Buccal Cusp (buccal + cusp)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Influence of endodontic treatment, post insertion, and ceramic restoration on the fracture resistance of maxillary premolars

K. Bitter
Bitter K, Meyer-Lueckel H, Fotiadis N, Blunck U, Neumann K, Kielbassa AM, Paris S. Influence of endodontic treatment, post insertion, and ceramic restoration on the fracture resistance of maxillary premolars. International Endodontic Journal, 43, 469,477, 2010. Abstract Aim, To investigate the effects of endodontic treatment, post placement and ceramic restoration type on the fracture resistance of premolars. Methodology, One hundred and twenty teeth maxillary premolars were allocated to four groups (A,D; n = 30). In group A, mesio-occlusal-distal-inlays with a buccal and palatal wall of 2 mm (MOD), in group B partial onlays with palatal cusp coverage and in group C total onlays with buccal and palatal cusp coverage were prepared. Group D served as untreated controls. Groups A,C were divided into three subgroups (n = 10): (i) teeth received solely the described preparations, (ii) teeth were root filled, (iii) teeth were root filled and quartz fibre posts were placed. Teeth were restored using Computer-assisted design/computer-assisted machining-ceramic-restorations and subjected to thermo-mechanical-loading; subsequently, the buccal cusp was loaded until fracture. Results, Group D revealed significantly higher fracture resistance [mean (standard deviation)] [738 (272) N] compared to all other groups (P < 0.05; post hoc test Dunnett). For groups A,C, fracture resistance was significantly affected by the restoration type (P = 0.043) and endodontic treatment/post placement (P = 0.039; 2-way anova). Group A [380 (146) N] showed significantly lower fracture resistance compared to group B [470 (158) N] (P = 0.048; post hoc test Tukey). Compared to non-endodontically treated teeth [487 (120) N], root filled teeth revealed significantly lower fracture resistance [389 (171) N] (P = 0.031). Conclusion, The restoration of cavities with a remaining wall thickness of 2 mm using ceramic MOD-inlays is inferior with respect to the fracture resistance compared to partial onlay restorations. Root filled teeth without post placement show lower fracture resistance compared to non-endodontically treated teeth. [source]

A preliminary report on a computer-assisted dental cast analysis system used for the prosthodontic treatment

T. Kojima
summary, To accomplish computerized 3D morphological analyses of maxillary and mandibular casts with malocclusions on the same co-ordinate system, a new reference co-ordinate located on soft tissue has been proposed consisting of the top of maxillary bilateral tubercles and incisive papilla on the maxillary cast. To test the validity of this co-ordinate system, the angles of the occlusal plane in this system were examined on 10 subjects with normal occlusion. In addition, to analyse maxillary and mandibular casts on the same co-ordinate system, a bite block was made under the intercuspal position. The maxillary cast was measured by 3D measuring system, then, the bite block was placed on maxillary casts, and measured similarly. To examine the position reproducibility of this method, 3D co-ordinates of the apex of the buccal cusp of the mandibular pre-molar in five bite blocks were determined. The angles formed of the occlusal plane were 1·3 ± 1·3° and 0·2 ± 1·1° on the sagittal and frontal base plane, respectively. This co-ordinate system had enough stability to replace the occlusal plane. By the measurement of bite blocks, the co-ordinates of the mandibular cusp tips were determined within the deviation of 0·2 mm. [source]

Fracture Resistance of Endodontically Treated Teeth: Three Walls versus Four Walls of Remaining Coronal Tooth Structure

Siriporn Arunpraditkul DDS
Abstract Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth between those with four walls and those with three walls of remaining coronal tooth structure and the effect of the site of the missing coronal wall. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two endodontically treated second mandibular premolars were decoronated, leaving 3 mm above the cementoenamel junction (CEJ). A 0.5-mm-wide chamfer was prepared 1 mm above the CEJ. The teeth were randomly divided into four groups. Group 1 had four walls of coronal tooth structure, whereas groups 2, 3, and 4 had only three walls, missing the buccal, lingual, and mesial wall, respectively. The cast dowel and cores and crowns (Ni,Cr alloy) were cemented with zinc phosphate cement. A compressive load was applied 45° to the long axis, 2 mm below the buccal cusp, with an Instron machine until failure at a crosshead speed of 5 mm/min. Failure load (kg) and mode of failure were recorded. Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and Scheffé tests (p < 0.05). Results: Group 1 had the highest fracture resistance (1190.3 ± 110.5 kg), significantly different from the other groups (p < 0.05) (group 2: 578.5 ± 197.4 kg; group 3: 786.6 ± 132.8 kg; group 4: 785.4 ± 289.9 kg). There were no significant differences among the test groups. The mode of failure in group 1 was a horizontal root fracture, whereas that of the other groups was either vertical or oblique fracture. Conclusions: Teeth with four walls of remaining coronal dentine had significantly higher fracture resistance than teeth with only three walls. The site of the missing coronal wall did not affect the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth. [source]

Brief communication: Population variation in human maxillary premolar accessory ridges (MxPAR)

