie A Carter BSc (Hons) MSc PhD
    Language disorders have been reported after severe falciparum malaria but the deficits have not been described in detail. We assessed language outcome in three groups of children aged 6 to 9 years (n=487): those previously admitted to Kilifi District Hospital, Kenya, with cerebral malaria (CM; n=152; mean age 7y 4 mo [SD 1y 1mo]; 77 males, 75 females); or those with malaria and complicated seizures (M/S; n=156; mean age 7y 4mo [SD 1y 2mo]; 72 males, 84 females); and those unexposed to either condition (n=179; mean age 7y 6mo [SD 1y 1mo]; 93 males, 86 females). Median age at hospital admission was 28 months (interquartile range [IQR] 19 to 44 mo) among children with a history of CM and 23 months (IQR 12 to 35mo) among children with a history of M/S. A battery of eight assessments covering the major facets of speech and language was used to measure language performance. Cognitive performance, neurological/motor skills, behaviour, hearing, and vision were also measured. Eighteen (11.8%) of the CM group, 14 (9%) of the M/S group, and four (2.2%) of the unexposed group were found to have a language impairment. CM (odds ratio 3.68,95% confidence interval 1.09 to 12.4, p=0.04) was associated with significantly increased odds of an impairment-level score relative to the unexposed group. The results suggest that falciparum malaria is one of the most common causes of acquired language disorders in the tropics. [source]

    Fetal cyclic motor activity in diabetic pregnancies: Sensitivity to maternal blood glucose

    Steven S. Robertson
    Abstract Spontaneous fetal movement in the last third of human gestation is dominated by irregular oscillations on a scale of minutes (cyclic motility, CM). The core properties of these oscillations are stable during the third trimester of gestation in normal fetuses, but disrupted by poorly controlled maternal diabetes. Here we investigated whether fetal CM is linked to short-term instabilities in maternal glucose metabolism. The fetuses of 40 mothers with type I (n,=,28) or gestational (n,=,12) diabetes were studied one to six times between 27 and 40 postmenstrual weeks of gestation. Fetal movement and maternal blood glucose concentration were measured during two separate periods of fetal activity in each session. Fetal CM was quantified with spectral analysis. Early in the third trimester, changes in the rate of oscillation in fetal CM between the two periods of activity were inversely related to changes in maternal blood glucose levels. Fetal CM was unrelated to concurrent maternal blood glucose levels at any point in the third trimester. The pattern of results suggests that disruption of the temporal organization of spontaneous fetal motor activity in pregnancies complicated by maternal diabetes represents an acute response to fluctuations in the metabolic environment rather than an alteration of CM development. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 42: 9,16, 2003. [source]

    Glibenclamide improves postprandial hypertriglyceridaemia in Type 2 diabetic patients by reducing chylomicrons but not the very low-density lipoprotein subfraction levels

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 10 2001
    I. Skrapari
    Abstract Aim, There are scarce data dealing with the degree of postprandial lipaemia after sulphonylurea administration. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of acute glibenclamide administration on postprandial lipaemia in Type 2 diabetic patients. Methods, Eight randomly selected Type 2 diabetic individuals, aged 43,65 years (mean, 54 years), who had never received any anti-diabetic drug, were included in the study. Each patient was given a 485 kcal mixed meal (45% fat, 40% carbohydrate and 15% protein) twice on separate days after an overnight fast: once with placebo and once with 5 mg glibenclamide, per os, in a random order. The two tests were performed with an interval of 7 days. Venous blood samples were drawn just before and 2 h, 4 h and 6 h after meal consumption. Total triglyceride levels in plasma, in chylomicrons (CM), in CM-deficient plasma, in very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) subfractions (VLDL-1, VLDL-2) and in intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL) were determined. Free fatty acid (FFA) and total cholesterol levels in plasma, as well as high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels in CM-deficient plasma, were also measured. Finally, serum glucose, insulin and C-peptide concentrations were measured in each sample. Results, As expected there was a significant decrease in postprandial glycaemia after glibenclamide administration compared to placebo (mean area under the curve values: AUC = 53.3 ± 18.2 and 69.1 ± 21.6 mm/h, P = 0.00009). In addition, the mean AUC values of insulin and C-peptide were significantly greater after drug administration. The AUC values of total plasma triglyceride and of CM triglyceride following glibenclamide administration were significantly lower compared to placebo, while the AUC values of postprandial triglyceride in CM-deficient plasma and of postprandial triglyceride in VLDL-1, VLDL-2 and IDL were not different after drug administration compared to placebo. Finally, no significant differences were noted in the AUC values of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and plasma FFA levels after glibenclamide administration. Conclusions, These results demonstrate that glibenclamide administration improves postprandial hypertriglyceridaemia acutely by reducing postprandial triglycerides of intestinal origin. Diabet. Med. 18, 781,785 (2001) [source]

