Broadest Sense (broadest + sense)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

A Life Jacket or an Art of Living: Inequality in Social Competence Education

Geert T. M. Ten Dam
After a period in which the emphasis in education was on "the basics," increasing attention has been paid at the turn of the century to the "moral task of education" in the Netherlands. Schools are not only expected to prepare students for further education and/or the labour market but also for participating in society in the broadest sense, for example, in politics, care, and culture. In this article we will focus on one aspect of students' development as a task of the school, namely, the furthering of students' social competence. Six case studies were conducted in which projects aimed at social competence were analysed in general secondary education and prevocational education. The results show that in the general secondary education projects the emphasis was on the meaning of changes in society for students and the contribution they can make to such changes (social competence in education as an "art of living"). The prevocational education projects focused on improving the chances of students at school and in society by developing aspects of social competence that they have not acquired at home or earlier in their school careers, such as self-confidence and social and communicative skills (social competence as a "life jacket"). We interpret these different focuses in terms of the production and reproduction of social inequality and discuss how such reproduction processes can be countered in the context of educating for social competence. [source]

The Role of Clinical and Process Quality in Achieving Patient Satisfaction in Hospitals

Kathryn A. Marley
ABSTRACT Managers constantly struggle with where to allocate their resources and efforts in managing the complex service delivery system called a hospital. In the broadest sense, their decisions and actions focus on two important aspects of health care,clinical or technical medical care that emphasizes "what" the patient receives and process performance that emphasizes "how" health care services are delivered to patients. Here, we investigate the role of leadership, clinical quality, and process quality on patient satisfaction. A causal model is hypothesized and evaluated using structural equation modeling for a sample of 202 U.S. hospitals. Statistical results support the idea that leadership is a good exogenous construct and that clinical and process quality are good intermediate outcomes in determining patient satisfaction. Statistical results also suggest that hospital leadership has more influence on process quality than on clinical quality, which is predominantly the doctors' domain. Other results are discussed, such as that hospital managers must be mindful of the fact that process quality is at least as important as clinical quality in predicting patient satisfaction. The article concludes by proposing areas for future research. [source]

Systems biology: in the broadest sense of the word

David W. Ussery
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Development Section, April 2008

