Breeding Lines (breeding + line)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) Cultivars and Breeding Lines as Stem Biomass Producers

JOURNAL OF AGRONOMY AND CROP SCIENCE, Issue 4 2000
H. S. Sankari
Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) stems, which contain bast fibres, make up a considerable part of the linseed biomass, but are considered a by-product of no value. The feasibility of cultivating existing linseed cultivars and breeding lines for dual-purpose use of stem and seed was studied in 1995,97 in Jokioinen, Finland. Finnish linseed cv. Helmi was compared with 10 linseed genotypes and one flax cultivar for stem yield, ratio of stem yield to seed yield, and plant stand height and density. The stem yield of cv. Helmi averaged 1317 kg dry matter ha -1. Significantly higher stem yields were produced by breeding lines Bor 15 and Bor 18 and cvs Gold Merchant, Norlin and Martta. The cv. Helmi produced lower stem yield than seed yield while breeding lines Bor 15 and Bor 18 and cvs Gold Merchant and Martta yielded more stem than seeds. The difference in the ratio of stem yield to seed yield between them and cv. Helmi was statistically significant. The mean plant stand height was 60.3 cm and the final plant density 594 plants m -2. No relationship was found between stem yield and height or density. Within 2 days of seed threshing, stems of early maturing Finnish genotypes dried up in the field to nearly 15 % moisture content, even in the middle of September (1996). The early maturing breeding lines Bor 15 and Bor 18, with their significantly higher stem yields relative to cv. Helmi, are recommended for dual-purpose use. Zusammenfassung Der bastfasernenthaltende Stengel des Ölleins (Linum usitatissimum L.) bildet einen Grossteil der oberirdischen Biomasse von Öllein, der häufig keiner Nutzung zugeführt wird. Um das Potential bestehender Ölleinsorten und -zuchtlinien für eine Doppelnutzung von Samen und Stengelbiomasse zu überprüfen, wurden in den Jahren 1995,97 in Jokioinen (Finland) Feldversuche durchgeführt. Die finnische Ölleinsorte Helmi wurde mit zehn Ölleinzuchtstämmen und einer Faserleinsorte angebaut, und der Stengelertrag, der Stengelertrag im Verhältnis zum Samenertrag und die Bestandeshöhe und -dichte wurden ermittelt. Der Stengelertrag betrug bei Helmi durchschnittlich 1317 kg Trockenmasse ha -1. Signifikant höhere Stengelerträge wurden von den Zuchtlinien Bor 15 und Bor 18, den Sorten Gold Merchant, Norlin und Martta produziert. Helmi produzierte im Mittel einen geringeren Stengel , als Samenertrag. Die Stengelerträge der Zuchtstämme Bor 15 und Bor 18 und der Sorten Gold Merchant und Martta waren höher als die Samenerträge. Zwischen diesen Genotypen und der Sorte Helmi ist der Unterschied des Ertragsverhältnisses signifikant. Die Bestandeshöhe lag im Durchschnitt bei 60,3 cm und die Bestandesdichte betrug im Mittel 594 Pflanzen m -2. Eine Korrelation zwischen dem Stengelertrag und der Bestandeshöhe bzw. -dichte konnte nicht nachgewiesen werden. Die Stengel der frühen finnischen Genotypen trockneten nach dem Dreschen auf dem Feld (Mitte September 1996) in zwei Tagen auf einen Feuchtegehalt von 15% ab. Die frühreifen Zuchtlinien Bor 15 und Bor 18 können aufgrund ihrer signifikant höheren Stengelerträge im Vergleich zu der Sorte Helmi für eine Doppelnutzung empfohlen werden. [source]


Transgenic weed beets: possible, probable, avoidable?

JOURNAL OF APPLIED ECOLOGY, Issue 4 2002
Benoît Desplanque
Summary 1Weed beets pose a serious problem for sugar beet Beta vulgaris crops. Traditionally, the only efficient method of weed control has been manual removal, but the introduction of transgenic herbicide-tolerant sugar beets may provide an alternative solution because non-tolerant weed beets can be destroyed by herbicide. We evaluated the possibility that new, transgenic, weed beets may arise by gene flow between wild and crop plants. 2In a study area in northern France, weed beets were present in variable densities in sugar beet fields of up to 80 weed beet plants m,2. Weed beets arise from a long-lived seed bank, with seeds germinating from depths of 5 cm or less. In addition, diploid F1 crop,wild hybrids and triploid variety bolters (individuals with a low vernalization requirement) were present in low densities in virtually all sugar beet fields. We found gene flow to be possible between all forms, illustrated by both overlapping flowering periods in the field and successful controlled cross-pollinations. 3The F1 crop,wild hybrids result from pollination in the seed-production region by wild plants possessing the dominant bolting allele B for flowering without experiencing a period of cold. In the case of a transgene for herbicide tolerance incorporated into male-sterile seed-bearer plants, such hybrids will contain both the herbicide-tolerance and the bolting allele. Contamination of the fields by transgenic weed beets will be the result unless bolters are removed manually. The same will apply in the case of a cytoplasmically inherited transgene. 4Incorporation of the transgene into the pollinator plants will prevent the immediate formation of transgenic weed beets. However, in sugar beet fields, variety bolters may successfully cross-pollinate with weed beets in neighbouring fields. The use of diploid pollinator plants instead of tetraploids will considerably enhance gene flow towards wild beets, and is not, therefore, an attractive option. 5In conclusion, the appearance of transgenic weed beets is possible but can best be retarded if the transgene for herbicide tolerance is incorporated into the tetraploid pollinator breeding line. [source]