    A yield displacement distribution-based approach for strength assignment to lateral force-resisting elements having strength dependent stiffness

    W. K. Tso
    Abstract Recent studies have shown that for many lateral force-resisting elements (LFRE) stiffness is dependent on strength, and as a result strength assignment to these elements would affect both the strength and stiffness distributions in a structure. Consequently, stiffness distribution cannot be considered known prior to strength assignment. This paper presents a yield displacement distribution-based strength assignment strategy that does not require the knowledge of stiffness distribution prior to strength assignment. It is shown that structural systems with their center of rigidity (CR) and center of strength (CV) located on the opposite sides of the center of mass (CM) will have small torsional responses under seismic excitation. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Proteome analysis of the culture environment supporting undifferentiated mouse embryonic stem and germ cell growth

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 10 2007
    Nicolas Buhr
    Abstract The therapeutical interest of pluripotent cells and ethical issues related to the establishment of human embryonic stem cell (ESC) or embryonic germ cell (EGC) lines raise the understanding of the mechanism underlying pluripotency to a fundamental issue. Establishing a protein pluripotency signature for these cells can be complicated by the presence of unrelated proteins produced by the culture environment. Here, we have analyzed the environment supporting ESC and EGC growth, and established 2-D reference maps for each constituent present in this culture environment: mouse embryonic fibroblast feeder cells, culture medium (CM) and gelatin. The establishment of these reference maps is essential prior to the study of ESC and EGC specific proteomes. Indeed, these maps can be subtracted from ESC or EGC maps to allow focusing on spots specific for ESCs or EGCs. Our study led to the identification of 110 unique proteins from fibroblast feeder cells and 23 unique proteins from the CM, which represent major contaminants of ESC and EGC proteomes. For gelatin, no collagen-specific proteins were identified, most likely due to difficulties in resolution and low quantities. Furthermore, no differences were observed between naive and conditioned CM. Finally, we compared these reference maps to ESC 2-D gels and isolated 17 ESC specific spots. Among these spots, proteins that had already been identified in previous human and mouse ESC proteomes were identified but no apparent ESC-specific pluripotency marker could be identified. This work represents an essential step in furthering the knowledge of environmental factors supporting ESC and EGC growth. [source]

    Uptake and transport of roxarsone and its metabolites in water spinach as affected by phosphate supply

