Breeding Strategy (breeding + strategy)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Efficient use of DNA molecular markers to construct industrial yeast strains

Philippe Marullo
Abstract Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains exhibit a huge genotypic and phenotypic diversity. Breeding strategies taking advantage of these characteristics would contribute greatly to improving industrial yeasts. Here we mapped and introgressed chromosomal regions controlling industrial yeast properties, such as hydrogen sulphide production, phenolic off-flavor and a kinetic trait (lag phase duration). Two parent strains derived from industrial isolates used in winemaking and which exhibited significant quantitative differences in these traits were crossed and their progeny (50,170 clones) was analyzed for the segregation of these traits. Forty-eight segregants were genotyped at 2212 marker positions using DNA microarrays and one significant locus was mapped for each trait. To exploit these loci, an introgression approach was supervised by molecular markers monitoring using PCR/RFLP. Five successive backcrosses between an elite strain and appropriate segregants were sufficient to improve three trait values. Microarray-based genotyping confirmed that over 95% of the elite strain genome was recovered by this methodology. Moreover, karyotype patterns, mtDNA and tetrad analysis showed some genomic rearrangements during the introgression procedure. [source]

Cascading effects of variation in plant vigour on the relative performance of insect herbivores and their parasitoids

Tiit Teder
Abstract 1. Consequences of variation in food plant quality were estimated for a system consisting of two monophagous noctuid herbivores and three ichneumonid parasitoids. 2. In a natural population, pupal weights of the herbivores in this system, Nonagria typhae and Archanara sparganii, were found to be highly variable. Pupal weights increased strongly and consistently with the increase in the vigour of the host plant, Typha latifolia, providing support for the plant vigour hypothesis. Correspondingly, as the moths do not feed as adults, a strong, positive correlation between host vigour and fecundity of the herbivores would be expected. 3. There were strong and positive relationships between adult body sizes of the parasitoids and the sizes of their lepidopteran hosts. Moreover, a direct, positive link between plant quality and parasitoid size was documented. 4. For all three parasitoids, cascading effects of plant quality on body size were weaker than for the herbivores. Differences in the importance of adult feeding and oviposition behaviour suggest that dependence of fitness on body size is also weaker in the parasitoids than in the moths. It is therefore concluded that the numerical response of the herbivore population to a change in plant quality should exceed the corresponding response in the parasitoids. 5. The results of this work imply that variation in plant variables may affect performance of different trophic levels to a different extent. It is suggested that the importance of adult feeding for the reproductive success (capital vs. income breeding strategies) in both herbivores and parasitoids is an essential aspect to consider when predicting responses of such a system to changes in plant quality. [source]

Genetic characterization of wild and captive rhesus macaques in China*

J. Satkoski
Abstract The genetic structures of wild and captive rhesus macaque populations within China were compared by analyzing the mtDNA sequences of 203 captive-bred Chinese rhesus macaques with 77 GenBank sequences from wild-caught animals trapped throughout China. The genotypes of 22 microsatellites of captive Chinese rhesus macaques were also compared with those of captive Indian animals. The Chinese population is significantly differentiated from the Indian population and is more heterogeneous. Thus, compared with Indian rhesus macaques the phenotypic variance of traits with high heritability will be inflated in Chinese animals. Our data suggest that the western Chinese provinces have more subdivided populations than the eastern and southern Chinese provinces. The southern Chinese populations are the least structured and might have been more recently established. Human-mediated interbreeding among captive Chinese populations has occurred, implying that Chinese breeding strategies can influence the interpretation of biomedical research in the USA. [source]

Differential Regulation of Five Pht1 Phosphate Transporters from Maize (Zea mays L.)

PLANT BIOLOGY, Issue 2 2006
R. Nagy
Abstract: Maize is one of the most important crops in the developing world, where adverse soil conditions and low fertilizer input are the two main constraints for stable food supply. Understanding the molecular and biochemical mechanisms involved in nutrient uptake is expected to support the development of future breeding strategies aimed at improving maize productivity on infertile soils. Phosphorus is the least mobile macronutrient in the soils and it is often limiting plant growth. In this work, five genes encoding Pht1 phosphate transporters which contribute to phosphate uptake and allocation in maize were identified. In phosphate-starved plants, transcripts of most of the five transporters were present in roots and leaves. Independent of the phosphate supply, expression of two genes was predominant in pollen or in roots colonized by symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi, respectively. Interestingly, high transcript levels of the mycorrhiza-inducible gene were also detectable in leaves of phosphate-starved plants. Thus, differential expression of Pht1 phosphate transporters in maize suggests involvement of the encoded proteins in diverse processes, including phosphate uptake from soil and transport at the symbiotic interface in mycorrhizas, phosphate (re)translocation in the shoot, and phosphate uptake during pollen tube growth. [source]