WRR4, a broad-spectrum TIR-NB-LRR gene from Arabidopsis thaliana that confers white rust resistance in transgenic oilseed brassica crops

MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY, Issue 2 2010
MOHAMMAD HOSSEIN BORHAN
SUMMARY White blister rust caused by Albugo candida (Pers.) Kuntze is a common and often devastating disease of oilseed and vegetable brassica crops worldwide. Physiological races of the parasite have been described, including races 2, 7 and 9 from Brassica juncea, B. rapa and B. oleracea, respectively, and race 4 from Capsella bursa-pastoris (the type host). A gene named WRR4 has been characterized recently from polygenic resistance in the wild brassica relative Arabidopsis thaliana (accession Columbia) that confers broad-spectrum white rust resistance (WRR) to all four of the above Al. candida races. This gene encodes a TIR-NB-LRR (Toll-like/interleukin-1 receptor-nucleotide binding-leucine-rich repeat) protein which, as with other known functional members in this subclass of intracellular receptor-like proteins, requires the expression of the lipase-like defence regulator, enhanced disease susceptibility 1 (EDS1). Thus, we used RNA interference-mediated suppression of EDS1 in a white rust-resistant breeding line of B. napus (transformed with a construct designed from the A. thaliana EDS1 gene) to determine whether defence signalling via EDS1 is functionally intact in this oilseed brassica. The eds1-suppressed lines were fully susceptible following inoculation with either race 2 or 7 isolates of Al. candida. We then transformed white rust-susceptible cultivars of B. juncea (susceptible to race 2) and B. napus (susceptible to race 7) with the WRR4 gene from A. thaliana. The WRR4-transformed lines were resistant to the corresponding Al. candida race for each host species. The combined data indicate that WRR4 could potentially provide a novel source of white rust resistance in oilseed and vegetable brassica crops. [source]


Application of genomics to grapevine improvement

AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF GRAPE AND WINE RESEARCH, Issue 2010
G. DI GASPERO
Abstract Imagine a breeder browsing a grape chromosome nucleotide-by-nucleotide around a trait locus, scrolling down the list of catalogued genes along a genetic interval, resequencing for a few thousand dollars a potential parent or a selected breeding line. In the past couple of years, this vision has become a reality. The availability of the reference genome sequence has provided significant assistance in the saturation of loci with targeted genetic markers. Grape breeders are now offered unprecedented possibilities for selecting plants using deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequences within or near the gene that controls a desirable trait rather than handling their phenotypes. Genomics-assisted selection offers unique advantages in the correct choice of elite genotypes, in order to improve traits for which limitations of phenotyping technologies or low hereditability adversely affect the efficiency of phenotypic selection. DNA technologies enable the application of marker-assisted selection to thousands of grape seedlings every year, which was previously feasible only for cereals and annuals, enhancing the possibilities of finding an ideal recombinant in populations bred from highly heterozygous parents. The expected outcome is a renewal of the varietal choices available to viticulturists, with novel genotypes that meet the demand for disease-free vines and flavourful grapes. The depth of exploration and characterisation of the existing germplasm is crucial for translating natural diversity into new varieties that could perform beyond the fence of the experimental vineyards and gain substantial market share. We review here how current achievements in genomics and genome sequencing are expected to increase the efficiency of grapevine breeding programs. [source]


Brassica carinata , a new molecular farming platform for delivering bio-industrial oil feedstocks: case studies of genetic modifications to improve very long-chain fatty acid and oil content in seeds,

