Bulge Region (bulge + region)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Extramammary Paget's disease,a proliferation of adnexal origin?

S Regauer
Aim :,To investigate a possible follicular origin of extramammary Paget's disease (EPD). EPD is a predominantly intraepidermal tumour with extensive involvement of adnexal structures and high recurrence rates suggesting a follicular stem cell origin. Cytokeratin (CK) 15 and CK19 are considered markers for follicular stem cells located in the hair follicle bulge region. Methods and results :,Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues of 12 cases of primary EPD (three anal, nine vulvar) were studied immunohistochemically with antibodies to CK15 and CK19. All cases of EPD showed polygonal Paget cells in the interfollicular epidermis, hair follicles, sebaceous and apocrine glands distributed individually, in nests and in gland-like areas. The polygonal Paget cells were intimately associated with small, flat, mitotically active, ,compressed' keratinocytes. The large Paget cells uniformly expressed CK19 in 12/12 EPD. The small ,compressed' keratinocytes showed strong cytoplasmic CK15 staining in 9/12 EPD with focal accentuation, while the polygonal Paget cells were negative. Conclusions :,These histological and immunohistochemical observations allow the following conclusions: (i) the small, flat, ,compressed' keratinocytes are an integral part of EPD; (ii) the dual cell population is reminiscent of sebaceous glands with mature sebocytes and germinative keratinocytes; (iii) since both cell types express cytokeratins typical for follicular differentiation, EPD may be a proliferation of adnexal stem cells residing in the infundibulo-sebaceous unit of hair follicles and adnexal structures. [source]

Upregulation of genes orchestrating keratinocyte differentiation, including the novel marker gene ID2, by contact sensitizers in human bulge-derived keratinocytes

Yoshie Yoshikawa
Abstract In the epidermis, keratinocytes are involved in physical and first-line immune protection of the host. In this study, we analyzed the molecular responses to certain contact sensitizers (2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene and NiSO4) and irritants (sodium dodecyl sulfate and benzalkonium chloride) in cultured human keratinocytes from the bulge region of a plucked hair follicle (bulge-derived keratinocytes [BDKs]) and compared these molecular responses to those with the human monocytic leukemia cell line, THP-1. The BDKs, individually established without invasive biopsies, showed high reactivity to these stimulants. As a primary response to the contact sensitizers, the NRF2-mediated signaling pathway was upregulated in BDKs and THP-1. The expression of IL1B and IL8 genes was not induced by the irritants but by the sensitizers in THP-1. However, the expression of the IL1B and IL8 genes was induced at higher levels by the irritants in BDKs than by the sensitizers. Many genes orchestrating keratinocyte differentiation, including ID2, were significantly upregulated in response to the sensitizers in BDKs but not those in THP-1. The use of the ID2 gene to discriminate between sensitizers and irritants might be effective as a novel marker for application during in vitro sensitization with BDKs. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biochem Mol Toxicol 24:10,20, 2010; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/jbt.20307 [source]

Expression patterns of MITF during human cutaneous embryogenesis: evidence for bulge epithelial expression and persistence of dermal melanoblasts

