Abundance Decreased (abundance + decreased)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Evaluating the impact of pollution on plant,Lepidoptera relationships

Christian Mulder
Abstract We monitored the biodiversity of plants, adult butterflies and leaf-miners in a Dutch nature reserve over a period of six years (1994,1999) within the International Co-operative Programme on Integrated Monitoring on Air Pollution Effects (ICP-IM). Butterfly abundance decreased steadily over the period, indicating a negative diversity trend, while the number of leaf-mining larvae of Microlepidoptera remained fairly constant. Also the concentration of pollutants (NH4, NO3, SO4, Cd, Cu and Zn) was determined in air, leaves, litter, throughfall and stemflow. We have no reason to expect a negative impact of acidification in rainwater or climate change, as temperature and ozone show no significant trends across the six years. It is shown that the nectar-plants of adult butterflies are much more sensitive to heavy metals than the nectar-plants of moths and other pollinating insects. It is hypothesized that the butterfly decline is a secondary effect of heavy metal stress on local plants, not resulting in a decrease in the number of host-plants, but in a selective pressure of pollutants on the plant vigour, subsequently affecting their pollinators (p,<,0.001). An alternative explanation, such as the possible coexistence of a direct effect of xenobiotics on the adult Lepidoptera occurring in the study area, is not supported by our data (p,>,0.05). Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Interaction of an insecticide with larval density in pond-breeding salamanders (Ambystoma)

Summary 1. Amphibian populations residing in or near agricultural areas are often susceptible to pesticide contamination. Recent evidence suggests that the effects of pesticides on amphibians often exceed those estimated in laboratory toxicity tests because other environmental factors (e.g. predators, resource abundance) can influence pesticide toxicity. 2. To examine the effects of an insecticide (carbaryl) on two species of Ambystoma salamanders experiencing the natural stress of competition, we manipulated chemical concentration (control, 3.5 and 7.0 mg L,1) and larval density (low and high). We determined the effect of treatments on snout-vent length (SVL), growth rate, lipid reserves, time to metamorphosis, per cent survival and per cent metamorphosis. 3. Carbaryl negatively affected all response variables of Ambystoma maculatum significantly, and significantly reduced survival and metamorphosis of A. opacum. Increased density significantly influenced SVL, lipid reserves, growth rate and metamorphosis of A. maculatum. 4. The effects of carbaryl and increased density on per cent metamorphosis were nearly additive, but were generally less than additive on other variables. 5. The negative effects of chemical contamination on salamanders were likely because of pesticide-induced reductions of food resources, as zooplankton abundance decreased by as much as 97% following carbaryl application. 6. Our study demonstrates the importance of the interactive effects that chemical contamination and natural environmental factors have on salamanders. [source]

Species Composition and Distribution of Invasive Ponto-Caspian Amphipods in the Off-Channel Microhabitats of a Temperate, Lowland Dam Reservoir

Jaros, ytkowicz
Abstract The W,oc,awek Dam Reservoir located on the lower Vistula River (central Poland) is part of the central corridor used by Ponto-Caspian species to migrate in Europe. It provides a number of habitats suitable for sustaining populations of several non-indigenous taxa. Four Ponto-Caspian amphipod species were recorded in the reservoir: Chaetogammarus ischnus, Chelicorophium curvispinum, Dikerogammarus haemobaphes and Pontogammarus robustoides. We found significant differences in amphipod densities and species composition among various microhabitats in off-channel areas. P. robustoides was the only amphipod species that occurred on very shallow (<1 m) sandy bottom near the shore. It inhabited also other sites but its share in the total number of amphipods and abundance decreased with the distance from the shore. Furthermore, at sites more distant from shore its affinity for plant substratum was higher. D. haemobaphes, C. ischnus and C. curvispinum clearly preferred sites distant from shore, overgrown by macrophytes or covered by mussel shells. Furthermore, the abundance of C. ischnus was negatively correlated with the presence of P. robustoides. (© 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