BIOFUELS, BIOPRODUCTS AND BIOREFINING, Issue 5 2010
David C. Taylor
Abstract Crop development and species diversity are important aspects of the emerging global bioeconomy, as is maximizing crop value through total crop utilization. We advocate development of Brassica carinata as a biorefinery and bioindustrial oils platform using traditional and molecular breeding techniques and tools. We review genetic studies and breeding efforts to develop elite B. carinata germplasm, work involving development of transformation and regeneration protocols, target gene isolation, and transgene expression. Genetic modification strategies using a B. carinata breeding line as a delivery platform for very long-chain fatty acid-enhanced/modified oils are presented as case studies. The target oil products are erucic acid (22:1 ,13), docosadienoic acid (22:2 ,5, ,13) and nervonic acid (24:1 ,15); in addition transgenic efforts to enhance B. carinata seed oil content are discussed. The overall advantages and current limitations to utilizing this crop are delineated. Other anticipated biobased products from a B. carinata platform may include, but are not limited to, the production of biolubricants, biofuels and biopolymers from the oil, biopesticides, antioxidants, as well as plant gums, and vegetable protein-based bioplastics and novel food and feed products. In summation, this collaborative B. carinata breeding/germplasm development/value-added molecular modification effort will not only contribute to the development of renewable feedstocks for the emerging Canadian bioeconomy (biorefinery/bioproducts), but also promises to generate positive economic and environmental benefits. Published in 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Assessment of the resistance of potato cultivars to Synchytrium endobioticum (Schilb.) Per. in Poland

EPPO BULLETIN, Issue 2 2008
J. Przetakiewicz
In Poland the Plant Breeding and Acclimatization Institute is responsible for officially assessing the resistance to Synchytrium endobioticum of domestic potato breeding lines and cultivars from other countries. Cultivation of potato cultivars in Poland requires confirmation of resistance to potato wart disease. The official assessment uses the modified Glynne-Lemmerzahl method (laboratory tests) and pot tests. The full cycle of assessment of resistance to wart disease requires 52 seed potatoes per variety/breeding line. Forty two tubers are used in laboratory tests. To complete the laboratory tests the next 10 tubers are grown in pot tests (in soil with winter sporangia) during the vegetation season. The final results for domestic breeding lines of potato are available after 3 years of investigation. For cultivars from other countries the authorization of resistance to S. endobioticum takes approximately one year. The Polish breeders (breeding lines) or the breeder's representative (cultivars from other countries) receive the certificate only for lines/cultivars with laboratory and field resistance to S. endobioticum. [source]


Risk factors associated with hindlimb lameness and degenerative joint disease in the distal tarsus of Icelandic horses

EQUINE VETERINARY JOURNAL, Issue 1 2001
M. AXELSSON
Summary The aim of this study was to evaluate potential risk factors associated with hindlimb lameness and radiographic signs of degenerative joint disease (DJD) in the distal tarsus in Icelandic horses. The material consisted of riding horses (n = 420) age 6,12 years sired by 17 selected sires representing all major breeding lines, and of riding horses (n = 194) in the same age range sired by other sires. The examination protocol included the following: interview with owners/trainers, assessment of conformation, motion evaluation and radiographic examination. At the interview, data related to factors outside the horse (environmental variables) and data associated directly with the horse (intrinsic variables) were obtained. Data analysis was performed in 2 steps: screening using bivariate analysis, followed by testing with a multivariate logistic regression model. In the multivariate analysis, the factors of sire, age when broken to saddle and stud show participation were strongly associated with the prevalence of lameness. Height at the croup and ability to perform different gaits were also associated with the prevalence of lameness, but to a lesser degree. The risk factors of age, tarsal angle and birthplace were significantly associated with radiographic signs of DJD in the distal tarsus. Neither the variation in applied training intensity, the use of a professional oramateurtrainernorthe temperament or front limb action of the individual horse was significantly associated with the prevalence of hindlimb lameness and/or radiographic signs of DJD in the distal tarsus in the Icelandic horse. [source]


Relationships between the yield of perennial ryegrass and of small-leaved white clover under cutting or continuous grazing by sheep

GRASS & FORAGE SCIENCE, Issue 3 2001
T. A. Williams
Seven varieties or advanced breeding lines of white clover (Trifolium repens L.), all of small leaf size, were grown separately in mixtures with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) in an experiment encompassing three harvest years. Harvestable dry-matter (DM) yield measurements were taken of these mixtures and of perennial ryegrass monocultures under two management regimes: cutting and continuous sheep grazing. Considerable differences were observed in the harvestable DM yields of white clover, perennial ryegrass and total yields of the mixtures between plots containing different white clover varieties. White clover yields were generally higher under cutting, and perennial ryegrass yields were higher under grazing. The difference between perennial ryegrass yield in monoculture and in mixture was variable. In the second harvest year, a significant interaction effect was seen between management and white clover variety for white clover yield but not for perennial ryegrass yield. The relationship between clover yield and grass yield differed between the two management regimes. Under cutting, a negative correlation was observed, indicative of competitive effects. However, under grazing, no such correlation was seen. Possible mechanisms underlying these outcomes are discussed. [source]