    Lixian Yao
    Abstract Roxarsone (ROX) is widely used as a feed additive in intensive animal production. While an animal is fed with ROX, the As compounds in the manure primarily occur as ROX and its metabolites, including arsenate (As[V]), arsenite (As[III]), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). Animal manure is commonly land applied with phosphorous fertilizers in China. A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the phytoavailability of ROX, As(V), As(III), MMA, and DMA in water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica), with the soil amended with 0, 0.25, 0.50, 1.0, and 2.0,g PO4/kg, respectively, plus 2% (w/w manure/soil) chicken manure (CM) bearing ROX and its metabolites. The results indicate that this species of water spinach cannot accumulate ROX and MMA at detectable levels, but As(V), As(III), and DMA were present in all plant samples. Increased phosphorous decreased the shoot As(V) and As(III) in water spinach but did not affect the root As(V). The shoot DMA and root As(III) and DMA were decreased/increased and then increased/decreased by elevated phosphorous. The total phosphorous content (P) in plant tissue did not correlate with the total As or the three As species in tissues. Arsenate, As(III), and DMA were more easily accumulated in the roots, and phosphate considerably inhibited their upward transport. Dimethylarsinic acid had higher transport efficiency than As(V) and As(III), but As(III) was dominant in tissues. Conclusively, phosphate had multiple effects on the accumulation and transport of ROX metabolites, which depended on their levels. However, proper utilization of phosphate fertilizer can decrease the accumulation of ROX metabolites in water spinach when treated with CM containing ROX and its metabolites. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2010;29:947,951. © 2009 SETAC [source]

    Efficacy of maintenance treatment with naltrexone for opioid dependence: a meta-analytical review

    ADDICTION, Issue 4 2006
    Björn Axel Johansson
    ABSTRACT Aims To determine the efficacy of naltrexone in reducing illicit opioid use and the potential moderating role of treatment retention. ,Design First, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the regimens of treatment using the opioid antagonist, naltrexone, with controls were analysed by meta-analysis for treatment effect with regard to a range of outcome criteria. The degree of heterogeneity was also determined. The moderating effect of other interventions during naltrexone maintenance was then estimated, particularly with regard to their effect on treatment retention. Participants Fifteen studies involving 1071 patients were found. Measurements All available outcomes were analysed in 10 studies of naltrexone versus control (seven placebo) and six studies of randomized psychosocial/psychopharmacological interventions. Findings Significant heterogeneity was found in the efficacy of naltrexone. Level of retention in treatment was found to be a moderator, explaining most of the heterogeneity found. Overall, naltrexone was significantly better than control conditions in reducing the number of opioid-positive urines. This effect was only present in the high retention subgroup for differences in retention. Contingency management (CM) increased retention and naltrexone use, resulting in a reduced number of opioid-positive urines. Conclusion Retention is important to the effect of naltrexone in treating opioid dependence. Contingency management is a promising method of increasing retention. [source]

    Autosomal Dominant Early-onset Cortical Myoclonus, Photic-induced Myoclonus, and Epilepsy in a Large Pedigree

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 10 2006
    Elena Gardella
    Summary:,Purpose: Cortical tremor, a form of rhythmic cortical myoclonus (rhythmic CM), and epilepsy have been described in families with autosomal dominant inheritance. Linkage analyses revealed two putative loci on chromosome 2p and 8q. Clinical photosensitivity was not a prominent feature in such families. We describe a large Italian family with rhythmic CM, photosensitivity, and epilepsy. Methods: Twenty-three individuals of a five-generation family were studied. Linkage analyses for the loci on chromosome 2p11.1 and 8q23.3 were performed. Results: Of the 23 studied family members, 16 were affected. Rhythmic CM of childhood onset was present in all 16 individuals (onset ranging from 3 to 12 years), was associated with photic-induced myoclonic jerks in seven, and with epileptic seizures in six (onset ranging from 23 to 34 years). Five children of the V generation manifested also episodes of arousal with generalized tremor in early infancy ("tremulous arousals"). Jerk-locked back-averaging of rhythmic CM of six affected individuals, documented a premyoclonic EEG correlate. C-reflex at rest was present in two affected adults. Linkage analyses excluded mapping to the 2p11.1 and 8q23.3 loci. Conclusions: Clinical variability and severity of the phenotypes in this family are in line with those of previously described pedigrees with autosomal dominant cortical myoclonus and epilepsy. In this family, a progression of symptoms was found: rhythmic CM and tremulous arousals occurred in childhood, whereas visually induced manifestations and epileptic seizures occurred during adolescence,adulthood. Exclusion of linkage to the two known loci is consistent with genetic heterogeneity of such familial clustering of symptoms. [source]

