Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Abortion

  • elective abortion
  • fruit abortion
  • induced abortion
  • legal abortion
  • medical abortion
  • missed abortion
  • previous abortion
  • recurrent abortion
  • recurrent spontaneous abortion
  • selective abortion
  • spontaneous abortion
  • surgical abortion
  • therapeutic abortion

  • Terms modified by Abortion

  • abortion care
  • abortion rate
  • abortion services

  • Selected Abstracts


    ABSTRACT Based on the case of Rosa, a nine-year-old girl who was denied a therapeutic abortion, this article analyzes the role played by the social in medical practice. For that purpose, it compares the different application of two similar pieces of legislation in Costa Rica, where both the practice of abortion and sterilization are restricted to the protection of health and life by the Penal Code. As a concept subject to interpretation, a broad conception of medical necessity could enable an ample use of the therapeutic exception and a liberal use of both surgeries. The practice of therapeutic sterilization has been generalized in Costa Rica and has become the legitimate way to distribute contraceptive sterilization. In contrast, therapeutic abortion is very rarely practiced. The analysis carried out proposes that it is the difference in social acceptance of abortion and sterilization that explains the different use that doctors, as gatekeepers of social morality, make of medical necessity. [source]


    ABSTRACT This paper discusses the Brazilian Supreme Court ruling on the case of anencephaly. In Brazil, abortion is a crime against the life of a fetus, and selective abortion of non-viable fetuses is prohibited. Following a paradigmatic case discussed by the Brazilian Supreme Court in 2004, the use of abortion was authorized in the case of a fetus with anencephaly. The objective of this paper is to analyze the ethical arguments of the case, in particular the strategy of avoiding the moral status of the fetus, the cornerstone thesis of the Catholic Church. [source]


    ADDICTION, Issue 1 2009
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    ADDICTION, Issue 1 2009
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    METAPHILOSOPHY, Issue 4 2007
    Abstract: Bernard Gert argues that legitimate moral disagreement calls for tolerance and moral humility; when there is more than one morally acceptable course of action, then intolerance and what Gert calls "moral arrogance" would be objectionable. This article identifies some possible difficulties in distinguishing moral arrogance from moral reform and then examines Gert's treatment of abortion as a contemporary example of moral disagreement that he characterizes as irresolvable. [source]

    Childbirth, abortion and subsequent substance use in young women: a population-based longitudinal study

    ADDICTION, Issue 12 2007
    Willy Pedersen
    ABSTRACT Aims To investigate the possible linkages between deliveries, abortions and subsequent nicotine dependence, alcohol problems and use of cannabis and other illegal drugs from the ages of 15,27 years. Methods Data were gathered as part of the Young in Norway Longitudinal Study, an 11-year follow-up of a representative sample of Norwegian adolescents and young adults. Design, setting and participants Information was obtained on (i) the history of childbirths and induced abortions for the participants between the ages of 15,27 years; (ii) measures of nicotine dependence, alcohol problems and use of cannabis and other illegal drugs; and (iii) socio-demographic, family and individual confounding factors. Results Those who had had an abortion had elevated rates of substance use and problems. Those who gave birth to a child had reduced rates of alcohol problems and cannabis use. These associations persisted after control for confounders. However, those women who still lived with the father of the aborted fetus were not at increased risk. Conclusions Abortion in women may, under some circumstances, be associated with increased risk of nicotine dependence, alcohol problems and use of cannabis and other illegal drugs. The birth of a child may reduce the use of some substances. [source]

    Transformation Into Daily Migraine With Aura Following Transcutaneous Atrial Septal Defect Closure