Effect of location and soaking treatments on the cooking quality of some chickpea breeding lines

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, Issue 7 2003
kuner
Summary The effects on some physical criteria and on cooking quality of soaking chickpeas (of different genotypic origins) in sodium chloride or sodium bicarbonate were investigated. The material was grown at five locations in Çukurova, Turkey. The seed size, hundred seed weight, seed density, hydration capacity, swelling capacity and cooking time values differed significantly among locations. Cooking time differed significantly among locations and treatments, but not with cultivars. Soaking with NaCl and NaHCO3 was effective for decreasing the cooking time. [source]


Antioxidative Enzymes and Sucrose Synthase Contribute to Cold Stress Tolerance in Chickpea

JOURNAL OF AGRONOMY AND CROP SCIENCE, Issue 5 2009
S. Kaur
Abstract Chickpea is sensitive to low temperature (<10°C) during its reproductive stage. Low temperature adversely affects the development of pods and seeds. This study was undertaken to investigate the role of sucrose metabolizing enzymes in seed development and potential of antioxidative enzymes in protecting seeds and podwalls from the deleterious effects of cold stress in advanced cold tolerant chickpea breeding lines. Healthy pod set was observed in these tolerant lines in the end of December where as low temperature susceptible PBG-1 did not flower. Two lines ICCV 96029 and ICCV 96030 showed susceptible characters such as reduced flowering, blackened and shrivelled seeds and yellowish pods in comparison to other cold stress tolerant lines due to sudden dip of temperature (<1 °C) during the first week of January. These two lines were, therefore, treated as susceptible checks in comparison to other tolerant lines. A significantly higher activity and specific activity of sucrose synthase was observed in seeds of most of the cold tolerant lines in comparison with ICCV 96029 and ICCV 96030, thereby providing sugars as well as sugar nucleotides for their growth and starch synthesis during unfavourable low temperature. The developing seeds and podwalls of tolerant genotypes had higher activities of antioxidant enzymes, i.e. catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutahione reductase in comparison with ICCV 96029 and ICCV 96030. It appears that the higher activities of antioxidant enzymes in podwall protect the developing seeds from cold stress. [source]


Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) Cultivars and Breeding Lines as Stem Biomass Producers

JOURNAL OF AGRONOMY AND CROP SCIENCE, Issue 4 2000
H. S. Sankari
Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) stems, which contain bast fibres, make up a considerable part of the linseed biomass, but are considered a by-product of no value. The feasibility of cultivating existing linseed cultivars and breeding lines for dual-purpose use of stem and seed was studied in 1995,97 in Jokioinen, Finland. Finnish linseed cv. Helmi was compared with 10 linseed genotypes and one flax cultivar for stem yield, ratio of stem yield to seed yield, and plant stand height and density. The stem yield of cv. Helmi averaged 1317 kg dry matter ha -1. Significantly higher stem yields were produced by breeding lines Bor 15 and Bor 18 and cvs Gold Merchant, Norlin and Martta. The cv. Helmi produced lower stem yield than seed yield while breeding lines Bor 15 and Bor 18 and cvs Gold Merchant and Martta yielded more stem than seeds. The difference in the ratio of stem yield to seed yield between them and cv. Helmi was statistically significant. The mean plant stand height was 60.3 cm and the final plant density 594 plants m -2. No relationship was found between stem yield and height or density. Within 2 days of seed threshing, stems of early maturing Finnish genotypes dried up in the field to nearly 15 % moisture content, even in the middle of September (1996). The early maturing breeding lines Bor 15 and Bor 18, with their significantly higher stem yields relative to cv. Helmi, are recommended for dual-purpose use. Zusammenfassung Der bastfasernenthaltende Stengel des Ölleins (Linum usitatissimum L.) bildet einen Grossteil der oberirdischen Biomasse von Öllein, der häufig keiner Nutzung zugeführt wird. Um das Potential bestehender Ölleinsorten und -zuchtlinien für eine Doppelnutzung von Samen und Stengelbiomasse zu überprüfen, wurden in den Jahren 1995,97 in Jokioinen (Finland) Feldversuche durchgeführt. Die finnische Ölleinsorte Helmi wurde mit zehn Ölleinzuchtstämmen und einer Faserleinsorte angebaut, und der Stengelertrag, der Stengelertrag im Verhältnis zum Samenertrag und die Bestandeshöhe und -dichte wurden ermittelt. Der Stengelertrag betrug bei Helmi durchschnittlich 1317 kg Trockenmasse ha -1. Signifikant höhere Stengelerträge wurden von den Zuchtlinien Bor 15 und Bor 18, den Sorten Gold Merchant, Norlin und Martta produziert. Helmi produzierte im Mittel einen geringeren Stengel , als Samenertrag. Die Stengelerträge der Zuchtstämme Bor 15 und Bor 18 und der Sorten Gold Merchant und Martta waren höher als die Samenerträge. Zwischen diesen Genotypen und der Sorte Helmi ist der Unterschied des Ertragsverhältnisses signifikant. Die Bestandeshöhe lag im Durchschnitt bei 60,3 cm und die Bestandesdichte betrug im Mittel 594 Pflanzen m -2. Eine Korrelation zwischen dem Stengelertrag und der Bestandeshöhe bzw. -dichte konnte nicht nachgewiesen werden. Die Stengel der frühen finnischen Genotypen trockneten nach dem Dreschen auf dem Feld (Mitte September 1996) in zwei Tagen auf einen Feuchtegehalt von 15% ab. Die frühreifen Zuchtlinien Bor 15 und Bor 18 können aufgrund ihrer signifikant höheren Stengelerträge im Vergleich zu der Sorte Helmi für eine Doppelnutzung empfohlen werden. [source]