Cheryl McEwan
EDITORIAL It is a great privilege to serve as Editor for the Development section of Geography Compass. The journal is an exciting new venture in electronic publishing that aims to publish state-of-the-art peer-reviewed surveys of key contemporary issues in geographical scholarship. As the first Editor of this section, it is my responsibility to establish the key aims and innovations for this section of the journal. These include: publishing reviews of scholarship on topics of contemporary relevance that are accessible and useful to researchers, teachers, students and practitioners; developing the range of topics covered across the spectrum of development geography; helping to set agendas in development geography by identifying gaps in existing empirical and conceptual research; commissioning articles from both established and graduate/early career researchers who are working at the frontiers of development geography; and communicating the distinctiveness of Geography Compass. Part of this distinctiveness is in publishing articles that are both of scholarly excellence and accessible to a wide audience. The first volume of Geography Compass was published in 2007, covering a wide range of topics (e.g. migration, children, technology, grassroots women's organizations, civil society, biodiversity, tourism, inequality, agrarian change, participatory development, disability, spirituality) in a number of specific geographical areas (e.g. Africa/southern Africa, Caribbean, China, Peru). Forthcoming in 2008/2009 are articles on the Gambia, Latin America, the Philippines, Southeast Asia, Bangladesh and South Africa, focusing on topics such as food security, comparative post-socialism, foreign aid and fair trade. Building on these diverse and excellent articles, I plan to communicate the distinctiveness of Development in a number of ways. First, I encourage an ecumenical approach to the notion of ,development geography' and welcome contributions from scholars across a range of social science disciplines whose work would be useful to a geography audience. This is important, not least because both development and geography, in disciplinary terms, are largely European inventions. Many scholars in Latin America, Africa and Asia, for example, do not refer to themselves as either development specialists or geographers but are producing important research in areas of direct relevance to students and researchers of ,development geography'. As the first editions illustrate, I also seek to publish articles that reflect ,development' in its broadest sense, encompassing economic, (geo)political, social, cultural and environmental issues. 2008 will be an interesting year for development, with a number of important issues and events shaping discourse and policy. These include: the Beijing Olympics and increasing focus on China's role in international development; political change in a number of African countries (Kenya, Zimbabwe, South Africa); the US presidential elections and potential shifts in policy on climate change, trade and security; the impacts of the Bali roadmap on climate change in the current economic context; the increasing number of impoverished people in Asia (notably China and India), sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America (notably Brazil) that even the World Bank has acknowledged; the implications of the increasing role of philanthropic foundations (e.g. the Gates Foundation and those emerging in India and Russia) in international development. I hope to see some of these issues covered in this journal. Second, I am keen to break down the association between ,development' and parts of the world variously categorized as ,Third World', ,Global South' or ,Developing World' by publishing articles that cut across North and South, East and West. The intellectual and disciplinary practices within (Western) geography that separate those researching issues in the South and post-socialist contexts from those researching similar issues in advanced capitalist economies are, it seems, no longer sustainable or sensible. Moreover, while studies of transnational and ethical trade, neoliberalism, household economies and ,commodity chains', for example, incorporate a multitude of case studies from across the world, these tend to be understood through conceptual lenses that almost always have their theoretical antecedents in Western theorization. The notion of ,learning from' debates, policy and practice in other parts of the world is still relatively alien within the discipline. There are thus issues in how we research and teach ethically and responsibly in and about different parts of the world, and in which this journal might make a contribution. Third, and related, part of my responsibility is to ensure that Compass reflects the breadth of debate about ,development' by publishing articles written by a truly international range of scholars. This has proved to be a challenge to date, in part reflecting the newness of the journal and the difficulties posed by English language publication. However, an immediate aim is to publish the work and ideas of scholars based outside of Anglophone contexts, in the Global South and in post-socialist contexts, and to use international referees who are able to provide valuable commentaries on the articles. A longer-term aim is to also further internationalize the Editorial Board. Currently, one-third of the Editorial Board is non-UK and I plan to increase this to at least 50% in future. Fourth, I plan to ensure that the Development section takes full advantage of electronic publication and the opportunities this offers. Thus, while I am keen to retain a word limit in the interest of publishing accessible articles, the lack of constraint regarding page space enables authors to include a wide range of illustrative and other material that is impossible in print journals. I plan to encourage authors to make greater use of visual materials (maps, photographs/photo-essays, video, sound recordings, model simulations and datasets) alongside text as well as more innovative forms of presentation where this might be appropriate. Finally, in the coming year, I intend to work more closely with other Compass section Editors to realize the potential for fostering debate that cuts across subdisciplinary and even disciplinary boundaries. The journal publishes across the full spectrum of the discipline and there is thus scope for publishing articles and/or special issues on development-related topics that might best be approached through dialogue between the natural and social sciences. Such topics might include resources (e.g. water, oil, bio-fuels), hazard and risk (from environmental issues to human and state security), and sustainability and quality of life (planned for 2008). Part of the distinctiveness of Compass is that electronic-only publication ensures that articles are published in relatively quick time , in some cases less than 3 months from initial submission to publication. It thus provides an important outlet for researchers working in fast-changing contexts and for those, such as graduate and early-career researchers, who might require swift publication for career purposes. Of course, as Editor I am reliant on referees both engaging with Manuscript Central and providing reports on articles in a relatively short space of time to fully expedite the process. My experience so far has been generally very positive and I would like to thank the referees for working within the spirit of the journal. Editing a journal is, of course, a collaborative and shared endeavour. The Development Editorial Board has been central to the successful launch of Development by working so generously to highlight topics and potential authors and to review articles; I would like to take this opportunity to thank Tony Bebbington, Reg Cline-Cole, Sara Kindon, Claire Mercer, Giles Mohan, Warwick Murray, Richa Nagar, Rob Potter, Saraswati Raju, Jonathan Rigg, Jenny Robinson and Alison Stenning. The Editors-in-Chief , Mike Bradshaw and Basil Gomez , have provided invaluable advice while adding humour (and colour) to the editorial process. Colleagues at Wiley-Blackwell have provided superb support, in particular, Helen Ashton who is constantly on hand to provide advice and assistance. I look forward to working closely with these people again in the coming year, as well as with the authors and readers who are vital to ensuring that Geography Compass fulfils its remit. [source]

Charity shops in sectoral contexts: the view from the boardroom

Richard Goodall
Charity shops seem inherently contradictory in many ways. This paper unravels some of the contradictions by analysing charity shops in their ,sectoral contexts'. First it puts forward different meanings of ,sector' and introduces notions of ,sector values'. Then it presents results from empirical research into UK charity shop organisations, to show how senior managers of charity shop chains deal with ,sectoral contradictions'. Finally, it asks how the sectoral contexts influence the management philosophies and marketing strategies (in the broadest sense) of these senior managers. Copyright © 2000 Henry Stewart Publications [source]

A Chemical Approach Towards Understanding the Mechanism and Reversal of Drug Resistance in Plasmodium falciparum: Is it Viable?

IUBMB LIFE, Issue 4-5 2002
Kelly Chibale
Abstract Genetic and biochemical approaches to studies of drug resistance mechanisms in Plasmodium falciparum have raised controversies and contradictions over the past several years. A different and novel chemical approach to this important problem is desirable at this point in time. Recently, the molecular basis of drug resistance in P. falciparum has been associated with mutations in the resistance genes, Chloroquine Resistance Transporter (PfCRT) and the P-glycoprotein homologue (Pgh1). Although not the determinant of chloroquine resistance in P. falciparum, mutations in Pgh1 have important implications for resistance to other antimalarial drugs. Because it is mutations in the aforementioned resistance genes rather than overexpression that has been associated with drug resistance in malaria, studies on mechanisms of drug resistance and its reversal by chemosensitisers should benefit from a chemical approach. Target-oriented organic synthesis of chemosensitisers against proteins implicated in drug resistance in malaria should shed light on mechanism of drug resistance and its reversal in this area. The effect of structurally diverse chemosensitisers should be examined on several putative resistance genes in P. falciparum to deal with antimalarial drug resistance in the broadest sense. Therefore, generating random mutations of these resistance proteins and subsequent screening in search of a specific phenotype followed by a search for mutations and/or chemosensitisers that affect a specific drug resistance pathway might be a viable strategy. This diversity-oriented organic synthesis approach should offer the means to simultaneously identify resistance proteins that can serve as targets for therapeutic intervention (therapeutic target validation) and chemosensitisers that modulate the functions of these proteins (chemical target validation). [source]