    HEADACHE, Issue 5 2003
    A. E. Yankovsky MD
    A link between migraine with aura and cardiac right-to-left shunting has been previously reported. Abortion or decreased frequency of migraine with aura attacks after atrial septal defect closure has been reported in the literature. We report the first case of transformation of migraine with aura into a daily pattern after atrial septal defect closure. A 48-year-old male who had been suffering from rather infrequent attacks of migraine with sensory and visual aura underwent transcutaneous closure of an atrial septal defect. His migraine attacks changed into a daily pattern the day following the procedure and remained so for 6 months. This change in pattern may be related to a changed intra-atrial pressure after the closure or some other unknown factor. [source]

    Referral in the Wake of Conscientious Objection to Abortion

    HYPATIA, Issue 4 2008
    Currently, the preferred accommodation for conscientious objection to abortion in medicine is to allow the objector to refuse to accede to the patient's request so long as the objector refers the patient to a physician who performs abortions. The referral part of this arrangement is controversial, however. Pro-life advocates claim that referrals make objectors complicit in the performance of acts that they, the objectors, find morally offensive. McLeod argues that the referral requirement is justifiable, although not in the way that people usually assume. [source]

    Introduction: Putting Unsafe Abortion on the Development Agenda

    IDS BULLETIN, Issue 3 2008
    Andrea Cornwall
    First page of article [source]

    Effect of indoor energy restriction level and management on beef production in Belgian Blue double-muscled cow-calf pairs

    L. O. Fiems
    Summary One hundred and twenty-six cows were involved to investigate the impact of energy (E) restriction (100%, 90%, 80% and 70% of total energy requirements) during the indoor period and two calf management systems (CMS: suckling or rearing). An E restriction during the indoor period resulted in a loss of body weight, even for E100, which was compensated during the re-alimentation period, but body weight remained lower in suckling than in non-suckling cows. The cows yielded 213 full-term gestations and 8 abortions. Abortion was not affected by E (p = 0.187) or CMS (p = 0.804). Calving interval was neither affected by E (p = 0.775) but tended to be longer in suckled cows (p = 0.087). E reduced body weight and body condition score (BCS) at the end of the calving interval, while CMS only affected BCS. E70 resulted in a higher colostrum yield than E100 and E 90 but immunoglobulin content was not affected (p = 0.759). Cow culling was not affected by E or CMS. It increased from 12.9% to 22.2% and 32.5% for cows with a BCS at parturition lower than 1.5 or between 1.5 and 2.0, or higher than 2 respectively. Calf birth weight was neither affected by E or CMS, but there was an interaction between E and dam age (p = 0.050). Increasing the E restriction tended to reduce calf survival (p = 0.089). Performance of the surviving calves was not affected by E, but suckling calves gained faster than rearing calves (p < 0.001). Beef production by the cow-calf pair was not different between energy levels (p = 0.738), but it was 10.8% lower for E70 than for E100 cows. It is not appropriate to apply an E restriction of more than 10,20% for maximum cow reproductive traits and calf performance. [source]

    Selective Abortion for Down Syndrome: The Relation Between the Quality of Intergroup Contact, Parenting Expectations, and Willingness to Terminate

    Karen L. Lawson
    This study examines the links between familiarity with individuals with Down syndrome (DS), perceptions of parenting a child with DS, and willingness to consider selective termination subsequent to a fetal diagnosis of DS. Within a sample of childless young adults (N = 280), those reporting personal familiarity indicated both more positive attitudes toward parenting a child with DS and more certainty that they would not abort following a prenatal diagnosis. In further support of contact theory, the quality of the past intergroup interactions moderated these findings. The potential role of negative stereotypes in selective-abortion decision making and implications for prenatal counseling protocols are discussed. [source]

    Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes During Anther Abortion of Taigu Genic Male Sterile Wheat by Combining Suppression Subtractive Hybridization and cDNA Array