Macrofauna Communities in the Eastern Mediterranean Deep Sea

MARINE ECOLOGY, Issue 3 2003
Ingrid Kröncke
Abstract., During two expeditions with RV ,Meteor' in summer 1993 and winter 1997/98 the structural and functional diversity of the benthic system of the highly oligotrophic eastern Mediterranean deep sea was investigated. The macrofauna communities were dominated by polychaetes even at the deepest stations. The fauna at shallow stations was dominated by surface deposit feeders, whereas subsurface deposit feeders and predators generally increased with depth. A high percentage of suspension-feeding Porifera was found in the Levantine Basin. Mean abundance and number of taxa of both expeditions were significantly correlated to depth and distance to the nearest coast as well as to the total organic carbon (TOC) content in sediments. Numbers of taxa and abundance decreased generally with depth, although lowest numbers were not found at the deepest stations but in the extremely oligotrophic Levantine and Ierapetra Basin. Biomass measured during the second cruise was extremely low in the Ierapetra Basin and comparable to other extreme oligotrophic seas. The significant correlations found for TOC contents and macrofauna with distance to coast during both expeditions apparently reflect the role of hydrographically governed transport of organic matter produced in coastal regions into greater and extreme depths of the Mediterranean Sea. Seasonal differences in macrofauna communities due to seasonal differences in food supply were not found. However, recent large-scale hydrographic changes (Eastern Mediterranean Transient, EMT) might change the oligotrophy and, thus, the structure of the benthic communities in the Eastern Mediterranean deep sea. [source]

Fish Assemblages in Shallow Marine Caves of the Salento Peninsula (Southern Apulia, SE Italy)

Simona Bussotti
Abstract. Fish assemblages of three shallow marine caves from the Salento Peninsula (Apulia, SE Italy) were investigated in July 2000. Data were collected in situ by using visual census. A total of nineteen fish species were recorded inside the caves. The species richness generally displayed a similar pattern in all three caves, decreasing from the entrance towards the innermost sections, whereas the patterns of total fish abundance differed among caves. Apogon imberbis (mainly represented by juveniles) was the most important species in terms of number of individuals (accounting for more than 85% of the censused fish) and showed a fairly even distribution inside the investigated caves. Without the numerical contribution of A. imberbis, fish abundance decreased from the entrance to the inner sections and this pattern was common to all three caves. Juvenile fishes of economic interest (e. g., Diplodus vulgaris and Epinephelus marginatus) were also recorded inside. The present study suggests that: (1) environmental constraints could affect distribution patterns in fish species richness and in the abundance of several fish along the axis of "blind caves" (with a single entrance), as already observed for sessile benthos and plankton assemblages; (2) shallow marine caves of the Salento Peninsula could exert the role of refuge and/or nursery for some littoral fish species during the adult and/or juvenile stages of their life histories. [source]

Co-evolution between ectoparasites and their insect hosts: a simulation study of a damselfly,water mite interaction

Jens Rolff
Summary 1. A simulation model investigating the co-evolution of water mites infesting their aquatic insect hosts during emergence is presented. The model is based on field and experimental studies of the ectoparasitic water mite Arrenurus cuspidator and the damselfly Coenagrion puella. 2. Three scenarios were studied: (1) Only the host was allowed to evolve timing of emergence, while the timing of the parasites' infestation opportunity was held constant. (2) Both host and parasite were allowed to evolve. (3) Only the parasite's timing was allowed to evolve, while the host was constrained completely. 3. In the first two scenarios, parasite abundances decreased in the course of evolution and reached values well below those found in the field, whereas in the third scenario, parasite abundances were maintained at a level close to that found in the field. In the second scenario (co-evolution), the host seemed to be the leader in the evolutionary race. 4. It is concluded that water mite parasitism is capable of shaping emergence patterns in aquatic insects and, despite the same life-cycle length for host and parasite, the parasite evolves fast enough to shape its hatching pattern to match the emergence pattern of its host. [source]