Scott E. Burnett
Abstract The purpose of this brief communication is to report the results of an analysis of maxillary premolar accessory ridges (MxPAR), a common but understudied accessory ridge that may occur both mesial and distal to the central ridge of the buccal cusp of upper premolars. We developed a new five-grade scoring plaque to better categorize MxPAR variation. Subsequently, we conducted a population analysis of MxPAR frequency in 749 dental casts of South African Indian, American Chinese, Alaskan Eskimo, Tohono O'odham (Papago), Akimel O'odham (Pima), Solomon Islander, South African Bantu, and both American and South African Whites. Northeast Asian and Asian-derived populations exhibited the highest MxPAR frequencies while Indo-European samples (South African Indians, American and South African Whites) exhibited relatively low frequencies. The Solomon Islanders and South African Bantu samples exhibited intermediate frequencies. Our analysis indicates that statistically significant differences in MxPAR frequency exist between major geographic populations. As a result, the MxPAR plaque has now been added to the Arizona State University Dental Anthropology System, an important contribution as maxillary premolar traits are underrepresented in analyses of dental morphology. Am J Phys Anthropol 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Effects of splinted prosthesis supported a wide implant or two implants: a three-dimensional finite element analysis

Heng-Li Huang
Abstract Objectives: Three-dimensional finite element (FE) models of splinted prosthetic crowns were studied and stress analyses were evaluated with different types of implant support, including standard, wide or two implant(s) for partial, posterior edentulous restorations. Material and methods: The FE models were constructed based on a cadaver mandible containing the 2nd premolar and the 1st molar. The crowns of these two teeth were modeled as connected and disconnected to mimic the splinted and non-splinted designs, respectively. One standard implant was placed at the premolar region, while three types of implant support, one at a time (the standard implant, wide implant and two implants), were used to support the molar crown. A 100 N oblique load was applied to the buccal cusp on each crown. The FE simulation was validated experimentally via strain gauge measurement. Results: The experimental data were well correlated with the FE predictions (r2=0.97). When compared with the standard implant used in the molar area, the wide implant and two implants reduced the peak stress in crestal bone by 29,37% for both splinted and non-splinted cases. Inserting the standard implant into both the premolar and molar area, the bone stresses were identical for splinted and non-splinted designs. However, splinting the adjacent crowns has shown to decrease the bone stresses at the premolar region by 25%, while the wide implant or two implants were placed at the molar region. Conclusion: The biomechanical advantages of using the wide implant or two implants are almost identical. The benefit of load sharing by the splinted crowns is notable only when the implants on the premolar and molar regions have different supporting ability. Résumé Des modèles d'éléments finis (FE) tridimensionnels de couronnes prothétiques attachés ont étéétudiés et les analyses de stress ont étéévalués avec différents types de support d'implants comprenant le standard, le large ou deux implants pour des restaurations postérieures partielles. Les modèles FE ont été construits sur base de mandibule de cadavre contenant deux prémolaires et une molaire. Les couronnes de ces deux dents ont été modelées comme connectées et non-connectées pour mimer respectivement les modèles avec attache ou sans. Un implant standard a été placé dans la région prémolaire tandis que trois types d'implants supportaient en un temps (l'implant standard, l'implant large et deux implants) ont été utilisés pour porter la couronne molaire. Une charge oblique de 100 N a été appliquée sur la cuspide vestibulaire de chaque couronne. La simulation FE a été validée expérimentalement via une mesure par jauge de force. Les données expérimentales étaient en bonne corrélation avec les prévisions FE (r2=0,97). Comparés à l'implant standard utilisé dans la zone molaire, l'implant large et la combinaison de deux implants réduisait le pic de stress dans l'os crestal de 29 à 37% tant dans les cas attachés que non-attachés. En insérant l'implant standard dans la zone prémolaire et molaire, le stress osseux était identique pour les modèles attachés et non-attachés. Cependant, l'attache reliant les couronnes adjacentes s'accompagnait d'une dimininution des stress osseux dans la région prémolaire de 25%, tandis que l'implant large ou les deux implants étaient placés dans la région molaire. Les avantages biomécaniques de l'utilisation d'un implant large ou de deux implants sont quasi identiques. Le bénéfice d'une charge partagée par les couronnes solidarisées n'est visible que lorsque les implants des régions prémolaires et molaires ont des capacités de support différentes. Zusammenfassung Ziel: Bei der Rekonstruktion von Lücken im hinteren Seitenzahnbereich untersuchte man in einem dreidimensionalen Finiteelement-Modell (FE) zementierte Kronen und wertete in Belastungs-Analysen verschiedene Implantatabstützungen aus, nämlich auf Standardimplantaten, Wide neck-Implantaten oder auf zwei Implantaten. Material und Methoden: Das FE-Modell basierte auf den Werten eines Leichenunterkiefers in der Region des zweiten Prämolaren und ersten Molaren. Die Kronen auf diesen beiden Zähne wurden jeweils zusammenhängend und einzeln modelliert, so dass man die verblockte und unverblockte Situation nachempfinden konnte. In der Prämolarenregion implantierte man ein Standartimplantat. In der Molarenregion wählte man jeweils eine von drei verschiedenen Varianten der Abstützung für die Kronen: ein Standardimplantat, ein Wide neck-Implantat oder zwei Implantate. Auf den buccalen Höcker jeder Krone liess man schräg eine Kraft von 100 N auftreffen. Die FE-Simulation eichte man experimentell mit Hilfe von Dehnmessstreifen. Resultate: Die experimentellen Daten korrelierten sehr gut mit den FE-Voraussagen (r2=0.97). Verglich man die in der Molarenregion verwendeten Standartimplantate mit den Wide neck-Implantaten und zwei Implantaten, so reduzierte sich die Spitzenbelastung im crestalen Knochen um 29,37%, bei den verblockten wie auch bei den unverblockten Versionen. Setzte man sowohl im Prämolaren wie auch im Molarengebiet Standardimplantate, so war die Knochenbelastung für die verblockte wie auch für die unverblockte Version gleich gross. Wenn aber das Wide neck-Implantat oder zwei Implantate in der Molarenregion gesetzt worden waren, so vermochte die Verblockung der Implantat-Kronen die Knochenbelastung in der Prämolarenregion um 25% zu senken. Zusammenfassung: Ob man das Wide neck-Implantat oder zwei Implantate verwendet, die biomechanischen Vorteile sind beinahe identisch. Man erreicht durch das Verblocken von Kronen erst dann einen spürbaren Vorteil bezüglich Lastenverteilung, wenn die Implantate in der Prämolaren- und Molarenregion verschiedene Tragfähigkeiten aufweisen. Resumen Objetivos: Se estudiaron modelos tridimensionales de elementos finitos (FE) de coronas protésicas y se evaluó el análisis de estrés con diferentes tipos de soporte implantario, incluyendo implantes estándar, anchos o dos implantes, para restauraciones parciales en posteriores edéntulos. Material y métodos: Se construyeron dos modelos FE basados en mandíbula de cadáver conteniendo el 2° premolar y el 1er molar. Las coronas de estos dos dientes se modelaron como conectadas y desconectadas para imitar los diseños conectados y desconectados, respectivamente. Se colocó un implante estándar en la región premolar, mientras que para soportar la corona molar se colocaron tres tipos de implantes, uno a la vez, (un implante estándar, un implante ancho y dos implantes). Se aplicó una carga oblicua de 100N en la cúspide bucal de cada corona. La simulación de elementos finitos se validó experimentalmente por medio de medición de tensión. Resultados: Los datos experimentales se correlacionaron bien con las predicciones FE (r2=0.97). Al comparase a los implantes estándar usados en el área molar, el implante ancho y dos implantes redujeron el pico de estrés en el hueso crestal en un 29,37% tanto para los caso ferulizados como para los no ferulizados. Al insertar el implante estándar tanto en la región premolar como en la molar, los estrés óseos fueron idénticos para los diseños ferulizados como para los no ferulizados. De todos modos, la ferulización de las coronas adyacentes mostró un descenso del estrés óseo en un 25%, mientras el implante ancho o los dos implantes se colocaron en la región molar. Conclusión: Las ventajas biomecánicas de usar el implante ancho o dos implantes fueron casi idénticas. El beneficio de compartir la carga al ferulizar las coronas es notable solo cuando los implantes en las regiones premolar y molar tienen diferente capacidad de soporte. [source]