    Qing-Shan Chang
    Abstract Taigu Genic Male Sterile Wheat (TGMSW; Triticum aestivum L.), a dominant genic male sterile germplasm, is of considerable value in the genetic improvement of wheat because of its stable inherence, complete male abortion, and high cross-fertilization rate. To identify specially transcribed genes in sterile anther, a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) library was constructed with sterile anther as the tester and fertile anther as the driver. A total of 2 304 SSH inserts amplified by polymerase chain reaction were arrayed using robotic printing. The cDNA arrays were hybridized with 32P-labeled probes prepared from the RNA of forward- and reverse-subtracted anthers. Ninety-six clones were scored as upregulated in sterile anthers compared with the corresponding fertile anthers and some clones were selected for sequencing and analysis in GenBank. Based on their putative functions, 87 non-redundant clones were classified into the following groups: (i) eight genes involved in metabolic processes; (ii) four material transportation genes; (iii) three signal transduction-associated genes; (iv) four stress response and senescence-associated protein genes; (v) seven other functional protein genes; (vi) five genes with no known function; and (vii) another 56 genes with no match to the databases. To test the hybridization efficiency, eight genes were selected and analyzed by Northern blot. The results of the present study provide a comprehensive overview of the genes and gene products involved in anther abortion in TGMSW. (Managing editor: Li-Hui Zhao) [source]

    Tensions in the Regulation of Abortion in Britain

    Ellie Lee
    This article discusses policy and practice in abortion provision, paying particular attention to the provision of counselling before abortion. It discusses the way the Abortion Act 1967 constructs the woman seeking abortion, the reasons for the development of a policy about abortion counselling in the 1970s, and that policy's relationship to the assumptions about women underlying the statute. The ways in which policy has developed since 1977 are considered, and how policy and practice have come to view women seeking abortion in a way that contrasts with the construction of them that emerges from the law. Thus, the article argues, given that the 1967 Act and other rules that regulate abortion provision seem to rest on contradictory assumptions, the law should be reformed in line with policy and practice. [source]

    Post-colonial Fragments: Representations of Abortion in Irish Law and Politics

    Ruth Fletcher
    The Republic of Ireland has become infamous for its legal stance against abortion, especially since it went as far as stopping, albeit temporarily, a young rape victim from travelling abroad for an abortion in 1992. I argue that one of the rationales behind anti-abortion law is a post-colonial urge to mark Irishness distinctively by constructing it in exclusively ,pro-life' terms. I discuss examples of how Irish colonial experiences have been used to justify the effort to keep Ireland abortion-free, and to resist that effort. Representations of colonial history in the context of Irish abortion law and politics have changed over time and between groups. Such changes indicate a need for post-colonial critique to account for the fragmentation of colonialism as it is displaced, a need which the conceptualization of post-coloniality as a historical object can address. [source]

    The Impact of Mandatory Waiting Periods and Parental Consent Laws on the Timing of Abortion and State of Occurrence among Adolescents in Mississippi and South Carolina

    Ted Joyce
    Individual data on induced abortions from Mississippi and South Carolina are used to examine the effect of parental consent laws and mandatory delay statutes on two outcomes among teens: the point in pregnancy at which the abortion occurs and whether teens obtain abortions in or outside their state of residence. No effect of either law was found on the timing and location of abortion among minors relative to older teens in South Carolina. In Mississippi, however, both laws are associated with an increase in the proportion of abortions performed out of the state and the parental consent statute with later abortions. The conclusion is that Mississippi's 24-hour as compared with South Carolina's one-hour delay requirement, and Mississippi's two-parent as contrasted with South Carolina's one-parent consent statute explain the stronger behavioral response in Mississippi. © 2001 by the Association for Public Policy Management and Ananlysis. [source]

    Two Moral Strategies Regarding Abortion

    Keith Allen Korcz

    Judicial Waivers of Parental Consent for Abortion: Tennessee's Troubles Putting Policy into Practice,