    Epilepsy as a Consequence of Cerebral Malaria in Area in Which Malaria Is Endemic in Mali, West Africa

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 5 2006
    Edgard Brice Ngoungou
    Summary:,Purpose: Cerebral malaria (CM) is suspected to be a potential cause of epilepsy in tropical areas, but little information is available. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of CM in epilepsy among children in Mali. Methods: An exposed,nonexposed study was performed to identify children who had epilepsy after malaria in the 0- to 15-year age group. The exposure factor was CM defined according to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, and the nonexposure factor was symptomatic malaria without the characteristics of CM (NCM). All the children underwent a screening questionnaire and were examined by a medical physician. After the screening phase, a specialist in neuropediatrics examined the children suspected to have epilepsy. EEG and computed tomography (CT) scans were performed in some of these patients. Results: In total, 101 subjects who had had CM and 222 who had had NCM were included. Fifty-four children (CM, 34; NCM, 20) were suspected to have epilepsy, and six were confirmed (CM, five; NCM, one). The incidence rate was 17.0 per 1000 person-years in the CM group and 1.8 per 1000 person-year in the NCM group; thus the relative risk (RR) was 9.4 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.3,80.3; p = 0.02]. After adjustment on age and duration of follow-up, the RR was 14.3 (95% CI, 1.6,132.0; p = 0.01). Conclusions: The risk of sequelar epilepsy is significantly higher in the CM group compared with the NCM group. A reevaluation of this cohort should be carried out later to search for temporal epilepsy that appeared after age 10 years. [source]

    Benzylideneruthenium Complexes Bearing Pyridine-Based Ligands and Their Influence on the Formation of Mono- or Bis(pyridine) Complexes

    Wen-Zhen Zhang
    Abstract Benzylideneruthenium complexes bearing the N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligand 1,3-bis(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-4,5-dihydroimidazol-2-ylidene (H2IMe) and one or two pyridine-based ligands have been prepared by treating [RuCl2(=CHPh)(H2IMe)(PPh3)] with the corresponding pyridine derivative. X-ray crystallographic and mass spectrometric evidence is used to investigate the interconversion between mono- and bis(pyridine) complexes and the influence of the pyridine ligand on the formation of these complexes. The catalytic activity of these complexes has been tested in the ring-closing metathesis (RCM) reaction of diallylmalononitrile and the cross metathesis (CM) reaction of acrylonitrile with terminal olefins.(© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2007) [source]

    Cerebrospinal fluid 14-3-3-, protein level in eight HIV-negative cryptococcal meningitis adults

    W. N. Chang
    The clinical data and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) 14-3-3-, protein detection of eight adult HIV-negative cryptococcal meningitis (CM) cases were examined. The eight cases included six males and two females aged 35,70 years (mean = 49.8 years). The duration between the onset of CM symptoms and the first CSF study ranged from 1 to 60 days. Initial neuroimaging study was abnormal in 87.5% (7/8) of the cases. All the eight had positive initial and subsequent follow-up CSF 14-3-3-, protein detection. The densitometric values of CSF 14-3-3-, protein were not correlated with either the CSF white blood cell counts or the therapeutic results. The therapeutic results showed that three cases died and five survived. Significant neurologic deficits were shown in 60% (3/5) of the survivors. This study revealed that HIV-negative CM patients have elevated CSF 14-3-3-, protein levels, and that this level is not changed with a short-term treatment. [source]

    Time course of cerebral hemodynamics in cryptococcal meningitis in HIV-negative adults

