Breeding Management (breeding + management)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Strategies for the management of donkey jacks in intensive breeding systems

I. F. Canisso
Summary Donkeys are bred throughout the world and often play an important role in agriculture. They are also bred to produce mules. Traditionally, jacks are considered challenging to breed in domestic conditions, whether for natural breeding or semen collection using either jennies or mares. The donkey's natural sexual behaviour significantly differs from that of other domestic animals. This presents challenges for in-hand donkey breeding, particularly on mule studs where normally only jacks and mares are kept for breeding. This article describes some of the authors' observations on sexual behaviour in donkeys and practical experience of some of the strategies employed to apply this knowledge to breeding management, in order to improve the success of using donkeys for both natural service and semen collection. [source]

Aspects of the reproductive biology and breeding management of Asian and African elephants Elephas maximus and Loxodonta africana

Elephants possess many unique qualities, including some that relate directly to their reproductive biology. Thus, comparative studies on elephants provide valuable information to the growing biological database for extant mammals. Left undisturbed, Asian Elephas maximus and African Loxodonta Africana elephants reproduce well in the wild. It is ironic then that most captive populations face possible,extinction'because of historically poor reproductive performance. Some of the problems with breeding elephants in captivity are logistical but others, like ovarian and uterine pathologies and bull infertility, have management-related aetiology. Through advances in endocrine monitoring and ultrasound imaging techniques, we are beginning to understand some of the complex mechanisms controlling reproductive function in elephants. Several reproductive characteristics appear to be unique to the taxon, such as luteal steroidogenic function, follicular development patterns, pituitary gonadotrophin secretion, a 22 month-long gestation and musth (in ,,). One example is the,double LH surge'occurring 3 weeks apart during the follicular or non-luteal phase of the cycle, with only the second surge inducing ovulation. These qualities have at times both enhanced and hampered efforts to understand and control reproduction. We have learned that techniques developed for domestic or laboratory species are not always directly applicable to elephants. However, the recent success of artificial insemination based on new ultrasound and endocrine methodology offers hope that establishing selfsustaining populations is possible. This paper reviews our current knowledge of elephant reproduction and how it is being used to aid species conservation for maximal reproductive efficiency and enhancement of genetic management. [source]

Urinary steroids, FSH and CG measurements for monitoring the ovarian cycle and pregnancy in the chimpanzee

Keiko Shimizu
Abstract: Non-invasive methods for monitoring reproductive status of chimpanzee based on the measurement of urinary steroids and gonadotropins were examined. A typical pre-ovulatory urinary estrone conjugate (E1C) surge and post-ovulatory increase in pregnandiol glucuronide (PdG) were seen during the menstrual cycle. Urinary follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) showed two peaks over the infertile menstrual cycle. The earliest changes indicating pregnancy were a coincident rise in E1C and chorionic gonadotropin (CG) levels and a concomitant fall in FSH levels. Urinary PdG levels showed a prolonged rise. Urinary E1C in the pregnant chimpanzee was higher than during the menstrual cycle and increased with advancing gestation, with maximum levels occurring near term. In the case of stillbirth, E1C and CG levels from mid- through late-pregnancy were low and the prepartum progressive increase in E1C was not shown. The data presented here are of great practical value in captive breeding management of chimpanzees. [source]

Postpartum Ovarian Activity and Serum Estradiol-17beta Level in Thai Crossbred Native Mares

S Panasophonkul
Contents To study the postpartum ovarian activities for investigation of first postpartum oestrus, twenty-five Thai crossbred native mares were monitored after parturition by oestrous detection, transrectal palpation and reproductive ultrasonography. Blood samplings were also taken for estradiol-17beta (E2) analysis. The first ovulation occurred within 20 days postpartum in 92% (23/25) of the mares. The mean intervals of foaling to first oestrus and to first ovulation were 10.3 2.9 and 13.4 2.6 days (mean SD) respectively. Serum E2 increased from 7.0 2.9 to a peak of 10.8 3.3 pg/ml (mean SD) at 2 days before ovulation. In conclusion, from the study, it can be stated that the postpartum breeding management should be considered after day 10 postpartum by careful examination of ovarian activity with various methods. However, the uterine condition should be also estimated associated with the ovarian activity after parturition which may increase breeding performance and foal production. [source]