Assessment of Genetic Variation Within Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea) Germplasm Using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Markers

JOURNAL OF INTEGRATIVE PLANT BIOLOGY, Issue 4 2008
Muhammad Ayub Khan
Abstract Genetic diversity among 45 Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) genotypes comprising 37 germplasm collections, five advance breeding lines and three improved cultivars was investigated at the DNA level using the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. Fifteen primers used generated a total of 92 RAPD fragments, of which 81 (88%) were polymorphic. Of these, 13 were unique to accession ,Pak85559'. Each primer produced four to nine amplified products with an average of 6.13 bands per primer. Based on pairwise comparisons of RAPD amplification products, Nei and Li's similarity coefficients were calculated to evaluate the relationships among the accessions. Pairwise similarity indices were higher among the oilseed accessions and cultivars showing narrow ranges of 0.77,0.99. An unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages cluster analysis based on these genetic similarities placed most of the collections and oilseed cultivars close to each other, showing a low level of polymorphism between the accessions used. However, the clusters formed by oilseed collections and cultivars were comparatively distinct from that of advanced breeding lines. Genetically, all of the accessions were classified into a few major groups and a number of individual accessions. Advanced breeding lines were relatively divergent from the rest of the accessions and formed independent clusters. Clustering of the accessions did not show any pattern of association between the RAPD markers and the collection sites. A low level of genetic variability of oilseed mustard was attributed to the selection for similar traits and horticultural uses. Perhaps close parentage of these accessions further contributed towards their little diversity. The study demonstrated that RAPD is a simple and fast technique to compare the genetic relationship and pattern of variation among the gene pool of this crop. [source]


Progress in Wheat Resistance to Spot Blotch in Bangladesh

JOURNAL OF PHYTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 1 2006
A. B. Siddique
Abstract Spot blotch, caused by Cochliobolus sativus, is considered one of the most destructive diseases of wheat (Triticum aestivum) in the warm areas of South Asia. Over the past 20 years, wheat breeding efforts in the region have improved spot blotch resistance in susceptible commercial cultivars. This study assessed resistance and spot blotch-induced yield losses in newly released wheat cultivars developed in Bangladesh since the release of the landmark wheat variety ,Kanchan'. Replicated field studies were conducted during the 2003 and 2004 wheat seasons at two sites: a farmer's field and a research station in a warm region of Bangladesh where spot blotch has been a serious problem. Spot blotch affected 60% of the crop and caused yield losses of from 2% to 22%. Disease severity and disease-induced grain yield reductions were less in wheat genotypes developed since 1983, with a corresponding trend towards higher yield in newly developed varieties. The level of resistance to spot blotch in the new cultivars and advanced breeding lines represents considerable progress in breeding for resistance over the past two decades. [source]


Variation in Resistance of Camelina (Camelina sativa [L.] Crtz.) to Downy Mildew (Peronospora camelinae Gäum.)

