Bullies

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


The Leaner, Meaner Workplace: Strategies for Handling Bullies at Work

EMPLOYMENT RELATIONS TODAY, Issue 2 2001
Susan Gardner
First page of article [source]


Do personality characteristics and beliefs predict intra-group bullying between prisoners?

AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR, Issue 4 2010
Polly Turner
Abstract This study assesses how beliefs about aggression and personality can predict engagement in intra-group bullying among prisoners. A sample of 213 adult male prisoners completed the DIPC-SCALED (bullying behavior), the EXPAGG (beliefs toward aggression), and the IPIP (a five-factor measure of personality). It was predicted that bullies would hold greater instrumental beliefs supporting the use of aggression than the other categories, with perpetrators reporting lower scores on agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience, and higher scores on neuroticism (i.e. low scores on emotional stability) than the remaining sample. Bullies and bully-victims endorsed greater instrumental aggressive beliefs than the victim category. Only one perpetrator group, bullies were predicted by reduced levels of agreeableness and increased levels of neuroticism, whereas bully/victims were predicted by decreased levels of neuroticism. Limitations of this study and directions for future research are discussed. Aggr. Behav. 36:261,270, 2010. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Bullying in school and adolescent sense of empowerment: an analysis of relationships with parents, friends, and teachers,

JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY & APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 3 2008
Maury Nation
Abstract We explore the development of bullying and victimization in school by investigating 11-, 13- and 15-year-olds' sense of interpersonal empowerment with parents, friends and teachers. A national sample of 4386 male and female students from 243 middle and secondary schools in Italy were surveyed. Boys were more likely than girls to be bullies and more likely to have been a bully/victim. Victimization and the likelihood of being both a bully and a victim declined with age. Bullying increased with age among boys whereas for girls it was slightly more prevalent at age 13 than ages 11 or 15. The sense of empowerment students experience with their teachers decreased in the older cohorts. Disempowered relationships with teachers consistently predicted bullying behaviour. Higher social competence was reported by 13- and 15-year-old bullies. Chronically bullied students had lower social competence in all age cohorts. Otherwise, predictors of victimization varied by age: 11-year-old victims felt less empowered by their teachers; 15-year-old victims reported more difficulties in negotiating cooperative relationships with parents. Bullies in all cohorts and younger bully/victims feel less empowered by their teachers. These findings suggest that students who are disempowered by teachers may either compensate by oppressing (bullying) peers or generalize the power differential with peers (become a victim). Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Empirical test of bullies' status goals: assessing direct goals, aggression, and prestige

AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR, Issue 1 2009
Jelle J. Sijtsema
Abstract The literature suggests that status goals are one of the driving motivations behind bullying behavior, yet this conjecture has rarely if ever been examined empirically. This study assessed status goals in three ways, using dyadic network analysis to analyze the relations and goals among 10,11 and 14,15 year olds in 22 school classes (N boys=225; N girls=277). As a validation bullies were contrasted with victims. Bullies had direct status goals (measured with the Interpersonal Goal Inventory for Children) and showed dominance as measured with proactive aggression. Moreover, as predicted from a goal perspective, bullying behavior was related to prestige in terms of perceived popularity. In contrast, victims lacked status goals, were only reactively aggressive, and low on prestige. That being popular is not the same as being liked could be shown by the fact that bullies were just as rejected as victims by their classmates. Eighth-grade bullies had more direct status goals than fourth-grade bullies, possibly indicating that striving for the popularity component of status increases in early adolescence. Aggr. Behav. 35:57,67, 2009. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Association between measures of aggression and bullying among juvenile and young offenders

AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR, Issue 1 2004
Jane L. Ireland
Abstract This study addresses the relationship between aggression and behaviors indicative of bullying in a sample of incarcerated male juvenile and young offenders. The study also addresses whether or not offenders who bully others and/or are bullied themselves can be identified by the type of aggression that they report. Ninety-five juvenile and 196 young offenders completed a self-report behavioral checklist (DIPC: Direct and Indirect Prisoner Behavior Checklist) that addressed their experience of and involvement in behaviors indicative of bullying. They also completed the Aggression Questionnaire (AQ), a measure of physical and verbal aggression, anger and hostility. Four categories of offenders were identified from the DIPC - pure bullies, pure victims, those who were both bullies and victims (bully/victims), and those not-involved in bullying behavior. As predicted, behaviors measured on the DIPC that were indicative of ,bullying others' correlated positively with scores on the AQ. There was no indication, however, that physical AQ and physical bullying on the DIPC were the same constructs. There was a closer association between verbal AQ scores and verbal bullying on the DIPC. Bullies and bully/victims reported higher levels of physical and verbal aggression, and bully/victims reported higher levels of hostility and anger, than the other categories. It is concluded that although there are similarities between the AQ and the DIPC, there is no evidence that they are measuring the same type of aggression, although different groups involved in bullying can be partly distinguished by their scores on the AQ. Aggr. Behav. 30:29,42, 2004. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Proactive and reactive aggression among school bullies, victims, and bully-victims

AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR, Issue 1 2002
Christina Salmivalli
Abstract Bullies, victims, bully-victims, and control children were identified from a sample of 1062 children (530 girls and 532 boys), aged 10 to 12 years, participating in the study. Their reactive and proactive aggression was measured by means of peer and teacher reports. Peer and teacher reports were more concordant with respect to reactive than proactive aggression. Comparing the children in different bullying roles in terms of their reactive and proactive aggression, bully-victims were found to be the most aggressive group of all. For this group, it was typical to be highly aggressive both reactively and proactively. Although bullies were significantly less aggressive than bully-victims, they scored higher than victims and controls on both reactive and proactive aggression. However, observations at the person level, i.e., cross-tabulational analyses, indicated that bullies were not only overrepresented among children who were both reactively and procatively aggressive but also among the only reactively aggressive as well as the only proactively aggressive groups. Victims scored higher than control children on reactive aggression, but they were not proactively aggressive. Furthermore, even their reactive aggression was at a significantly lower level than that of bullies and bully-victims. Aggr. Behav. 28:30,44, 2002. 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Is your Child or Student a Bully or a Victim of Bullying?

THE BROWN UNIVERSITY CHILD AND ADOLESCENT BEHAVIOR LETTER, Issue S6 2006
Article first published online: 16 MAY 200
No abstract is available for this article. [source]


Fish distribution and diet in relation to the invasive macrophyte Lagarosiphon major in the littoral zone of Lake Dunstan, New Zealand

ECOLOGY OF FRESHWATER FISH, Issue 1 2008
T. O. Bickel
Abstract,,, Invasive macrophytes are usually associated with negative impacts on habitat quality and a threat to native biodiversity. However, they might provide the same beneficial functions of native macrophytes, i.e., the provision of food and shelter for fish, in the absence of native macrophytes. To assess the value of the invasive macrophyte Lagarosiphon major as a fish habitat, we investigated the spatio,temporal variation in the distribution of a small littoral fish species (common bully) in the littoral of Lake Dunstan, a New Zealand hydro lake. Large- and fine-scale common bully distribution could partly be explained by the occurrence of dense L. major stands. Additionally, variability in catch per unit effort was partly explained by season and recruitment. Diet analysis indicated that common bullies in the Lagarosiphon-dominated littoral fed on invertebrates (Mollusca, Trichoptera, Chironomidae) found on exotic L. major, therefore suggesting its role as a food provider in the system. These results indicated that invasive macrophytes can provide important ecosystem functions in disturbed habitats that are otherwise devoid of native macrophytes. Any macrophyte management strategy should therefore carefully consider the costs and benefits associated with macrophyte control. [source]


Dangerous Work: The Gendered Nature of Bullying in the Context of Higher Education

GENDER, WORK & ORGANISATION, Issue 2 2004
Ruth Simpson
This article discusses results from a research project which set out to investigate gender differences in the nature and experience of bullying within the higher education sector. Gender differences emerged in the form and perception of bullying as well as in target responses. Results also indicate that, irrespective of gender, bullies can capture and subvert organizational structures and procedures (such as official hierarchies, mentoring systems and probationary reviews) to further their abuse of the target and to conceal their aggressive intent. These outcomes are discussed in relation to gendered assumptions behind management practices and in relation to the masculinist ethic that underpins many higher education management initiatives. Overall, results indicate that bullying cannot be divorced from gender and that such behaviour needs to be seen in a gendered context. [source]


Do personality characteristics and beliefs predict intra-group bullying between prisoners?

AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR, Issue 4 2010
Polly Turner
Abstract This study assesses how beliefs about aggression and personality can predict engagement in intra-group bullying among prisoners. A sample of 213 adult male prisoners completed the DIPC-SCALED (bullying behavior), the EXPAGG (beliefs toward aggression), and the IPIP (a five-factor measure of personality). It was predicted that bullies would hold greater instrumental beliefs supporting the use of aggression than the other categories, with perpetrators reporting lower scores on agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience, and higher scores on neuroticism (i.e. low scores on emotional stability) than the remaining sample. Bullies and bully-victims endorsed greater instrumental aggressive beliefs than the victim category. Only one perpetrator group, bullies were predicted by reduced levels of agreeableness and increased levels of neuroticism, whereas bully/victims were predicted by decreased levels of neuroticism. Limitations of this study and directions for future research are discussed. Aggr. Behav. 36:261,270, 2010. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Bullying in school and adolescent sense of empowerment: an analysis of relationships with parents, friends, and teachers,

JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY & APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 3 2008
Maury Nation
Abstract We explore the development of bullying and victimization in school by investigating 11-, 13- and 15-year-olds' sense of interpersonal empowerment with parents, friends and teachers. A national sample of 4386 male and female students from 243 middle and secondary schools in Italy were surveyed. Boys were more likely than girls to be bullies and more likely to have been a bully/victim. Victimization and the likelihood of being both a bully and a victim declined with age. Bullying increased with age among boys whereas for girls it was slightly more prevalent at age 13 than ages 11 or 15. The sense of empowerment students experience with their teachers decreased in the older cohorts. Disempowered relationships with teachers consistently predicted bullying behaviour. Higher social competence was reported by 13- and 15-year-old bullies. Chronically bullied students had lower social competence in all age cohorts. Otherwise, predictors of victimization varied by age: 11-year-old victims felt less empowered by their teachers; 15-year-old victims reported more difficulties in negotiating cooperative relationships with parents. Bullies in all cohorts and younger bully/victims feel less empowered by their teachers. These findings suggest that students who are disempowered by teachers may either compensate by oppressing (bullying) peers or generalize the power differential with peers (become a victim). Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Empirical test of bullies' status goals: assessing direct goals, aggression, and prestige

AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR, Issue 1 2009
Jelle J. Sijtsema
Abstract The literature suggests that status goals are one of the driving motivations behind bullying behavior, yet this conjecture has rarely if ever been examined empirically. This study assessed status goals in three ways, using dyadic network analysis to analyze the relations and goals among 10,11 and 14,15 year olds in 22 school classes (N boys=225; N girls=277). As a validation bullies were contrasted with victims. Bullies had direct status goals (measured with the Interpersonal Goal Inventory for Children) and showed dominance as measured with proactive aggression. Moreover, as predicted from a goal perspective, bullying behavior was related to prestige in terms of perceived popularity. In contrast, victims lacked status goals, were only reactively aggressive, and low on prestige. That being popular is not the same as being liked could be shown by the fact that bullies were just as rejected as victims by their classmates. Eighth-grade bullies had more direct status goals than fourth-grade bullies, possibly indicating that striving for the popularity component of status increases in early adolescence. Aggr. Behav. 35:57,67, 2009. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Characteristics of male and female prisoners involved in bullying behavior

AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR, Issue 3 2007
Jane L. Ireland
This study explores bullying behavior in a larger and more representative sample than previous prison-based research. It has two core aims, first to explore the nature of bullying in relation to indirect and direct aggression and, second, to explore the predictors of bully-category membership with particular reference to behavioral characteristics. Participants were adult men (n=728) and women (n=525) prisoners. All completed a behavioral measure of behavior indicative of bullying (Direct and Indirect Prisoner behavior Checklist, DIPC) that also explored prison-based behavior such as negative acts towards staff or prison rules, positive acts and drug-related behavior. Indirect aggression was, as predicted, reported more frequently than direct aggression, although this only held for perpetration. Bully-victims, as predicted, showed more negative behavior. Pure bullies and pure victims also showed more negative behavior than the other categories. The findings are discussed in relation to the environment in which bullying behavior is being assessed and with attention to the possible motivations underlying both bullying and negative behavior. Directions for future research are suggested. Aggr. Behav. 33:1,10, 2007. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Social cognition and moral cognition in bullying: what's wrong?

AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR, Issue 6 2006
Gianluca Gini
Abstract Two different models have been proposed that describe the bully alternatively as a child lacking in social skills [Crick and Dodge, 1994], or as a cold manipulative individual, who leads gangs to achieve personal goals [Sutton et al., 1999a]. The present study examined the performance of 204 8,11-year-olds in a set of stories that assessed understanding of cognitions and emotions, in relation to their Participant Role in bullying. Moreover, children's understanding of moral emotions and proneness to moral disengagement was assessed. Victims showed some difficulties in the social cognition task, whereas bullies did not. Aggressive children, instead, were found to be more ready to show moral disengagement mechanisms, whereas defenders showed higher levels of moral sensibility. Results are discussed in relation to the two models, and the need for further research into empathy and moral cognition of children involved in bullying episodes is highlighted. Aggr. Behav. 32:528,539, 2006. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Direct and indirect bully-victims: differential psychosocial risk factors associated with adolescents involved in bullying and victimization

AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR, Issue 6 2006
Zopito A. Marini
Abstract The present study examined psychosocial risk factors that differentiated direct and indirect bully-victims from bullies, victims and uninvolved adolescents. A total of 7,290 (3,756 girls) students (ages 13,18,yr) from a region of Southern Ontario, Canada, completed a number of self-report measures to determine the relation between direct and indirect bullying and victimization and several psychosocial risk factors, including normative beliefs about antisocial acts, angry-externalizing coping, social anxiety, depression, self-esteem, temperament, attachment, parental monitoring and peer relational problems. ANCOVA and logistic regression analyses indicated that indirect bully-victims and victims were similar in demonstrating greater internalizing problems and peer relational problems than indirect bullies and uninvolved participants. Furthermore, adolescents involved in indirect bullying (bullies, bully-victims) reported a higher level of normative beliefs legitimizing antisocial behaviour and less parental monitoring (males only) than indirect victims and uninvolved participants. Only normative beliefs legitimizing antisocial behaviour distinguished direct bully-victims and bullies from victims and uninvolved adolescents. Results illuminate the distinct characteristics of direct and indirect bully-victims; theoretical and clinical implications are discussed. Aggr. Behav. 32:551,569. 2006. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Attachment, emotional loneliness, and bullying behaviour: A study of adult and young offenders

AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR, Issue 4 2004
Jane L. Ireland
Abstract This research addresses the question of whether or not offenders who bully others and/or are victimised themselves can be distinguished by their attachment styles and the level of emotional loneliness that they report. Adult and young male offenders (n = 220) were required to complete a self-report behavioural checklist (DIPC: Direct and Indirect Prisoner behaviour Checklist: Ireland, 1999a) that addressed the level of bullying behaviour at their present institution. Offenders were also required to complete a measure of attachment, namely the Three Attachment Style Measure [Hazan and Shaver, 1987] exploring secure, avoidant and anxious/ambivalent styles, and a measure of emotional loneliness, namely the revised UCLA Loneliness scale [Russell, Peplaw and Cutrona, 1980]. Young offenders were more likely than adult offenders to report behaviours indicative of ,bullying others' and of ,being bullied.' With regards to attachment style and bullying behaviour, significant differences were restricted to avoidant attachment; bully/victims reported higher avoidant scores than the other bully-categories, with pure bullies and those not-involved reporting lower avoidant scores. Finally, when considering emotional loneliness and bullying behaviour, bully/victims reported higher scores on emotional loneliness than the other bully-categories, with the not-involved group reporting significantly lower scores. Aggr. Behav. 30:298,312, 2004. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Association between measures of aggression and bullying among juvenile and young offenders

AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR, Issue 1 2004
Jane L. Ireland
Abstract This study addresses the relationship between aggression and behaviors indicative of bullying in a sample of incarcerated male juvenile and young offenders. The study also addresses whether or not offenders who bully others and/or are bullied themselves can be identified by the type of aggression that they report. Ninety-five juvenile and 196 young offenders completed a self-report behavioral checklist (DIPC: Direct and Indirect Prisoner Behavior Checklist) that addressed their experience of and involvement in behaviors indicative of bullying. They also completed the Aggression Questionnaire (AQ), a measure of physical and verbal aggression, anger and hostility. Four categories of offenders were identified from the DIPC - pure bullies, pure victims, those who were both bullies and victims (bully/victims), and those not-involved in bullying behavior. As predicted, behaviors measured on the DIPC that were indicative of ,bullying others' correlated positively with scores on the AQ. There was no indication, however, that physical AQ and physical bullying on the DIPC were the same constructs. There was a closer association between verbal AQ scores and verbal bullying on the DIPC. Bullies and bully/victims reported higher levels of physical and verbal aggression, and bully/victims reported higher levels of hostility and anger, than the other categories. It is concluded that although there are similarities between the AQ and the DIPC, there is no evidence that they are measuring the same type of aggression, although different groups involved in bullying can be partly distinguished by their scores on the AQ. Aggr. Behav. 30:29,42, 2004. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Moral emotions and bullying: A cross-national comparison of differences between bullies, victims and outsiders

AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR, Issue 6 2003
Ersilia Menesini
Abstract This study aims to analyse the role of moral emotions and reasoning in relation to children's behaviour in a bullying situation. On the basis of a peer nomination questionnaire [Salmivalli et al., 1996; Sutton and Smith, 1999], children from three different cities (Seville, Florence, and Cosenza) were assigned to one of three different status groups: bullies, victims, or outsiders. Subsequently they were interviewed about their feelings in relation to the task of putting themselves in the role of the bully in a bullying scenario. Specifically, emotions such as guilt and shame, expressed in a sense of moral responsibility, and indifference and pride, expressed in an attitude of moral disengagement, were investigated. Results showed significant differences between bullies, victims, and outsiders, with regard to moral disengagement, at both the affective and cognitive levels. Across the three cities, bullies, as compared to victims and outsiders, showed a higher level of disengagement emotions and motives when they were asked to put themselves in the role of bully. At a more detailed level, analyses of specific mechanisms of moral disengagement revealed that bullies possessed a main profile of egocentric reasoning. Besides the differences between bullies and victims, cross-cultural differences were also present. Compared to children from Seville, children from the south of Italy (Cosenza) attributed higher disengagement to the bullies. Findings are discussed in relation to specific cultural characteristics of this area. Aggr. Behav. 29:515,530, 2003. 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Links between social information processing in middle childhood and involvement in bullying

AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR, Issue 2 2003
Marina Camodeca
Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the way in which bullies, victims, bully/victims, and those not involved process social information. A peer nomination measure of bullying and victimization was administered twice over an interval of one year. The sample consisted of 236 (126 girls and 110 boys) children at the beginning of the study (T1) and 242 children one year later (T2) (mean age: 8 years). To test how children responded when provoked, both spontaneously and after prompting, we used provocation scenarios, and to test their attributional interpretations we used ambiguous scenarios. The results showed that children not involved in bullying responded in an assertive way to provocation more often than bullies and victims, but not more than bully/victims. In general, aggressive answers diminished after prompting and irrelevant answers increased. Appealing for the help of an adult or a peer was the strategy most often chosen. When the intent of the perpetrator was ambiguous, bully/victims attributed more blame, were angrier, and would retaliate more than those not involved. Partly similar results were obtained when stably involved children were compared with those unstably involved. Suggestions for intervention are presented. Aggr. Behav. 29:116,127, 2003. 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Proactive and reactive aggression among school bullies, victims, and bully-victims

AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR, Issue 1 2002
Christina Salmivalli
Abstract Bullies, victims, bully-victims, and control children were identified from a sample of 1062 children (530 girls and 532 boys), aged 10 to 12 years, participating in the study. Their reactive and proactive aggression was measured by means of peer and teacher reports. Peer and teacher reports were more concordant with respect to reactive than proactive aggression. Comparing the children in different bullying roles in terms of their reactive and proactive aggression, bully-victims were found to be the most aggressive group of all. For this group, it was typical to be highly aggressive both reactively and proactively. Although bullies were significantly less aggressive than bully-victims, they scored higher than victims and controls on both reactive and proactive aggression. However, observations at the person level, i.e., cross-tabulational analyses, indicated that bullies were not only overrepresented among children who were both reactively and procatively aggressive but also among the only reactively aggressive as well as the only proactively aggressive groups. Victims scored higher than control children on reactive aggression, but they were not proactively aggressive. Furthermore, even their reactive aggression was at a significantly lower level than that of bullies and bully-victims. Aggr. Behav. 28:30,44, 2002. 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Bullying and victimisation in Scottish secondary schools: Same or separate entities?

AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR, Issue 1 2002
A. Karatzias
Abstract Previous research has suggested that bullying is an increasingly severe problem in schools. Such research has approached the phenomenon from two different angles. Earlier research has treated bullying and victimisation as separate entities. However, current research suggests that bullies and victims engage in a special dynamic and interactive relationship, thereby providing the need for studying any similarities and differences between bullies and victims in relation to various factors. The present research has approached bullying and victimisation in both ways. First, we studied differences between bullies, victims, and those not involved in relation to various demographic, school, well-being, and personality factors to identify factors that separate these three groups. In addition, we studied differences between those involved in bullying/victimisation (one group) and those never involved in relation to the same aforementioned factors to highlight aspects of the development of their special relationship (i.e., common factors). Prevalence rates and types of bullying/victimisation experienced/expressed in Scottish schools were also investigated. It was found that bullying and victimisation, when treated as separate entities, differed in relation to peer self-esteem, with bullies reporting higher levels of peer self-esteem than victims. When bullies and victims were treated as one group (involved), they were found to differ from the noninvolved group in relation to various factors, including school, well-being, and personality factors. The involved group was found to be disadvantaged in relation to all measures used. However, overall results indicated that from all these factors the best predictors of overall involvement as bully, victim, or bully-victim were Quality of School Life and school stress. The present results support the notion that bullying and victimisation could be treated, by future research, as both separate and/or interactive entities. This is so because bullying and victimisation were found to differ in relation to one personality factor, that is, peer self-esteem. However, Quality of School Life and school stress, both school factors, were found to be associated with the phenomenon as a whole. Results are discussed in relation to future development of antibullying policy in Scottish schools.Aggr. Behav. 28:45,61, 2002. 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


The relationship between social problem-solving and bullying behaviour among male and female adult prisoners

AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR, Issue 4 2001
*Article first published online: 18 JUL 200, Jane L. Ireland
Abstract The association between social problem solving and bullying behaviour among adult male and female prisoners is presented. A total of 210 male and 196 female prisoners were categorised into four groups: pure bullies, pure victims, bully/victims, and those not involved in bullying or victimisation. Prisoners completed a questionnaire that presented them with different bullying scenarios and were asked to suggest ways of dealing with each. Female bully/victims produced significantly more solutions in response to theft-related bullying than male bully/victims. There were no further significant group or gender differences in the number of solutions generated. The bully group favoured aggressive responses for all scenarios. Males reported more aggressive responses than females. The results are discussed with reference to the environment in which the social problem solving is taking place and highlights the importance of distinguishing between the different groups involved in bullying. Aggr. Behav. 27:297,312, 2001. 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Psychiatric disorders and the use of mental health services among children involved in bullying

AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR, Issue 2 2001
Kirsti Kumpulainen
Abstract This study had two aims: to evaluate the relationship between bullying and psychiatric disorders and to study the probability of using mental health services among children involved in bully/victim problems. The data consisted of interviews with 423 parents and 420 children. Diagnostic measures were based on the Isle of Wight Interview. Children involved in bullying as bullies, bully-victims, and victims were compared with other children. Children involved in bully/victim problems were more prone to have psychiatric disorders than noninvolved children. The probability of being disturbed was highest among male bullies, followed by male bully-victims and female victims (9.5-fold, 7.9-fold, and 4.3-fold, respectively) compared with noninvolved same-sex children. The most common diagnoses among children involved in bully/victim problems were attention deficit disorder, oppositional/conduct disorder, and depression. Furthermore, children involved in bully/victim problems were more likely to have used mental health services at some time during their lives and also during the previous 3 months. Special attention should be paid to children's mental health when dealing with bullying problems at school. Referral pathways to mental health services and factors affecting the referral processes among children should be further studied. Aggr. Behav. 27:102,110, 2001. 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Anti-bullying practices in American schools: Perspectives of school psychologists

PSYCHOLOGY IN THE SCHOOLS, Issue 3 2010
Yiping C. Sherer
A random sample of 213 school psychologists working in a school setting completed a survey on their schools' current anti-bullying practices. Talking with bullies following bullying incidents, disciplinary consequences for bullies, and increasing adult supervision were the three most frequently used strategies. Peer juries/court, an anti-bullying committee, and peer counselors were least frequently used, according to respondents. School-wide positive behavior support, modifying space and schedule, and immediate responses to bullying incidents were perceived as most effective, whereas avoiding contact between bullies and victims, a zero-tolerance policy with bullies, and a written anti-bullying policy were least effective. Results and implications are discussed within the context of empirically supported practices. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


Examining developmental differences in the social-emotional problems among frequent bullies, victims, and bully/victims,

PSYCHOLOGY IN THE SCHOOLS, Issue 2 2009
Lindsey M. O'Brennan
Bullying poses a threat to children's social-emotional functioning and their perceptions of school climate, yet few studies have examined different types of social-emotional and behavior problems presented by children involved in bullying, as a bully, victim, or bully/victim across multiple school levels. The current study used data from 24,345 elementary-, middle-, and high-school students to examine the association between frequent involvement in bullying and aggressive impulsivity, attitudes toward aggressive retaliation, internalizing symptoms, peer relations, and perceptions of school climate. Logistic regression analyses indicated that bully/victims were most likely to display internalizing symptoms, problems in peer relationships, and have poorer perceptions of the school environment. Both frequent bullies and bully/victims displayed aggressive-impulsive behavior and endorsed retaliatory attitudes. High-school students frequently involved in bullying tended to display the greatest risk for internalizing problems, but less risk for aggressive impulsivity. Developmental trends and implications for prevention and early intervention are discussed. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


Peer victimization in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

PSYCHOLOGY IN THE SCHOOLS, Issue 2 2009
Judith Wiener
This study explored peer victimization in 9- to 14-year-old children with and without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The sample comprised 104 children, 52 of whom had a previous ADHD diagnosis. Children with ADHD had higher overall rates of self-reported victimization by peers and parent- and teacher-reported bullying behavior than did children without ADHD. The rates of victimization were especially high for girls with ADHD. Furthermore, children with ADHD reported higher frequencies of verbal, physical, and relational victimization than did children without ADHD. When data were pooled from children, parents, and teachers, children with ADHD were categorized as victims, bullies, and bully/victims significantly more often than were children without ADHD. Parent ratings of ADHD symptoms predicted self-reported victimization by peers. Neither parent-rated anxious-shy behaviors nor parent- and teacher-rated social skills predicted victimization by peers over and above ADHD symptoms. Parent ratings of oppositional behavior mediated the relationship between ADHD symptoms and parent- and teacher-rated bullying. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


Fish distribution and diet in relation to the invasive macrophyte Lagarosiphon major in the littoral zone of Lake Dunstan, New Zealand