Late blight resistance in a diploid full-sib potato family

PLANT BREEDING, Issue 4 2004
S. Costanzo
Abstract Late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary, is the most destructive disease of potato worldwide. As this pathogen can rapidly overcome major race-specific resistance genes, identifying the basis for enhanced quantitative resistance has become a crucial element for implementing advanced breeding strategies. A population of 230 full-sib progeny derived from a cross between two diploid hybrid Solanum phureja × S. stenotomum clones was evaluated for foliage resistance against late blight in replicated trials at multiple locations in Pennsylvania between 1999 and 2002. In field experiments, plants were evaluated visually for per cent defoliation, and area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) was determined. The two parents and three control cultivars (,Atlantic', ,Kennebec' and ,Katahdin') were included in all trials. In all three experiments, the presence of a significant number of clones exhibiting transgressive segregation were observed. There were significant differences among environments as well as among clones, and the clone × environment interaction was also significant. Stability analysis revealed that 37 clones made a significant contribution to the overall environment × clone interaction. Broad-sense heritability for resistance, measured as AUDPC, was estimated as 0.67. The overall results indicate the presence in this potato family of a high level of field resistance against late blight. This segregating diploid family appears to be a good candidate for quantitative trait loci mapping to identify and characterize the genetic components of partial late blight resistance. [source]

Genome-wide genetic diversity of Holstein Friesian cattle reveals new insights into Australian and global population variability, including impact of selection

K. R. Zenger
Summary Past breeding strategies for dairy cattle have been very effective in producing rapid genetic gain to achieve industry targets and raise profitability. Such gains have been largely facilitated by intense selection of sires combined with the use of artificial insemination. However, this practice can potentially limit the level of genetic diversity through inbreeding and selection plateaus. The rate of inbreeding in Australia is increasing, primarily as a result of semen importation from a small number of prominent bulls from the USA. The effect of this genetic influx in the Australian dairy cattle population is poorly understood both in terms of diversity and local adaptation/divergence. This study uses 845 genome-wide SNP genetic markers and 431 bulls to characterize the level of genetic diversity and genetic divergence within the Australian and international Holstein Friesian dairy population. No significant differences in genetic diversity (as measured by heterozygosity [Ho] and allelic richness [A]) were observed over the 25-year time period (1975,1999) for bulls used in Australia. The importation of foreign semen into Australia has increased the effective population size until it was in effect a sub-sample of the global population. Our data indicate that most individuals are equally closely related to one another, regardless of country of origin and year of birth. In effect, the global population can be considered as one single population unit. These results indicate that inbreeding, genetic drift and selection has had little effect at reducing genetic diversity and differentiating the Australian Holstein Friesian population at a genome-wide level. [source]

Estimates of genetic parameters for Boran, Friesian, and crosses of Friesian and Jersey with the Boran cattle in the tropical highlands of Ethiopia: milk production traits and cow weight