JOURNAL OF PHYTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 3-4 2001
Vollmann
Camelina (Camelina sativa) is a potential oilseed crop for both food and non-food utilization cultivated on a limited acreage in Europe and North America. An important low-input feature of camelina is its high level of resistance against plant diseases, which may partly be due to the production of antimicrobially efficient phytoalexins. In Central European countries such as Austria, downy mildew (Peronospora camelinae) is the only disease of camelina which has been found repeatedly, whereas other diseases and pests have been observed only occasionally. Therefore, the genotypic variation of downy mildew incidence was evaluated in two camelina field experiments carried out within a breeding programme. In both experiments, totally resistant breeding lines were identified and a continuous pattern of variation in disease incidence was observed, suggesting a horizontal type of resistance. In bi-parental populations, disease incidence of progeny appeared to be associated with disease scores of the parent genotypes, and transgressive segregation in disease incidence was also found. In 1998, the rate of downy mildew in camelina was lower than in 1999; in the latter growing season, grain yield was significantly affected by the disease, whereas other agronomic characters remained unaffected. Variation der Resistenz von Leindotter (Camelina sativa[L.] Crtz.) gegen Falschen Mehltau (Peronospora camelinae Gäum.) Leindotter (Camelina sativa) ist eine Ölpflanze, die zur Nahrungsmittelherstellung und für andere Zwecke genutzt werden kann und in Europa und Nordamerika auf relativ kleiner Fläche angebaut wird. Ein wichtiges Low-Input-Merkmal des Leindotters ist seine hohe Krankheitsresistenz, die vermutlich teilweise auf die Bildung antimikrobiell wirksamer Phytoalexine zurückgeht. In Österreich und anderen Ländern Mitteleuropas ist Falscher Mehltau (Peronospora camelinae) die einzige regelmäßig anzutreffende Krankheit des Leindotters, andere Krankheiten und Schädlinge werden nur gelegentlich beobachtet. Daher wurde die genotypische Variation der Inzidenz des Falschen Mehltaus im Rahmen eines Leindotter-Züchtungsprogramms in zwei Feldversuchen geprüft. In beiden Versuchen wurden vollständig resistente Zuchtlinien identifiziert, und ein kontinuierliches Variationsmuster der Krankheitsresistenz wurde beobachtet, was auf horizontale Resistenz schließen läßt. In biparentalen Populationen war die Befallshänfigkeit bei den Nachkommen offenbar mit den Boniturwerten der elterlichen Genotypen assoziiert, und bei der Befallshänfigkeit wurde auch eine transgressive Aufspaltung beobachtet. 1998 war der Befall des Leindotters mit Falschem Mehltau geringer als 1999; im letztgenannten Jahr war der Kornertrag infolge der Krankheit deutlich verringert, während andere agronomische Merkmale unbeeinflußt blieben. [source]


Search for predictors of cooking quality of marrowfat pea (Pisum sativum L) cultivars

JOURNAL OF THE SCIENCE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE, Issue 8 2001
Geoffrey P Savage
Abstract The grain from 116 marrowfat pea breeding lines was assessed subjectively using current visual methods and then analysed objectively for L*a*b* colour, hydration capacity and cooking quality. The data show that the current method of selecting genotypes by subjective methods is not able to select marrowfat peas for specific processing uses. However, an objective measure, the ,a* value of the dry grain, was a very good predictor (p,<,0.001) for the hydrated and cooked green colour. Cultivars which have a high hydration coefficient may be more suitable for canning and deep frying because they hydrate to a larger size, while cultivars with a high bulk density and a darker green grain are more suitable for use as extrusion products. © 2001 Society of Chemical Industry [source]


Antioxidant nutritional quality of tomato

MOLECULAR NUTRITION & FOOD RESEARCH (FORMERLY NAHRUNG/FOOD), Issue 5 2007
Luigi Frusciante
Abstract Regular consumption of tomatoes has been associated with decreased risk of chronic degenerative diseases. Epidemiological findings confirm the observed health effects are due to the presence of different antioxidant molecules such as carotenoids, particularly lycopene, ascorbic acid, vitamin E and phenol compounds, particularly flavonoids. In this work, eight components contributing to the healthy quality of tomato (i. e. lycopene, ,-carotene, other carotenoids, flavonoids, phenolic acids, vitamins C and E, dry residue) were studied in the framework of breeding programs aiming to develop nutritional superior genotypes. Twelve tomato advanced breeding lines and six open pollinated cultivars were grown in strictly controlled conditions and analysed for their content of antioxidants. Among the 18 genotypes analysed, 10 showed a high level of total carotenoids, 6 high level of ,-carotene, 9 high lycopene levels, 15 high flavonoids and 2 relevant concentration of vitamin E. Based on such data and on a literature survey on tomato composition, an index, called index of antioxidant nutritional quality (IQUAN), was proposed as a tool to address the breeding programs in selecting tomato genotypes with antioxidant nutritional qualities. [source]


Quantitative trait loci and epistatic interactions in barley conferring resistance to net type net blotch (Pyrenophora teres f. teres) isolates

PLANT BREEDING, Issue 4 2010
S. Gupta
With 2 figures and 5 tables Abstract Net type net blotch (NTNB) is an important barley disease in Australia and elsewhere, with significant yield reduction. This trait is important in selection along with other traits of quality and agronomic value. Two-hundred doubled-haploid lines were generated through anther culture from a cross between ,Pompadour' and ,Stirling'. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified against five isolates of Pyrenophora teres f. teres, which represent virulences across Australia. QTL were mapped on chromosomes 3H and 6H using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The resistance locus on 6H was detected with all isolates while the 3H locus was detected with two isolates. The 6H QTL from ,Pompadour' contributed resistance to isolates 97NB1, 95NB100 and NB81, whereas 6H QTL from ,Stirling' contributed resistance to isolates NB50 and NB52B. The 3H QTL from ,Pompadour' contributed resistance to NB50 and NB52B. Significant epistatic interactions were detected between QTL on 3H and 6H. These resistance QTL are a useful resource and identifying closely linked SSR markers with allelic combinations will facilitate in marker-assisted selection to develop NTNB resistant breeding lines. [source]