Explicating Benner's concept of expert practice: intuition in emergency nursing

Joy Lyneham
Abstract Title.,Explicating Benner's concept of expert practice: intuition in emergency nursing. Aim., This paper is a report of a study exploring the experience of intuition in emergency nursing in relation to Benner's fifth stage of practice development, ,the expert practitioner.' Background., Expert nurses anecdotally report actions and thoughts that present in their consciousness and have an impact on the care given. Benner used the term ,intuition' for the fifth stage of practice development. However, Paley has criticized Benner's model for its lack of clarity about the nature of an expert practitioner. This criticism is further justified by Benner's inadequate explanation of expert. Method., A hermeneutic phenomenological study was conducted using van Manen's approach and a Gadamerian analysis. Fourteen expert emergency nurses in Australia were interviewed between January 2000 and December 2003. Findings., The analysis resulted in the reconstruction of Benner's expert stage into three distinct phases: cognitive intuition, where assessment is processed subconsciously and can be rationalized in hindsight; transitional intuition, where a physical sensation and other behaviours enter the nurse's awareness; and embodied intuition, when the nurse trusts the intuitive thoughts. Conclusion., The findings validate the use of intuitive decision-making as a construct in explaining expert clinical decision-making practices. The validity of intuitive practice should be recognized. It is essential to recognize the conditions that support practice development, and in the prenovice stage (during their university course) factors such as reflection, research (in its broadest sense) and clinical curiosity should be fostered. [source]

Theories in anthropology and ,anthropological theory'

Roy Ellen
What makes a theory ,anthropological' beyond it being a theory that anthropologists use? Assuming a framework that understands anthropology in its broadest sense, this article invites us to remind ourselves what theories are actually supposed to do. Distinguishing theories in terms of the scale of presumption in their claims, it argues for a pyramid of nested levels of explanation. As we move from the base to the tip of the pyramid, so our explanations and interpretation of data must become increasingly simple to accommodate the forms of measurement that each level demands. Given this model, how can evolutionary theories based on individual behaviour geared to immediate survival and reproduction be reconciled with theories that best explain the uncertainties of ,emergent systems', or that consider how individual actions are in turn constrained by the systems of which they are part? It is concluded that anthropology has always acquired its vitality by being critically ,conjunctural', and must be ultimately and necessarily a strategic cross-disciplinary theoretical compromise. Résumé Qu'est-ce qui rend une théorie « anthropologique », en dehors du fait que les anthropologues l'utilisent ? En posant une acception aussi large que possible de l'anthropologie, l'article invite à se rappeler à quoi servent en réalité les théories. En distinguant les théories par le niveau de conjecture de leurs affirmations, l'auteur propose une pyramide de niveaux d'explication imbriqués. En progressant de la base au sommet de la pyramide, les attentes et l'interprétation des données doivent devenir de plus en plus simples, afin de prendre en compte les formes de mesure exigées à chaque niveau. Sur la base de ce modèle, comment les théories évolutionnistes, basées sur des comportements individuels visant la survie et la reproduction immédiates, peuvent-elles être conciliées avec celles qui expliquent, au mieux, les incertitudes des « systèmes émergents » ou qui examinent la façon dont les actions individuelles sont contraintes par les systèmes dans lesquels elles s'inscrivent ? L'auteur conclut que l'anthropologie a toujours acquis sa vitalité par une approche « conjoncturelle » critique et qu'elle doit être en fin de compte, par nécessité, un compromis théorique stratégique transdisciplinaire. [source]

Quality management and quality practice: Perspectives on their history and their future

N. I. Fisher
Abstract The purpose of this article and a companion article is to explore a number of topics in Statistics in Business and Industry. This article sketches the history of Quality Management, from its emergence in the late 19th and early 20th centuries through to the present day. Particular emphasis is placed on activities in Japan immediately following the end of the Second World War, and subsequent developments elsewhere in the world. We draw a careful distinction between Quality Management and various methodologies that aid in its implementation, such as Six Sigma. In the words of one management practitioner, Norbert Vogel, ,TQM in its broadest sense examines all aspects of management and the alternative methodologies being promoted are merely sub-sets of what should be an integrated management system.' The article concludes with some speculative thoughts about the future of Quality Management from a statistician's point of view. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]