S. Demeke
Summary Breed additive and non-additive effects plus heritabilities and repeatabilities for milk yield per lactation (LMY), milk yield per day (DMY), lactation length (LL), annual milk yield (AMY), annual milk yield per metabolic body weight (AMYBW) and cow weight at calving (BW) were estimated for 5464 lactation records collected from purebred Boran (B), Friesian (F), and crosses of Friesian and Jersey (J) breeds with the Boran breed raised in the tropical highlands of Ethiopia. Single trait analysis was carried out by using two equivalent repeatability animal models. In the first model the genotype was fitted as a fixed group effect, while in the second model the genotype was substituted by breed additive, heterotic and recombination effects fitted as fixed covariates. Both the F and J breed additive effects, measured as a deviation from the B breed were significant (p < 0.01) for all traits, except for BW of the J. The F and J additive contributions were 2774 ± 81 and 1473 ± 362 kg for LMY, 7.1 ± 0.2 and 4.8 ± 0.8 kg for DMY, 152 ± 7 and 146 ± 31 days for LL, 2345 ± 71 and 1238 ± 319 kg for AMY, 20.6 ± 0.9 and 18.9 ± 4.3 kg for AMYBW, and 140 ± 4 and ,21 ± 22 kg (p > 0.05) for BW. The heterotic contributions to the crossbred performance were also positive and significant (p < 0.01) for all traits. The F1 heterosis expressed as a deviation from the mid-parent values were 22 and 66% for LMY, 11 and 20% for DMY, 29 and 29% for LL, 21 and 64% for AMY, 42 and 42% for AMYBW, and 2% (p < 0.05) and 11% for BW for the F × B and J × B crosses, respectively. The recombination effect estimated for the F × B crosses was negative and significant for LMY (,526 ± 192 kg, p < 0.01), DMY (,3.0 ± 0.4 kg, p < 0.001), AMY (,349 ± 174 kg, p < 0.05) and BW (,68 ± 11 kg, p < 0.001). For the J × B crosses the recombination loss was significant and negative only for DMY (,2.2 ± 0.7 kg, p < 0.05) and BW (,33 ± 17 kg, p < 0.05). The direct heritabilities (h2) estimated for LMY, DMY, LL, AMY and AMYBW were 0.24 ± 0.04, 0.19 ± 0.03, 0.13 ± 0.03, 0.23 ± 0.04 and 0.17 ± 0.05, respectively. Based on the genetic parameters estimated, the best breeding strategy to increased milk production under highland Ethiopian conditions is to apply selection on purebred base populations (Boran and Friesian) and then crossing them to produce F1 dairy cows. However, for breeding decision based on total dairy merit, further investigations are needed for traits such as milk quality, reproduction, longevity and survival. Zusammenfassung Additive Rasseneffekte, nicht additive Effekte, Heritabilitäten und Wiederholbarkeiten für Milchmenge pro Laktation (LMY), Milchmenge pro Tag (DMY), Laktationsdauer (LL), jährliche Milchmenge (AMY), jährliche Milchmenge pro metabolischem Körpergewicht (AMYBW) und Kuhgewichte zur Kalbung (BW) wurden anhand von 5464 Laktationsdatensätzen von reinrassigen Boran (B), Friesian (F) und Kreuzungen der Rassen Friesian und Jersey (J) mit der Rasse Boran, die im tropischen Hochland von Äthiopien groß gezogen wurden, geschätzt. Einmerkmalsmodelle wurden mit zwei äquivalenten Wiederholbarkeits-Tiermodellen durchgeführt. Im ersten Modell wurde der Genotyp als fixer Gruppeneffekt berücksichtigt, während im zweiten Modell der Genotyp durch additive Rasseneffekte, Heterosis und Rekombinationseffekte als Kovariable ersetzt wurde. Die additiven Rasseneffekte von F und J, gemessen als Abweichung von der Rasse B, waren für alle Merkmale signifikant (p < 0,01), ausgenommen BW für die Rasse J. Die additiven Rasseneffekte von F und J betrugen 2774 ± 81 und 1473 ± 362 kg für LMY, 7,1 ± 0,2 und 4,8 ± 0,8 kg für DMY, 152 ± 7 und 146 ± 31 Tage für LL, 2345 ± 71 und 1238 ± 319 kg für AMY, 20,6 ± 0,9 und 18,9 ± 4,3 kg für AMYBW und 140 ± 4 und ,21 ± 22 kg (p > 0,05) für BW. Die Heterosis bei den Kreuzungstieren war positiv und signifikant für alle Merkmale (p < 0,01). Die Heterosis der F1 -Tiere, ausgedrückt als Abweichung vom Mittel der beiden Eltern, betrug 22 und 66% für LMY, 11 und 20% für DMY, 29 und 29% für LL, 21 und 64% für AMY, 42% und 42% für AMYBW und 2% (p < 0,05) und 11% für BW für die F × B und J × B Kreuzungen. Der geschätzte Rekombinationseffekt für die F × B Kreuzungen war negativ und signifikant für LMY (,526 ± 192 kg, p < 0,01), DMY (,3,0 ± 0,4 kg, p < 0,001), AMY (,349 ± 174, p < 0,05) und BW (,68 ± 11 kg, p < 0,001). Für die J × B Kreuzungen war der Rekombinationsverlust signifikant und negativ nur für DMY (,2,2 ± 0,7 kg, p < 0,05) und BW (,33 ± 17, p < 0,05). Die geschätzten Heritabilitäten (h2) betrugen für LMY, DMY, LL, AMY und AMYBW 0,24 ± 0,04, 0,19 ± 0,03, 0,13 ± 0,03, 0,23 ± 0,04 und 0,17 ± 0,05. Basierend auf den geschätzten genetischen Parametern erscheint Selektion in den Reinzuchtpopulationen B und F und anschließ end Kreuzung dieser Tiere zur Erstellung von F1 -Milchkühen als günstigste Zuchtstrategie, um die Milchproduktion unter äthiopischen Hochlandbedingungen zu steigern. Für Zuchtentscheidungen, die die gesamte Milchproduktion berücksichtigen, sind weitere Untersuchungen notwendig für Merkmale wie Milchqualität, Reproduktion, Persistenz und Langlebigkeit. [source]

Polymorphic dinucleotide microsatellites in tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis)