    LAW & POLICY, Issue 3 2005
    According to the U.S. Supreme Court, minors seeking abortions are entitled to petition for relief from state-mandated parental consent. To facilitate the actualization of this right, Tennessee included procedural mechanisms that go beyond those in effect in most states in its parental consent statute. This paper examines whether these additional mechanisms allow Tennessee to succeed where other states have failed. Our findings indicate that these mechanisms mitigate to some extent the sort of implementation failure observed in other states. However, the magnitude of this mitigation is not sufficient to establish that parental consent statutes can be implemented in accordance with Supreme Court requirements. [source]

    US Catholics and the Presidential Election: Abortion and Proportionate Reasons

    NEW BLACKFRIARS, Issue 1003 2005
    James L. Heft S.M.
    First page of article [source]

    Cone abortion in Pinus halepensis: the role of pollen quantity, tree size and cone location

    OIKOS, Issue 1 2002
    Shirrinka Goubitz
    This study describes the seasonal patterns of seed and cone abortion in natural Pinus halepensis trees and assesses the effects of pollen quantity, tree size and cone location on seed and cone abortion. The cone-set ratio was similar to the expected value, based on literature on woody perennials. The seed-ovule ratio, however, was almost twice as high as its expected value. The investment in protective cone elements was high and did not vary with the seed-ovule ratio of a cone. Pollination factors influenced cone abortion, as indicated by the high abortion rate at the end of the pollination period. Furthermore, abortive cones had lower pollination rates and lower pollen loads than well developed cones. Effects of resource availability were assessed as effects of tree size and cone position on twigs. Small trees aborted more cones than big trees and cone abortion was higher in apical cones than in basal cones. Abortion in P. halepensis is selective, mediated by both pollen quantity and resource availability. The relative importance of pollen and resources is suggested to be flexible, probably varying between trees and years. The high seed-ovule ratio of P. halepensis is the result of high pollination rate and selective abortion. The selective abortion might be due to the high allocation to protective cone elements relative to the allocation to seeds. [source]

    Abortion or Pill Access Is Associated with Lower Birthrates Among Minors

    J. Thomas
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Exploring the Link Between Substance Use and Abortion: The Roles of Unconventionality and Unplanned Pregnancy

    Steven C. Martino
    CONTEXT: Several studies have found a relationship between abortion and prior substance use, suggesting that a reduction in substance use might help decrease abortion rates. However, such a conclusion requires a greater understanding of the processes linking abortion and prior substance use. METHOD: Path analysis of longitudinal data from 1,224 women was used to simultaneously test two pathways from adolescent substance use to abortion by age 29, one mediated by higher rates of unplanned pregnancy and the other independent of unplanned pregnancy rates. The model was then expanded to examine how these pathways change when unconventional attitudes and behaviors (such as rebelliousness and low religiosity) are taken into consideration. RESULTS: In the analysis that did not control for unconventionality, women who reported smoking cigarettes or using marijuana or hard drugs at age 18 had an increased likelihood of subsequent unplanned pregnancy and, as a result, higher rates of abortion. In addition, women who had used marijuana had an increased likelihood of abortion independent of unplanned pregnancy rates. In the final model, unconventionality strongly predicted both abortion and unplanned pregnancy. Moreover, it explained the associations between the use of hard drugs or marijuana and abortion that were due to higher unplanned pregnancy rates. CONCLUSIONS: Unconventionality mediates certain associations between substance use and abortion, perhaps because unconventional women are more likely both to use substances and to engage in behaviors that increase their risk of unplanned pregnancy. Hence, it seems unlikely that reducing substance use will result in substantially fewer abortions. [source]

    For Second-Trimester Abortion, Women Given Misoprostol Vaginally Report the Greatest Satisfaction

    D. Hollander
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Abortion: Teaching Why as Well as How

    Felicia H. Stewart
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    The Preemptive Power of State Supreme Courts: Adoption of Abortion and Death Penalty Legislation