    W.-N. Chang
    To evaluate the cerebral hemodynamics in cryptococcal meningitis (CM) patients using non-invasive studies. Serial trans-cranial color-coded sonography (TCCS) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) studies were performed to measure the cerebral vasculopathy of 12 HIV-negative CM patients. With TCCS, 8 of the 22 middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) showed stenotic velocities, whereas the time-mean velocity (Vmean) of the 20 anterior cerebral arteries (ACAs), 22 posterior cerebral arteries (PCAs), and 12 basilar arteries (BAs) did not. In total, five patients had stenotic velocities, three of whom had bilateral M1 stenosis (<50%), whilst two had unilateral M1 stenosis (<50%). The Vmean of MCA increased from day 1 to day 35 and substantially decreased thereafter. The mean Pulsatility Index (PI) in the studied vessels was higher during the study period. A mismatch of the findings between TCCS and MRA studies were also demonstrated. There was a high incidence and a longer time-period of disturbed cerebral hemodynamics during the clinical course of CM. However, because of the limited case numbers for this study, further large-scale studies are needed to delineate the clinical characteristics and therapeutic influence of cerebrovascular insults in HIV-negative CM patients. [source]

    Differential effect of oestradiol and astroglia-conditioned media on the growth of hypothalamic neurons from male and female rat brains

    M. J. Cambiasso
    Abstract To determine whether soluble products from different CNS regions differ in their ability to support oestrogen-stimulated neurite growth, hypothalamic neurons from sexually segregated embryos were cultured with astroglia-conditioned medium (CM) derived from cortex, striatum and mesencephalon, with or without 17-,-oestradiol 100 n m added to the medium. After 48 h in vitro, neurite outgrowth was quantified by morphometric analysis. Astroglia-CM from mesencephalon (a target for the axons of hypothalamic neurons) induced the greatest axogenic response in males and in this case only a neuritogenic effect could be demonstrated for oestradiol. On the other hand, astroglia-CM from regions that do not receive projections from ventromedial hypothalamus inhibited axon growth. A sexual difference in the response of hypothalamic neurons to astroglia-CM and oestradiol was found; growth of neurons from female foetuses was increased by astroglia-CM from mesencephalon, but no neuritogenic effect could be demonstrated for oestradiol in these cultures. Blot immunobinding demonstrated the presence of receptors for neurotrophic factors in cultures of hypothalamic neurons; Western blot analysis of these cultures demonstrated that oestradiol increased the concentration of trkB and IGF-I R,, whereas trkA was not detected and the concentration of trkC was not modified. These results support the hypothesis that target regions produce some factor(s) that stimulate the growth of axons from projecting neurons and further indicate that in the case of males this effect is modulated by oestradiol, perhaps mediated through the upregulation of trkB and IGF-I receptors. [source]

    Straightforward Synthesis of ,-Substituted Prolines by Cross-Metathesis

    Marco Lumini
    Abstract The synthesis of several ,-substituted N -Boc-protected prolines has been achieved by cross metathesis (CM) of N -Boc-allylproline 5 with terminal long chain alkenes and alkenes bearing hydroxy, silyloxy, ester, and O -acetylglucosamido groups. The CM occurred with good selectivity and short reaction time under microwave heating conditions, affording yields in the range of 40,92,%. Addition of Ti(OiPr)4 as a Lewis acid allowed a slight increase of the yield in the case of alkenes with Lewis basic substituents. The CM was also successfully applied to allylproline protected with trichloroacetaldehyde 4, but the intermediate products were less practical for further deprotection and elaboration. (© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2008) [source]

    Agentic and communal bias in socially desirable responding

    Jan-Erik Lönnqvist
    Abstract This research was designed to investigate Paulhus' communion management (CM) and self-deceptive enhancement (SDE), socially desirable responding (SDR) scales as measures of general SDR, communal bias and agentic bias. The CM and SDE scales, as well as the Schwartz values survey (SVS), were administered to four samples drawn from different cultures and subcultures (N,=,900). Participants completed the questionnaires in ,honest' and ,fake good' conditions. Although conceptions of which values were desirable varied strongly between samples and instructional sets, the CM scale was consistently related to general SDR and to communal bias. In contrast, the SDE scale was only related to general SDR. Contrary to expectations, neither scale could identify participants who ,faked good' under normal instructions. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Information rate bounds in common-mode aided wireline communications

