Brown Hare (brown + hare)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


The use of willingness-to-pay approaches in mammal conservation

MAMMAL REVIEW, Issue 2 2001
Piran C. L. White
ABSTRACT With limited monetary resources available for nature conservation, policy-makers need to be able to prioritize conservation objectives. This has traditionally been done using qualitative ecological criteria. However, since declines in species and habitats are largely the result of socio-economic and political forces, human preferences and values should also be taken into account. An environmental economics technique, contingent valuation, provides one way of doing this by quantifying public willingness-to-pay towards specific conservation objectives. In this paper, the use of this approach for quantifying public preferences towards the UK Biodiversity Action Plans for four different British mammal species is considered. The species included are the Red Squirrel Sciurus vulgaris, the Brown Hare Lepus europaeus, the Otter Lutra lutra and the Water Vole Arvicola terrestris. Willingness-to-pay for conservation was increased by the inclusion of the Otter among the species, membership of an environmental organization and awareness of the general and species-specific threats facing British mammals. It was reduced by the presence of the Brown Hare among the species being considered. These findings for British mammals are compared with other willingness-to-pay studies for mammal conservation worldwide. Willingness-to-pay tends to be greater for marine mammals than terrestrial ones, and recreational users of species (tourists or hunters) are generally more willing than residents to pay towards species conservation. The choice of technique for eliciting willingness-to-pay from respondents is also shown to be highly significant. Willingness-to-pay values for British mammals derived from contingent valuation are sensitive to the species included rather than merely symbolic. This indicates that, with care, such measures can be used as a reliable means of quantifying public preferences for conservation, and therefore contributing to the decision-making process. However, irrespective of the internal consistency of contingent valuation, the validity of the approach, especially for use in nature conservation, is disputed. Willingness-to-pay is likely to reflect many interrelated factors such as ethical and moral values, knowledge and tradition, and monetary values may not be an adequate representation of these broader considerations. Willingness-to-pay approaches should therefore be used in addition to, rather than in place of, expert judgements and more deliberative approaches towards policy decision-making for conservation. [source]


Position and Histological Structure of the Testes in the Brown Hare (Lepus europaeus) during Seasonal Regression and Recrudescence

ANATOMIA, HISTOLOGIA, EMBRYOLOGIA, Issue 2 2000
B. Simeunovi
The position and histological structure of the testes of 33 brown hares (Lepus europaeus) were studied from July to December. From July to September, the testes were located in the scrotum; in October and November, in some animals, the testes were positioned more or less in the inguinal canal towards the abdominal cavity, and in December none of the investigated animals had testes located in the scrotum. Testes were weighed and a quantitative analysis of tissue components was performed: the diameter of the seminiferous tubules, the depth of the seminiferous epithelium, the thickness of the tunica albuginea, the thickness of the peritubular tissue and the relative proportion of seminiferous tubules were determined. The tunica albuginea and peritubular tissue were thickest in September, October and at the beginning of November. In the same months the testis weight was low, and the diameter of the seminiferous tubules, the depth of the seminiferous epithelium and the relative proportion of seminiferous tubules in the testis tissue were significantly lower than in other months. We did not find any correlation between testicular regression or testis weight reduction and the change in the position of the testes. During recrudescence of spermatogenesis in November and December the testes were located in the inguinal canal. [source]


The distribution of mountain hares Lepus timidus in Europe: a challenge from brown hares L. europaeus?

MAMMAL REVIEW, Issue 1 2003
CARL-GUSTAF THULIN
ABSTRACT 1.,Throughout the most recent glacial period (Weichsel), the mountain hare Lepus timidus had a continuous distribution in the tundra habitat south of the ice-rim. When the ice retreated, mountain hares colonized deglaciated land, and spread over northern Europe. 2.,Since the Weichsel, the mountain hare's distribution in Europe has been gradually reduced and at present comprises Ireland and the Scottish Highlands, high altitudes in the Alps, isolated forests in eastern Poland, most of Fennoscandia and from the Baltic countries eastwards through Russia. Declines during the last century have been observed in Sweden and Russia. 3.,This review defines and evaluates causes for this gradual reduction and fragmentation of the mountain hare's distribution, with special focus on interactions with brown hares Lepus europaeus. The relative importance of diseases, predation, cultivation and interactions with other herbivores than brown hares are discussed. 4.,A plausible cause of the possible permanent disappearance of mountain hares in Europe appears to be exclusion by interspecific competition and hybridization with, and/or epidemic diseases mediated by, the congeneric brown hare. [source]