Development of early-flowering Kabuli chickpea with compound and simple leaves

PLANT BREEDING, Issue 2 2007
D. J. Bonfil
Abstract Terminal drought is a major constraint to chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) production. Autumn sowing and early flowering have been suggested as ways to benefit from the winter rains in short rainy seasons under dryland cropping. High-yielding, late-flowering, simple-leafed (slv/slv) chickpea cultivars with good field resistance to Ascochyta blight have been bred recently. Changing plant architecture, by altering leaf shape, may affect agronomic performance. As no information is available on the effect of leaf shape on phenology and seed yield, this study was aimed at: (i) introducing the simple leaf trait into an early-flowering chickpea background; (ii) comparing the grain yield of the two leaf types in early vs. late flowering backgrounds and (iii) producing breeding lines combining early flowering, large seeds and Ascochyta tolerance with both leaf types. Hybrid progeny were studied from the cross of ,Sanford' (slv/slv) and ICC7344, (compound, SLV/SLV). Four early-podding, F8 breeding lines were selected with either simple or compound leaves. In three different field experiments under dryland conditions (334,379 mm), they yielded ca. 1.4 t/ha as compared with 1.0 t/ha in the standard Israeli ,Yarden' on one site, but no significant differences in yield were obtained in the other two experiments. [source]


Plant regeneration through callus initiation from mature embryo of Triticum

PLANT BREEDING, Issue 1 2007
R. M. Bi
Abstract The behaviour of diverse Triticum genotypes in the tissue culture response of mature embryo callus was compared, and factors affecting tissue culture response were studied in this paper. Significant differences were detected in callus induction, embryogenic callus differentiation, plantlet regeneration and culture efficiency when mature embryos of 31 plants of different Triticum species were compared. These were the main wheat cultivars of the Chinese northern winter-type wheat region and breeding lines (Triticum aestivum L.), durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.), cultivable emmer wheat (Triticumdicoccum Schuble) and the common wheat progenitors Triticum dicoccoides and Triticum aegilopides. The genotype dependency was particularly high in tissue culture of mature embryos of these Triticum genotypes. The efficiency of induction, differentiation and regeneration of mature embryos callus was high in genotypes selected out. Mature embryo-derived callus of HB341, TS021, SN2618, T. dicoccum, HB188, and T9817 showed better tissue culture response than the other genotypes. Plantlets can be regenerated from mature embryo-derived callus of 31 genotypes, saving on growth facility resources and time required for the collection of other explants, and providing a solid basis for the genetic transformation and molecular plant breeding of Triticum plants. [source]


Development of an interspecific Vigna linkage map between Vigna umbellata (Thunb.) Ohwi & Ohashi and V. nakashimae (Ohwi) Ohwi & Ohashi and its use in analysis of bruchid resistance and comparative genomics

PLANT BREEDING, Issue 1 2006
P. Somta
Abstract To facilitate transfer of bruchid resistance to azuki bean (Vigna angularis) from its relatives an interspecific mapping population was made between rice bean, V. umbellata, and the related wild species V. nakashimae. The V. umbellata parent is completely resistant and V. nakashimae is completely susceptible to the bruchid beetle pests, azuki bean weevil (Callosobruchus chinensis) and cowpea weevil (C. maculatus). There is very low cross compatibility between V. umbellata and azuki bean. Therefore, V. nakashimae, that crosses with both V. umbellata and V. angularis without the need for embryo rescue, is used as a bridging species. A genetic linkage map was constructed based on an interspecific F2 mapping population between V. umbellata and V. nakashimae consisting of 74 plants. A total of 175 DNA marker loci (74 RFLPs and 101 SSRs) were mapped on to 11 linkage groups spanning a total length of 652 cM. Segregation distortion was observed but only three markers were not linked to any linkage group due to severe segregation distortion. This interspecific genome map was compared with the genome map of azuki bean. Of 121 common markers on the two maps, 114 (94.2%) were located on the same linkage groups in both maps. The marker order was highly conserved between the two genome maps. Fifty F2 plants that produced sufficient seeds were used for quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis and locating gene(s) for C. chinensis and C. maculatus resistance in V. umbellata. The resistance reaction of these F2 plants differed between C. chinensis and C. maculatus. Both resistances were quantitatively inherited with no F2 plants completely susceptible to C. chinensis or C. maculatus. One putative QTL for resistance to each of these bruchid species was located on different linkage groups. Other putative QTLs associated with resistance to both C. chinensis and C. maculatus were localized on the same linkage group 1. Linked markers associated with the bruchid-resistant QTL will facilitate their transfer to azuki bean breeding lines. [source]


