Bulk Powder (bulk + powder)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Analysis of a Simple Test Device for Tribo-Electric Charging of Bulk Powders

Abstract We have developed a simple device to characterise the tribo-electric charging propensity of powders. A sample of around one gram of powder is shaken in a container by reciprocal strokes in a horizontal direction. The electric charge on the powder is quantified by a Faraday cup before and after shaking. In this paper, we analyse the operation of this simple test device by investigating the behaviour of ,-lactose monohydrate (,-LM), hydroxy propyl cellulose (HPC) and a 50 : 50 binary mixture (by mass) of these two powders with various container surfaces commonly used in the pharmaceutical industry. The experiments are carried out in controlled environmental conditions and using different shaking times and frequencies of 10, 20 and 30,Hz. The experimental results show that the saturated charge is independent of the shaking frequency. Furthermore adhered particles coating the inner surface of the shaking container decrease the net amount of charge generated by up to 50,%. [source]

Simultaneous determination of metronidazole and spiramycin in bulk powder and in tablets using different spectrophotometric techniques

Fatma I. Khattab
Abstract Metronidazole (MZ) is an anti-infective drug used in the treatment of anaerobic bacterial and protozoa infections in humans. It is also used as a vetinary antiparasitic drug. Spiramycin (SP) is a medium-spectrum antibiotic with high effectiveness against Gram-positive bacteria. Three simple, sensitive, selective and precise spectrophotometric methods were developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of MZ and SP in their pure form and in pharmaceutical formulations. In methods A and B, MZ was determined by the application of direct spectrophotometry and by measuring its zero-order (D0) absorption spectra at its ,max = 311 nm. In method A, SP was determined by the application of first derivative spectrophotometry (D1) and by measuring the amplitude at 218.3 nm. In method B, the first derivative of the ratio spectra (DD1) was applied, and SP was determined by measuring the peak amplitude at 245.6 nm. Method C entailed mean centring of the ratio spectra (MCR), which allows the determination of both MZ and SP. The methods developed were used for the determination of MZ and SP over a concentration range of 5,25 µg ml,1. The proposed methods were used to determine both drugs in their pure, powdered forms with mean percentage recoveries of 100.16 ± 0.73 for MZ in methods A and B, 101.10 ± 0.90 in method C, 100.09 ± 0.70, 100.02 ± 0.88 and 100.49 ± 1.26 for SP in methods A, B and C, respectively. The proposed methods were proved using laboratory-prepared mixtures of the two drugs and were successfully applied to the analysis of MZ and SP in tablet formulation without any interference from each other or from the excipients. The results obtained by applying the proposed methods were compared statistically with a reported HPLC method and no significant difference was observed between these methods regarding both accuracy and precision. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Low-temperature phase transformation and phonon confinement in one-dimensional Ta2O5 nanorods

Rupesh S. Devan
The thermochromic phase transformations of one-dimensional Ta2O5 nanorods have been analyzed at elevated temperatures ranging from 80 to 300,K. The nanorods, grown in a large-area high-density array, are 14,22,nm wide and approximately 500,nm long. The array contained ,93.5% of the orthorhombic (,) phase and ,6.5% of the tetragonal (,) phase. Low-temperature X-ray diffraction results showed complex and polymorphic thermochromic phase transformations of the ,(001), ,(101) and ,(103) lattice planes of the nanorods, which incorporate (i) ,-to-, (,,,), (ii) ,,,,, and (iii) ,,, phase transitions. In comparison with the Raman scattering of three-dimensional bulk powder and two-dimensional thin films of Ta2O5, there were concurrent Raman blue- and redshifts in the one-dimensional Ta2O5 nanorods, indicating that the molecular vibrations of the nanorods were confined owing to the reduction of size and dimension. [source]

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and tribology studies of annealed fullerene-like WS2 nanoparticles

B. Späth
Abstract The time dependent chemical changes occurring at the surface of inorganic fullerene-like (IF) nanoparticles of WS2 were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and compared to those of bulk powder, 2H-WS2. It was possible to follow the long term surface oxidation and carbonization occurring at defects on the outermost surface (0001) molecular layers of the inorganic fullerene-like nanoparticles. Vacuum annealing was shown to remove most of these contaminants and bring the surface close to its pristine stoichiometric composition. In accordance with previous measurements, further evidence was obtained for the existence of water molecules, which were entrapped in the hollow core and interstitial defects of the fullerene-like nanoparticles during the synthesis. These water molecules were also shown to be removable by the vacuum annealing process. Chemically resolved electrical measurements (CREM) in the XPS showed that the IF samples had become less p-type after the vacuum annealing. Finally, tribological measurements showed that the vacuum annealed IF samples performed better as an oil additive than the non-annealed IF samples and the 2H-WS2 powder. (© 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

The rotational molding of a thermotropic liquid crystalline polymer

Eric Scribben
Thermotropic liquid crystalline polymers (TLCPs) exhibit a number of mechanical and physical properties such as excellent chemical resistance, low permeability, low coefficient of thermal expansion, high tensile strength and modulus, and good impact resistance, which make them desirable as a rotationally molded storage vessel. However, there are no reports in the technical literature of the successful rotational molding of TLCPs. In this article, conditions are identified that lead to the successful rotational molding of a TLCP, Vectra B 950. First, a technique was developed to produce particles suitable for rotational molding because TLCPs cannot be ground into a free-flowing powder. Second, because the viscosity at low shear rates can be detrimental to the sintering process, coalescence experiments with isolated particles were carried out to determine the thermal and environmental conditions at which sintering should occur. These conditions were then applied to static sintering experiments to determine whether coalescence and densification of the bulk powder would occur. Finally, the powders were successfully rotationally molded into tubular structures in a single axis, lab-scale device. The density of the molded structure was essentially equivalent to the material density and the tensile strength and modulus were approximately 18 MPa and 2 GPa, respectively. POLYM. ENG. SCI., 45:410,423, 2005. © 2005 Society of Plastics Engineers [source]

Toxic gas release caused by the thermal decomposition of a bulk powder blend containing sodium dichloroisocyanurate

Andrew R. Carpenter P.E.
A thermal runaway reaction occurred during the mixing of a batch of a bulk powder that resulted in the production and release of toxic gases. The mixture consisted of an oxidizer (sodium dichloroisocyanurate), some organic compounds, and inert compounds. This toxic release led to the evacuation of the building and resulted in extensive damage to the facility. This was only the fourth time an 1,100-pound batch of this material had been mixed in this equipment. Prior to this production run, the material had been prepared in small batches of 2 to 50 kilograms. Accelerated Rate Calorimetry (ARC) testing had been performed prior to the scale-up to production batches. This paper looks into the root causes of this particular accident and demonstrates how proper analysis of the testing data and other warning signs observed during the bench testing could have revealed the likelihood of this accident. Further, this paper will consider how simple design changes to the manufacturing process resulted in an inherently safer design. [source]