    Thomas Magesacher
    Communication over the copper twisted-pair channel is performed by transmitting and receiving differential-mode (DM) signals. In this paper, we extend the conventional DM receiver scheme by incorporating the common-mode (CM) signal, which is strongly correlated with the DM signal and can be extracted at the end of every wire pair. The wireline channel, including the CM receive signal, is modelled as a Gaussian vector (multiple-input multiple-output) channel with memory and an arbitrary number of disturbers that introduce interference which can be correlated both temporally and spatially. We investigate the potential of CM-aided reception in terms of information rate for single-user digital subscriber line systems (xDSL) operating on a single pair. Numerical results of information rate calculations using measured channel data are presented. The achievable information rate of the twisted-pair channel when incorporating the CM signal in practically relevant example scenarios can exceed the information rate of the conventional DM channel by a factor of up to two. Copyright © 2005 AEIT. [source]

    The CAMbase literature database , an XML-based approach towards published evidence in CM

    T Ostermann

    Übersicht über die Sporenassoziationen (lepidophyta - bis pusilla -Zone) aus dem Unterkarbon der Bohrung Neuenkirchen 2/1973 (Insel Rügen, NE-Deutschland)

    Gusti Burmann
    Abstract Es wird die Sporenzonierung für das Tournai (einschließlich der Grenzschichten) der Bohrung Neuenkirchen 2/73 auf der Insel Rügen (NE-Deutschland) vorgelegt - von der lepidophyta -Zone var. minor -Subzone des Tnla des obersten Devons bis zur pusilla -Zone des tieferen Visé. Das Profit wird verglichen mit der Zonenabfolge aus der Bohrung Wiek 4/70 (Burmann 1975). Zur lepidophyta -Zone liegen vergleichbare Daten aus dem Harz vor (Burmann 1976). Die untersuchte Abfolge von Sporenzonen umfasst die lepidophyta -Zone mit der var. minor -Subzone (höheres Tnla); PA (pusillites-asperitis; Tn1b); NRH (nitidus-rarituberculatus-hederatus; Tn1b-Tn2); ND (nitidus-distinctus; Tn2); RM (rarituber-culatus-minutissimus; tieferes Tn3); CM (claviger-macra; höheres Tn3); Pu (pusilla; V1a+V1b; Obergrenze der Pu-Zone nicht erfasst). Die stratigraphische Einbindung der Sporenzonen erfolgte durch makrofaunistische Datierungen. Die Pu-Zone ist in beiden Bohrungen untergliederbar durch einen Horizont mit Gloeocapsamorpha. Lower Carboniferous spore assemblages (lepidophyta zone to pusilla zone) in the Neuenkirchen 2/1973 borehole of Rügen Island, NE Germany A spore zonation is given for the Tournaisian sequence of the Neuenkirchen 2/73 borehole on the island of Rügen (NE Germany). The deposits range from the lepidophyta zone var. minor subzone of the uppermost Famennian (Tnla) to the pusilla zone of the basal Viséan. The results are compared with the miospore zonation of the borehole Wiek 4 (Burmann 1975), and comparable dates for the lepidophyta zone from the Harz mountains (Burmann 1976). In ascending order the miospore zones examined are: lepidophyta zone with var. minor subzone (upper part of Tnla); PA (pusillites-asperitis; Tnlb); NRH (nitidus-rarituberculatus-hederatus; Tnlb-Tn2): ND (nitidus-distinctus; Tn2); RM (rarituber-culatus-minutissimus; lower part of Tn3): CM (claviger-macra; upper part of Tn3); Pu (pusilla; V1a+V1b; the upper boundary of the Pu zone is not determined). The stratigraphy of the spore zones is also compared with the macrofaunal data. The Pu zone in both boreholes is divided into two parts by a horizon with Gloeocapsamorpha. [source]

    Allergy-like reactions to iodinated contrast agents.