    Laura Langer
    We offer a theory about public policy adoption that depicts a game between state supreme courts and state policymakers. We hypothesize that court ideological hostility or friendliness operates to discourage or encourage policy enactment, with the likelihood of subsequent court intervention magnifying the relationship. To test the argument we examine the influence of court ideology on the enactment of state abortion and death penalty laws since the 1970s. Empirical analyses provide strong support for our theory, indicating that court ideological hostility or friendliness significantly influenced state abortion and death penalty policy enactments. In addition, the likelihood of court intervention conditioned this relationship, with the most pronounced effect occurring where subsequent court review was mandatory. The findings reveal courts exert important preemptive influence on law without hearing a case. This facet of judicial influence expands the traditional view of actors involved in the policymaking process. [source]

    Abortion, Family Planning, and Population Policy: Prospects for the Common-Ground Approach

    Dennis Hodgson
    For the past several decades those engaged in shaping the Program of Action documents at international conferences on population have muted their voices when the topic of abortion has been raised. In a desire to side-step entanglement in a bitter debate over the morality of abortion, great care has been taken to define "family planning" in ways that explicitly exclude abortion. The "common-ground" approach to treating abortion can be summarized in two directives found in all contemporary international population documents: "in no case should abortion be promoted as a method of family planning"; and all governments should work "to reduce the recourse to abortion through expanded and improved family-planning services." This article has three goals: first, to examine the appropriateness of these directives with respect to what is currently known about the relationship between abortion, family planning, and population policy; second, to trace how this "contraception-only" definition of family planning became de rigueur at international population conferences; and third, to discuss the prospects for the emergence of a more appropriate "common-ground" approach to abortion and population policy. [source]

    Prenatal Sex Determination and Sex-Selective Abortion in Rural Central China

    Chu Junhong
    This study analyzes the practice of prenatal sex selection in rural central China. It examines the prevalence and determinants of prenatal sex determination by ultrasound scanning and subsequent sex-selective abortion. The data are derived from a survey of 820 married women aged 20,44 and from in-depth interviews with rural women and men, village leaders, family planning managers, and health providers, conducted by the author in one county in central China in 2000. Prenatal sex determination was a widespread practice, especially for second and higher-order pregnancies. Sex-selective abortion was prevalent and order of pregnancy, sex of fetus, and sex of previous children were major determinants of the practice. A female fetus representing a high-order pregnancy in a family with one or more daughters was the most likely to be aborted. Awareness among rural families that in the population at large a future marriage squeeze was likely did not diminish the demand for sex-selective abortion. [source]

    REVIEW ARTICLE: Immunological Paradigms and the Pathogenesis of Ovine Chlamydial Abortion

    Gary Entrican
    Citation Entrican G, Wattegedera S, Wheelhouse N, Allan A, Rocchi M. Immunological paradigms and the pathogenesis of ovine chlamydial abortion. Am J Reprod Immunol 2010 Successful mammalian pregnancy involves complex immunological interactions between the mother and foetus that are not yet fully understood. A number of immunological paradigms have been established to explain the failure of the maternal immune system to reject the semi-allogeneic foetus, mainly based on studies in mice and humans. However, as placental structure, gestation periods and number of concepti per pregnancy can vary greatly between mammals, it is not always clear how applicable these immunological paradigms are to reproduction in other species. Here, we discuss the predictions of three important immunological paradigms in relation to the pathogenesis of ovine enzootic abortion (OEA), a common cause of infectious abortion in sheep and other ruminants. OEA is caused by the intracellular Gram-negative bacterium Chlamydophila abortus that exhibits a tropism for placental trophoblast. The paradigms of particular relevance to the pathogenesis of OEA are as follows: (i) intracellular bacterial infections are controlled by TH1-type CD4+ve T cells; (ii) indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase is expressed in the placenta to prevent immunological rejection of the semi-allogeneic foetus; and (iii) pregnancy is a maternal TH2-type phenomenon. We discuss the relevance and validity of these paradigms for chlamydial abortion and reproductive immunology in sheep. [source]

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE: A High Dose of Intravenous Immunoglobulin Increases CD94 Expression on Natural Killer Cells in Women with Recurrent Spontaneous Abortion