Briana C. Gleason
Background:, The mechanisms whereby melanocytes populate the epidermis and developing hair follicles during embryogenesis are incompletely understood. Recent evidence implicates an intermediate mesenchymal stage in this evolutionary process in which HMB-45-positive melanocyte precursors (,melanoblasts') exist both in intradermal as well as intraepithelial and intrafollicular compartments. The melanocyte master transcriptional regulator, microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF), identifies mature melanocytes as well as melanocyte precursor stem cells that reside in the bulge region of the hair follicle. Methods:, To better define the use of MITF expression in the evaluation of melanocyte ontogeny, human embryonic and fetal skin samples (n = 28) at 6,24 weeks gestation were studied immunohistochemically for expression of MITF and Mart-1. Adjacent step sections were evaluated to correlate staining patterns with cell localization in the intraepidermal, intrafollicular and intradermal compartments. Results:, At 6,8 weeks, MITF and Mart-1-positive cells were primarily intradermal with only rare positive cells in the epidermis. By 12,13 weeks, most of these cells had migrated into the epidermis, predominantly the suprabasal layers. Between 15,17 weeks, these cells localized to the basal layer and colonized developing hair follicles. Rare intradermal MITF and Mart-1 positive cells were found as late as week 20. At 18,24 weeks, MITF and Mart-1 positive cells were identified in the outer root sheath, bulge, and follicular bulge epithelium, in addition to the epidermis. Unexpectedly, weak but diffuse nuclear MITF expression was also present in the keratinocytes of the bulge area. Conclusions:, The in situ migratory fate of MITF/Mart-1-expressing cells in fetal skin involves a well-defined progression from intradermal to intraepidermal to intrafollicular localization. Occasional intradermal melanocytes may persist after the intraepithelial stages are completed, a finding of potential significance to melanocytic proliferations that may arise de novo within the dermis. Because MITF may play a role in stem cell maintenance, the presence of MITF in bulge epithelial cells suggests that it may be a novel marker for follicular stem cells of both epithelial and melanocytic lineage. [source]

Mira variables in the Galactic bulge with OGLE-II data

Noriyuki Matsunaga
ABSTRACT We have extracted a total of 1968 Mira variables from the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment II (OGLE-II) data base in the Galactic bulge region. Among them, 1960 are associated with 2 Micron All-sky Survey (2MASS) sources, and 1541 are further identified with Midcourse Space Exploration (MSX) point sources. Their photometric properties are compared with those of Mira variables in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds. We have found that mass-losing stars with circumstellar matter are reddened such that the colour dependence of the absorption coefficient is similar to that of interstellar matter. We also discuss the structure of the bulge. The surface number density of the bulge Mira variables is well correlated with the 2.2-,m surface brightness obtained by the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite. Using this relation, the total number of Mira variables in the bulge is estimated to be about 6 105. The log P,K relation of the Mira variables gives their space distribution which supports the well-known asymmetry of the bar-like bulge. [source]

Solution structures and characterization of human immunodeficiency virus Rev responsive element IIB RNA targeting zinc finger proteins,

BIOPOLYMERS, Issue 4 2006
Subrata H. Mishra
Abstract The Rev responsive element (RRE), a part of unspliced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA, serves a crucial role in the production of infectious HIV virions. The viral protein Rev binds to RRE and facilitates transport of mRNA to the cytoplasm. Inhibition of the Rev,RRE interaction disrupts the viral life cycle. Using a phage display protocol, dual zinc finger proteins (ZNFs) were generated that bind specifically to RREIIB at the high affinity Rev binding site. These proteins were further shortened and simplified, and they still retained their RNA binding affinity. The solution structures of ZNF29 and a mutant, ZNF29G29R, have been determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Both proteins form C2H2 -type zinc fingers with essentially identical structures. RNA protein interactions were evaluated quantitatively by isothermal titration calorimetry, which revealed dissociation constants (Kd's) in the nanomolar range. The interaction with the RNA is dependent upon the zinc finger structure; in the presence of EDTA, RNA binding is abolished. For both proteins, RNA binding is mediated by the ,-helical portion of the zinc fingers and target the bulge region of RREIIB-TR. However, ZNF29G29R exhibits significantly stronger binding to the RNA target than ZNF29; this illustrates that the binding of the zinc finger scaffold is amenable to further improvements. 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopoly 83:352,364, 2006 This article was originally published online as an accepted preprint. The "Published Online" date corresponds to the preprint version. You can request a copy of the preprint by emailing the Biopolymers editorial office at biopolymers@wiley.com [source]

Stem cell markers (cytokeratin 15, CD34 and nestin) in primary scarring and nonscarring alopecia