ECOLOGY OF FRESHWATER FISH, Issue 1 2008
T. O. Bickel
Abstract,,, Invasive macrophytes are usually associated with negative impacts on habitat quality and a threat to native biodiversity. However, they might provide the same beneficial functions of native macrophytes, i.e., the provision of food and shelter for fish, in the absence of native macrophytes. To assess the value of the invasive macrophyte Lagarosiphon major as a fish habitat, we investigated the spatio,temporal variation in the distribution of a small littoral fish species (common bully) in the littoral of Lake Dunstan, a New Zealand hydro lake. Large- and fine-scale common bully distribution could partly be explained by the occurrence of dense L. major stands. Additionally, variability in catch per unit effort was partly explained by season and recruitment. Diet analysis indicated that common bullies in the Lagarosiphon-dominated littoral fed on invertebrates (Mollusca, Trichoptera, Chironomidae) found on exotic L. major, therefore suggesting its role as a food provider in the system. These results indicated that invasive macrophytes can provide important ecosystem functions in disturbed habitats that are otherwise devoid of native macrophytes. Any macrophyte management strategy should therefore carefully consider the costs and benefits associated with macrophyte control. [source]


Professionals on the Sidelines: the Working Lives of Bedside Nurses and Elementary Core French Teachers

GENDER, WORK & ORGANISATION, Issue 3 2007
Isolde Daiski
Oppression exists at many levels and in varying degrees. To demonstrate how marginality affects differently situated professionals, two occupational groups considered to be marginalized were studied: bedside nurses and elementary core French teachers. The findings confirm that women (and men) in ,feminized' fields experience, as well as exercise, oppression. Devaluation of their worth is internalized and taken for granted by most who inhabit these work spaces, including the members concerned. While those groups ,on top' bully those ,below,' dominance is also reinforced laterally amongst the members. Thus marginality between groups, as well as within them is thereby produced, with the centre of oppression constantly shifting. The authors conclude that professionals are not unified categories, readily distinguishable from outside oppressors. Their members, too, are caught up in power relationships amongst themselves. Recognition of the shifting centre of oppression is an essential first step to improve conditions for the marginalized. [source]


Bullying in school and adolescent sense of empowerment: an analysis of relationships with parents, friends, and teachers,

JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY & APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 3 2008
Maury Nation
Abstract We explore the development of bullying and victimization in school by investigating 11-, 13- and 15-year-olds' sense of interpersonal empowerment with parents, friends and teachers. A national sample of 4386 male and female students from 243 middle and secondary schools in Italy were surveyed. Boys were more likely than girls to be bullies and more likely to have been a bully/victim. Victimization and the likelihood of being both a bully and a victim declined with age. Bullying increased with age among boys whereas for girls it was slightly more prevalent at age 13 than ages 11 or 15. The sense of empowerment students experience with their teachers decreased in the older cohorts. Disempowered relationships with teachers consistently predicted bullying behaviour. Higher social competence was reported by 13- and 15-year-old bullies. Chronically bullied students had lower social competence in all age cohorts. Otherwise, predictors of victimization varied by age: 11-year-old victims felt less empowered by their teachers; 15-year-old victims reported more difficulties in negotiating cooperative relationships with parents. Bullies in all cohorts and younger bully/victims feel less empowered by their teachers. These findings suggest that students who are disempowered by teachers may either compensate by oppressing (bullying) peers or generalize the power differential with peers (become a victim). Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Social cognition and moral cognition in bullying: what's wrong?

AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR, Issue 6 2006
Gianluca Gini
Abstract Two different models have been proposed that describe the bully alternatively as a child lacking in social skills [Crick and Dodge, 1994], or as a cold manipulative individual, who leads gangs to achieve personal goals [Sutton et al., 1999a]. The present study examined the performance of 204 8,11-year-olds in a set of stories that assessed understanding of cognitions and emotions, in relation to their Participant Role in bullying. Moreover, children's understanding of moral emotions and proneness to moral disengagement was assessed. Victims showed some difficulties in the social cognition task, whereas bullies did not. Aggressive children, instead, were found to be more ready to show moral disengagement mechanisms, whereas defenders showed higher levels of moral sensibility. Results are discussed in relation to the two models, and the need for further research into empathy and moral cognition of children involved in bullying episodes is highlighted. Aggr. Behav. 32:528,539, 2006. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]