    Shigeki Shimada
    Problem, A high dose of intravenous immunoglobulin (HIVIg) therapy is effective in various diseases such as autoimmune diseases, and also is expected to have efficacy in recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA). The aim of this study was to understand immunological mechanisms of this therapy. Method of study, By flowcytometric analyses, we examined phenotypic changes of a variety of immunological cells including natural killer (NK) cells, cytotoxic T cells, regulatory T cells and macrophages in peripheral blood of RSA women with HIVIg therapy (n = 8). Results, Expression percentages of inhibitory CD94 on NK cells significantly (P = 0.01) increased after the therapy (58.8 ± 21.4% versus 71.0 ± 17.6%). Conclusion, Mechanisms of possible efficacy of HIVIg therapy for RSA may include enhancement of CD94 expression and subsequent suppression of NK cell cytotoxicity. [source]

    SHORT COMMUNICATION: Gender Ratio Distortion in Abortuses and Live Births From Patients with Recurrent Spontaneous Abortion

    Takashi Kano
    Problem, Gender ratio of live birth in humans is approximately 1.05 and males are born a slightly more, while gender ratio of fertilization should be 1.00, suggesting that female fetus might be more sensitive to abortion than male fetus during pregnancy. Method of study, We examined karyotype of abortuses from patients with recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA), who had at least one live birth before or after the treatment of RSA. Results, Chromosomal abnormality was not frequent (14.6%) in the abortuses from the RSA patients. Among abortuses without chromosomal abnormality, male karyotype was rare (9.2%), and this gender ratio distortion was more prominent in RSA cases not carrying autoantibodies (3.5%) than that in the RSA cases carrying autoantibodies (26.3%), with statistical significance (P = 0.009). Conclusion, These observations suggested that the aborted fetuses from RSA of unknown etiology, i.e. no chromosomal abnormality and no autoantibody, were preferentially female. [source]

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE: The Characterization of the Subpopulation of Suppressive B7H4+ Macrophages and the Subpopulation of CD25+ CD4+ and FOXP3+ Regulatory T-cells in Decidua during the Secretory Cycle Phase, Arias Stella Reaction, and Spontaneous Abortion , A Preliminary Report

    Lukasz Wicherek
    Problem, The presence of immunosuppressive cells within the endometrium and decidua is crucial for establishing maternal immune tolerance against fetal antigens. We decided to evaluate the subpopulations of Treg cells and B7H4 macrophages in eutopic endometrium typified by Arias Stella reaction during the development of Fallopian tube pregnancy as well as in decidua at the time of spontaneous abortion (SA), and to compare these findings to those observed in the endometrium during the secretory cycle phase of healthy women. Method of study, The decidual tissue samples evaluated in our study were obtained from 26 women who underwent curettage as a result of the following circumstances: five of the women because of a laparoscopic procedure necessitated by Fallopian tube pregnancy, and 11 of them because of SA. The control group consisted of 10 patients on whom curettage was preformed as an additional procedure during laparoscopic myomectomy. The presence of regulatory T-cells and B7H4-positive macrophages in the samples was analysed by fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACScan). Results, Both the percentages of FOXP3+ cells in the subpopulation of CD25+ CD4+ T lymphocytes and the percentage of B7H4-positive cells in the macrophage subpopulation found in the deciduae of patients suffering SA were higher than those found in eutopic endometrium with Arias Stella reaction. No such differences in the percentages of these cells were observed when the tissue samples from patients with SA were compared with those from the control group. The percentage of B7H4-positive macrophages, however, was found to be significantly lower in endometrium with Arias Stella reaction in comparison to that observed in secretory endometrium. Conclusion, The alterations in both the Treg cell and suppressive B7H4+ macrophage subpopulations would seem to be related to the suppression of maternal immune cells in the endometrium at the beginning of decidualization. [source]