M.P. Hoang
Summary Background, Although the pathogenesis of most primary scarring alopecias is poorly understood, recent studies implicate the bulge region as a possible target. Objectives, To corroborate these results, we ascertained involvement of follicular bulge stem cells using a panel of antibodies that putatively targeted the same. Methods, Antibodies used included anticytokeratin (CK) 15, CD34 and nestin on vertical and horizontal tissue sections of 50 cases of scarring and 34 cases of nonscarring alopecia. Results, Comparing expression of these markers in scarring vs. nonscarring alopecia, CK15 was noted in the follicular bulge region in 23 of 43 (53%) vs. 27 of 27 (100%) cases and in the peripheral layer of the outer root sheath (ORS) (upper two-thirds of the follicle) in 50 of 50 (100%) vs. 34 of 34 (100%) cases; CD34 was noted in the peripheral layer of the ORS (below pilar muscle attachment) in 24 of 35 (69%) vs. 18 of 18 (100%) cases; and nestin was noted in the infundibular region in 18 of 46 (39%) vs. seven of 32 (22%) cases and in the inner aspect of the ORS (below pilar muscle attachment) in eight of 31 (26%) vs. 23 of 23 (100%) cases. Conclusions, Our findings of differential follicular localization of stem cells underscore follicular progenitor cell heterogeneity and suggest the target in scarring alopecia is not merely follicular bulge stem cells but involves stem cells in the inner and outer aspect of the ORS. Enhanced expression of nestin in the infundibular region in scarring alopecia indicates availability of an accessible, in vivo niche of potential utility as an autologous source of stem cells for therapeutic application. [source]

Caveolin-1 is expressed on multipotent cells of hair follicles and might be involved in their resistance to chemotherapy

S. Selleri
Summary Background, Caveolin-1 is the principal protein that composes caveolae, which are vesicular invaginations present on the plasma membrane of different cell types. Caveolae are involved in a variety of cellular functions including regulation of proliferation rate and resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs. Chemotherapy frequently induces alopecia which is reversible most probably due to the low proliferative rate of hair follicle stem cells and due to the expression of proteins which confer resistance. Objectives, Using a specific animal model and immunohistochemistry, we analysed the expression of both caveolin-1 and the cell proliferation marker ,-catenin, at different stages of the hair follicle cycle, both before and after doxorubicin (DXR) -induced alopecia. Methods, Seven-week-old C57BL/6 mice were depilated in order to synchronize hair follicle cycle in the anagen phase. Chemotherapy with DXR 15 mg kg,1 was used to induce alopecia. Control and treated mice were then sacrificed at precise time points and caveolin-1 expression in hairs at different stages of the cycle were analysed by immunohistochemistry. By double immunofluorescence, colocalization of caveolin-1 and cytokeratin-15 was confirmed in the bulge region. The state of proliferation of cells composing hair follicle was assessed by ,-catenin immunohistochemistry. Results, Caveolin-1 was expressed by the cells of the bulge area, the multipotent compartment of the hair follicle, during all phases of growth (anagen), regression (catagen) and resting (telogen). During the anagen phases, nuclear ,-catenin labelling was not observed in bulge cells, but rather in the deeper portion of the follicle. Damaged hair follicles from DXR-treated mice presented bulge cells which still expressed caveolin-1, suggesting that this protein might play a role in their drug resistance. As expected, no ,-catenin nuclear staining was detectable in DXR-treated hair follicles, indicating the complete lack of proliferative processes. The differential localization of caveolin-1 and ,-catenin suggests that the mutually exclusive expression of these proteins is useful for correct hair regrowth, whether during the physiological cycle or after chemotherapy-induced alopecia. Conclusions, Expression of caveolin-1 within the multipotent cell compartment of the hair follicle can explain the resistance of bulge cells to many chemotherapeutics, suggested by the reversibility of chemotherapy-induced alopecia. [source]