    A critical analysis
    Abstract Allergy-like reactions may occur following administration of iodinated contrast media (CM), mostly in at-risk patients (patients with history of previous reaction, history of allergy, co-treated with interleukin-2 or beta-blockers, etc.) but remain generally unpredictable. Severe and fatal reactions are very rare events. All categories of CM may induce such reactions, although first generation (high osmolar CM) have been found to induce a higher rate of adverse events than low osmolar CM. However, no differences were found between the two categories of CM with respect to mortality. Delayed reactions can also occur. There are no differences between the various categories of CM except for non-ionic dimers, which are more likely to induce such effect. Numerous clinical studies have evaluated the prophylactic value of drugs (mostly antihistamines and corticosteroids). Results are unclear and highly variable. Any prevention depends upon the mechanism involved. However, the mechanism of CM-induced allergy-like reaction remains disputed. Relatively recent data revived the hypothesis of a type-I hypersensitivity mechanism. Positive skin tests to CM have been reported. However, the affinity of IgE towards CM has been found to be very low in the only study which actually evaluated it. Other pathophysiological mechanisms (involving direct secretory effects on mast cells or basophils, or activation of the complement system associated or not with the plasma contact system) are also much debated. Anaphylaxis and anaphylactoid reactions are, in the end, clinically undistinguishable. [source]

    TGF-,1/SMAD signaling induces astrocyte fate commitment in vitro: Implications for radial glia development

    GLIA, Issue 10 2007
    Joice Stipursky
    Abstract Radial glial (RG) cells are specialized type of cell, which functions as neuronal precursors and scaffolding guides to migrating neurons during cerebral cortex development. After neurogenesis and migration are completed, most of RG cells transform into astrocytes. Mechanism and molecules involved in this process are not completely elucidated. We previously demonstrated that neurons activate the promoter of the astrocyte maturation marker GFAP in astrocytes by secretion of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-,1) in vitro. Here, we studied the role of neurons and TGF-,1 pathway in RG differentiation. To address this question, we employed cortical progenitor cultures enriched in GLAST/nestin double-labeled cells, markers of RG cells. TGF-,1 and conditioned medium derived from neuron-astrocyte cocultures (CM) decreased the number of cells expressing the precursor marker nestin and increased that expressing GFAP in cortical progenitor cultures. These events were impaired by addition of neutralizing antibodies against TGF-,1. Increase in the number of GFAP positive cells was associated with Smads 2/3 nuclear translocation, a hallmark of TGF-,1 pathway activation. PCR-assays revealed a decrease in the levels of mRNA for the RG marker, BLBP (brain lipid binding protein), due to TGF-,1 and CM treatment. We further identified TGF-,1 receptor in cortical progenitor cultures suggesting that these cells might be target for TGF-,1 during development. Our work provides strong evidence that TGF-,1 might be a novel factor involved in RG-astrocyte transformation and highlights the role of neuron-glia interaction in this process. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Suboccipital Nerve Blocks for Suppression of Chronic Migraine: Safety, Efficacy, and Predictors of Outcome

    HEADACHE, Issue 6 2010
    Silvia Weibelt RN
    (Headache 2010;50:1041-1044) Background., Approximately 1 in 50 Americans is afflicted by chronic migraine (CM). Many patients with CM describe cervicogenic headache. Options for treating CM effectively are at present quite limited. Objective., To determine the safety and efficacy of occipital nerve blocks (ONBs) used to treat cervicogenic chronic migraine (CCM) and to identify variables predictive of a positive treatment response. Methods., Using a uniform dose and injection paradigm, we performed ONBs consecutively on a series of patients presenting with CCM. Patients were stratified according to specific findings found to be present or absent on physical examination. A positive treatment outcome was defined as a 50% or greater reduction in headache days per month over the 30 days following treatment relative to the 30-day pre-treatment baseline. We used a 5-point Likert scale as one of the secondary outcome variables. Results., We treated 150 consecutive patients with unilateral (37) or bilateral (113) ONBs. At the 1-month follow-up visit 78 (52%) exhibited evidence of a positive treatment response according to the primary outcome variable, and 90 (60%) reported their headache disorder to be "better" (44; 29%) or "much better" (46; 30%). A total of 8 (5%) patients reported adverse events within the ensuing 72 hours, and 3 (2%) experienced adverse events that reversed spontaneously but required emergent evaluation and management. Conclusion., For suppression of CCM, ONBs may offer an attractive alternative to orally administered prophylactic therapy. [source]