Abstract The tongue sole, Cynoglossus semilaevis, is a rare marine flatfish distributed in Chinese coastal waters. From a (GT)n -enriched genomic library, 57 microsatellites were isolated and characterized. Seventeen of these loci were polymorphic in a test population with alleles ranging from three to 13, and observed and expected heterozygosities from 0.1613 to 1.0000 and from 0.2126 to 0.8983, respectively. Five loci deviated from the Hardy,Weinberg equilibrium in the sampled population, and linkage disequilibrium between two loci was significant after applying Bonferroni correction. Three additional fish species assessed for cross-species amplification revealed that only one locus was also polymorphic in one species. These polymorphic microsatellite loci should provide sufficient level of genetic diversity to evaluate the breeding strategy and investigate the fine-scale population structure in C. semilaevis. [source]

Lowering seed gossypol content in glanded cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) lines

PLANT BREEDING, Issue 6 2008
G. B. Romano
Abstract Cottonseed is a rich source of high quality protein, but its value as an animal feed is limited by gossypol, a toxic polyphenolic compound contained in glands located throughout the plant. This compound helps protect the plant from pests. Totally glandless varieties have been developed, but not adopted as these plants are left vulnerable to pests. This study describes a breeding strategy to decrease the levels of gossypol in the seed while maintaining a high enough concentration of toxin in vegetative plant parts to offer protection from pests. Preliminary studies indicated that crosses between varieties with different gland densities and distributions produced a range of glanding patterns. By selecting within the resulting progeny, we have identified F7 generation progeny that have <0.30% total gossypol in the seed, while still possessing glands at critical locations on the vegetative plant parts. These new lines will be a valuable source of germplasm for developing low seed gossypol varieties. Seed from these varieties would provide a new source of inexpensive protein for animal feeding rations. [source]

A genetic linkage map of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka), based on AFLP and microsatellite markers

Q. Li
Summary We present the first genetic maps of the sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus), constructed with an F1 pseudo-testcross strategy. The 37 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) primer combinations chosen identified 484 polymorphic markers. Of the 21 microsatellite primer pairs tested, 16 identified heterozygous loci in one or other parent, and six were fully informative, as they segregated in both parents. The female map comprised 163 loci, spread over 20 linkage groups (which equals the haploid chromosome number), and spanned 1522.0 cM, with a mean marker density of 9.3 cM. The equivalent figures for the male map were 162 loci, 21 linkage groups, 1276.9 and 7.9 cM. About 2.5% of the AFLP markers displayed segregation distortion and were not used for map construction. The estimated coverage of the genome was 84.8% for the female map and 83.4% for the male map. The maps generated will serve as a basis for the construction of a high-resolution genetic map and mapping of the functional genes and quantitative trait loci, which will then open the way for the application of a marker-assisted selection breeding strategy in this species. [source]

Genetic improvement in the presence of genotype by environment interaction

Ching Y. LIN
ABSTRACT Although the underlying mechanisms for triggering genotype,environment (GE) interaction are poorly understood, the potential impacts of GE interaction on genetic improvement are well recognized. Genotype,environment interaction may be classified into three levels: breed, individual and gene,environment interactions. Three measures of GE interaction (genetic correlation, interaction correlation, and commonality of individuals selected between environments) are discussed. Three options are currently available to deal with GE interaction: environmental, breeding and marker-assisted approaches. Three possible selection strategies for improving global net merit were outlined: (i) selection of a specific genotype for each environment; (ii) selection in a single environment alone for overall response across environments; and (iii) global optimum index selection for high stability and average performance across environments. Global optimum index should be the method of choice from the standpoint of global marketing. Because of the complexity of GE interaction, it is impossible to develop a general strategy to deal with different types of GE interaction. Each type of interaction requires its own solution, depending upon a combination of the following six factors: (i) the intensity of GE interaction; (ii) relative economic weights among environments; (iii) the size of environments; (iv) the nature of environments; (v) the nature of GE interaction; and (vi) selection intensity. Profitability is a major concern in animal production. Extra genetic gain does not necessarily mean extra profit. Does additional genetic gain justify the associated costs of dealing with GE interaction? This is a fundamental issue that needs to be considered before a specific breeding strategy for GE interaction is developed. [source]

The latex capacity of opium poppy capsules is fixed early in capsule development and is not a major determinant in morphine yield

T. Harvest
Abstract This study found that the latex capacity (mg latex mg,1 dry weight capsule) of opium poppy capsules is fixed early in capsule development. Latex capacity, which represents the proportion of the capsule wall allocated to laticifers (specialised cells for latex storage), had peaked in the capsule at 1 week after flowering. In contrast, the morphine content of capsules continued to increase with capsule development until commercial harvest. Morphine content was correlated with capsule mass and total latex mass, but there was no correlation between latex capacity and morphine yield. The most important morphological characteristic in terms of morphine end yield (commercial harvest stage) was capsule mass. The findings of this study demonstrate that although latex yield per plant is a highly heritable morphological characteristic, it may have limited potential for use in a breeding strategy aimed at increasing the morphine yield from capsules. [source]