The rise and fall of the mountain hare (Lepus timidus) during Pleistocene glaciations: expansion and retreat with hybridization in the Iberian Peninsula

MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 3 2007
J. MELO-FERREIRA
Abstract The climatic fluctuations during glaciations have affected differently arctic and temperate species. In the northern hemisphere, cooling periods induced the expansion of many arctic species to the south, while temperate species were forced to retract in southern refugia. Consequently, in some areas the alternation of these species set the conditions for competition and eventually hybridization. Hares in the Iberian Peninsula appear to illustrate this phenomenon. Populations of Iberian hare (Lepus granatensis), brown hare (Lepus europaeus) and broom hare (Lepus castroviejoi) in Northern Iberia harbour mitochondrial haplotypes from the mountain hare (Lepus timidus), a mainly boreal and arctic species presently absent from the peninsula. To understand the history of this past introgression we analysed sequence variation and geographical distribution of mitochondrial control region and cytochrome b haplotypes of L. timidus origin found in 378 specimens of these four species. Among 124 L. timidus from the Northern Palaearctic and the Alps we found substantial nucleotide diversity (2.3%) but little differentiation between populations. Based on the mismatch distribution of the L. timidus sequences, this could result from an expansion at a time of temperature decrease favourable to this arctic species. The nucleotide diversity of L. timidus mtDNA found in Iberian L. granatensis, L. europaeus and L. castroviejoi (183, 70 and 1 specimens, respectively) was of the same order as that in L. timidus over its range (1.9%), suggesting repeated introgression of multiple lineages. The structure of the coalescent of L. granatensis sequences indicates that hybridization with L. timidus was followed by expansion of the introgressed haplotypes, as expected during a replacement with competition, and occurred when temperatures started to rise, favouring the temperate species. Whether a similar scenario explains the introgression into Iberian L. europaeus remains unclear but it is possible that it hybridized with already introgressed L. granatensis. [source]


The distribution of mountain hares Lepus timidus in Europe: a challenge from brown hares L. europaeus?

MAMMAL REVIEW, Issue 1 2003
CARL-GUSTAF THULIN
ABSTRACT 1.,Throughout the most recent glacial period (Weichsel), the mountain hare Lepus timidus had a continuous distribution in the tundra habitat south of the ice-rim. When the ice retreated, mountain hares colonized deglaciated land, and spread over northern Europe. 2.,Since the Weichsel, the mountain hare's distribution in Europe has been gradually reduced and at present comprises Ireland and the Scottish Highlands, high altitudes in the Alps, isolated forests in eastern Poland, most of Fennoscandia and from the Baltic countries eastwards through Russia. Declines during the last century have been observed in Sweden and Russia. 3.,This review defines and evaluates causes for this gradual reduction and fragmentation of the mountain hare's distribution, with special focus on interactions with brown hares Lepus europaeus. The relative importance of diseases, predation, cultivation and interactions with other herbivores than brown hares are discussed. 4.,A plausible cause of the possible permanent disappearance of mountain hares in Europe appears to be exclusion by interspecific competition and hybridization with, and/or epidemic diseases mediated by, the congeneric brown hare. [source]


Position and Histological Structure of the Testes in the Brown Hare (Lepus europaeus) during Seasonal Regression and Recrudescence

ANATOMIA, HISTOLOGIA, EMBRYOLOGIA, Issue 2 2000
B. Simeunovi
The position and histological structure of the testes of 33 brown hares (Lepus europaeus) were studied from July to December. From July to September, the testes were located in the scrotum; in October and November, in some animals, the testes were positioned more or less in the inguinal canal towards the abdominal cavity, and in December none of the investigated animals had testes located in the scrotum. Testes were weighed and a quantitative analysis of tissue components was performed: the diameter of the seminiferous tubules, the depth of the seminiferous epithelium, the thickness of the tunica albuginea, the thickness of the peritubular tissue and the relative proportion of seminiferous tubules were determined. The tunica albuginea and peritubular tissue were thickest in September, October and at the beginning of November. In the same months the testis weight was low, and the diameter of the seminiferous tubules, the depth of the seminiferous epithelium and the relative proportion of seminiferous tubules in the testis tissue were significantly lower than in other months. We did not find any correlation between testicular regression or testis weight reduction and the change in the position of the testes. During recrudescence of spermatogenesis in November and December the testes were located in the inguinal canal. [source]