    A Double-Blind Comparison of OnabotulinumtoxinA (BOTOX®) and Topiramate (TOPAMAX®) for the Prophylactic Treatment of Chronic Migraine: A Pilot Study

    HEADACHE, Issue 10 2009
    Ninan T. Mathew MD
    Background., There is a need for effective prophylactic therapy for chronic migraine (CM) that has minimal side effects. Objective., To compare the efficacy and safety of onabotulinumtoxinA (BOTOX®, Allergan, Inc., Irvine, CA) and topiramate (TOPAMAX®, Ortho-McNeil, Titusville, NJ) prophylactic treatment in patients with CM. Methods., In this single-center, double-blind trial, patients with CM received either onabotulinumtoxinA, maximum 200 units (U) at baseline and month 3 (100 U fixed-site and 100 U follow-the-pain), plus an oral placebo, or topiramate, 4-week titration to 100 mg/day with option for additional 4-week titration to 200 mg/day, plus placebo saline injections. OnabotulinumtoxinA or placebo saline injection was administered at baseline and month 3 only, while topiramate oral treatment or oral placebo was continued through the end of the study. The primary endpoint was treatment responder rate assessed using Physician Global Assessment 9-point scale (+4 = clearance of signs and symptoms and ,4 = very marked worsening [about 100% worse]). Secondary endpoints included the change from baseline in the number of headache (HA)/migraine days per month (HA diary), and HA disability measured using Headache Impact Test (HIT-6), HA diary, Migraine Disability Assessment (MIDAS) questionnaire, and Migraine Impact Questionnaire (MIQ). The overall study duration was approximately 10.5 months, which included a 4-week screening period and a 2-week optional final safety visit. Follow-up visits for assessments occurred at months 1, 3, 6, and 9. Adverse events (AEs) were documented. Results., Of 60 patients randomized to treatment (mean age, 36.8 ± 10.3 years; 90% female), 36 completed the study at the end of the 9 months of active treatment (onabotulinumtoxinA, 19/30 [63.3%]; topiramate, 17/30 [56.7%]). In the topiramate group, 7/29 (24.1%) discontinued study because of treatment-related AEs vs 2/26 (7.7%) in the onabotulinumtoxinA group. Between 68% and 83% of patients for both onabotulinumtoxinA and topiramate groups reported at least a slight (25%) improvement in migraine; response to treatment was assessed using Physician Global Assessment at months 1, 3, 6, and 9. Most patients in both groups reported moderate to marked improvements at all time points. No significant between-group differences were observed, except for marked improvement at month 9 (onabotulinumtoxinA, 27.3% vs topiramate, 60.9%, P = .0234, chi-square). In both groups, HA/migraine days decreased and MIDAS and HIT-6 scores improved. Patient-reported quality of life measures assessed using MIQ after treatment with onabotulinumtoxinA paralleled those seen after treatment with topiramate in most respects. At month 9, 40.9% and 42.9% of patients in the onabotulinumtoxinA and topiramate groups, respectively, reported ,50% reduction in HA/migraine days. Forty-one treatment-related AEs were reported in 18 onabotulinumtoxinA-treated patients vs 87 in 25 topiramate-treated patients, and 2.7% of patients in the onabotulinumtoxinA group and 24.1% of patients in the topiramate group reported AEs that required permanent discontinuation of study treatment. Conclusions., OnabotulinumtoxinA and topiramate demonstrated similar efficacy in the prophylactic treatment of CM. Patients receiving onabotulinumtoxinA had fewer AEs and discontinuations. [source]