Maxillary arch width in unoperated adult bilateral cleft lip and alveolus and complete bilateral cleft lip and palate

BS Latief
To cite this article: Latief BS, Lekkas C, Kuijpers MAR: Maxillary arch width in unoperated adult bilateral cleft lip and alveolus and complete bilateral cleft lip and palate Orthod Craniofac Res 2010;13:82,88 Structured Abstract Authors,,, Latief BS, Lekkas C, Kuijpers MAR Objectives,,, To study maxillary arch width in adult patients with bilateral cleft lip and alveolus (BCLA) or with complete bilateral cleft lip and palate (BCLP), who have not had any surgery. Setting and Sampling Population,,, Eighteen patients with BCLA, 13 patients with BCLP, and 24 controls from remote areas of Indonesia collected over 10 years. Materials and Methods,,, Dental casts were digitized three-dimensionally using an industrial coordinate measuring machine (CCM) (Zeiss Numerex; Carl Zeiss®, Stuttgart, Germany). Transversal distance between molars was measured on the tip of the distobuccal cusp and the tip of the mesiobuccal cusp, and for premolars and canines, the tip of the buccal cusps was recorded. Means and standard deviations were calculated for all variables. t -Test was used to determine whether the mean values of the cleft groups showed significant differences from each other and from the controls. Level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Results,,, Transversal arch dimensions in the BCLA group were comparable to the controls except at the canine level. Intercanine distance, which is close to the alveolar cleft, was 4.3 mm (SE 1.4) smaller in the BCLA group (p = 0.002). In the BCLP group, a comparable pattern was found. At the canine level, mean transversal width was 7.2 mm (SE 1.9) smaller compared to the control group, but no significant differences were found in the other transversal dimensions. Conclusions,,, Small differences are found in transversal dimensions in patients with BCLA and BCLP compared to a control group. Differences are most outspoken in the area near the cleft. [source]