Genetic diversity among populations and breeding lines from recurrent selection in Brassica napus as revealed by RAPD markers

PLANT BREEDING, Issue 1 2004
M. Yuan
Abstract Recurrent selection facilitated by dominant male sterility has been conducted to broaden the genetic basis for cultivar development in Brassica napus. This study aimed to evaluate the genetic variation in four base populations (C0-C3) and breeding lines from two of the populations produced during recurrent selection by random amplified polymorphic DNA (Rapd) markers. Genetic variation in four populations declined gradually with the advance of selection cycles as measured by expected genetic heterozygosity (from 0.2058 in C0 to 0.1536 in C3) but the decline was not statistically significant. When compared with the average genetic distances for 21 germplasm collections with wide geographical and genetic origins (0.4712) and seven breeding lines from pedigree selection (0.2059), seven breeding lines selected from the C1 population and 11 from the C3 population had a larger average genetic distance (0.5339 and 0.5486, respectively). Clustering analysis indicated that the lines from recurrent selection had a much lower genetic similarity than lines from pedigree selection. Our results suggest that base populations derived from recurrent selection could provide a wider genetic variation for selection of breeding lines with more broad genetic bases. [source]


Genetic relationships of sesame germplasm collection as revealed by inter-simple sequence repeats

PLANT BREEDING, Issue 3 2002
D. H. Kim
Abstract Inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) polymorphism was used to determine genetic relationships among 75 Sesamum indicum L. accessions of Korean and exotic sesame. Fourteen reliable ISSR primers were selected for the assessment of genetic diversity, yielding 79 amplification products. Of these polymerase chain reaction products, 33% revealed polymorphism among the 75 accessions. Genetic distances ranged from 0 to 0.255, with a mean genetic distance of 0.0687. The 75 accessions were divided into seven groups on the basis of unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) cluster analysis. The largest group consisted of 25 Korean cultivars, eight Korean breeding lines and 17 world-wide accessions. The other groups included 25 accessions, several of which contained useful traits. The dendrogram did not indicate any clear division among sesame accessions based on their geographical origin. However, all Korean sesame cultivars except ,Namsankkae' were clustered in the same group, indicating a narrow gene pool. Some of the Korean breeding lines were spread along the dendrogram, showing enlargement of genetic diversity. The genetic diversity data uncovered in this study can be used in future breeding programmes. [source]


Postulation of leaf-rust resistance genes in Czech and Slovak barley cultivars and breeding lines

PLANT BREEDING, Issue 3 2000
A. Dreiseitl
Abstract Leaf-rust resistance (Rph) genes in 61 Czech and Slovak barley cultivars and 32 breeding lines from registration trials of the Czech Republic were postulated based on their reaction to 12 isolates of Puccinia hordei with different combinations of virulence genes. Five known Rph genes (Rph2, Rph3, Rph4, Rph7, and Rph12) and one unknown Rph gene were postulated to be present in this germplasm. To corroborate this result, the pedigree of the barley accessions was analysed. Gene Rph2, as well as Rph4, originated from old European cultivars. The donor of Rph3, which has been mainly used by Czech and Slovak breeders, is ,Ribari' (,Baladi 16'). Rph12 originates from barley cultivars developed in the former East Germany. Rph7 in the registered cultivar ,Heris' originates from ,Forrajera'. A combination of two genes was found in 10 cultivars. Nine heterogeneous cultivars were identified; they were composed of one component with an identified Rph gene and a second component without any resistance gene. No gene for leaf rust resistance was found in 17 of the accessions tested. This study demonstrates the utility of using selected pathotypes of P. hordei for postulating Rph genes in barley. [source]


Erysiphe trifolii, a newly recognized powdery mildew pathogen of pea

PLANT PATHOLOGY, Issue 4 2010
R. N. Attanayake
Diversity of powdery mildew pathogens infecting pea (Pisum sativum) in the US Pacific Northwest was investigated using both molecular and morphological techniques. Phylogenetic analyses based on rDNA ITS sequences, in combination with assessment of morphological characters, defined two groups of powdery mildews infecting pea. Group I (five field samples and three glasshouse samples) had ITS sequences 99% similar to those of Erysiphe pisi in GenBank and exhibited simple, mycelioid type of chasmothecial appendages typical of E. pisi. Erysiphe pisi is normally considered as the powdery mildew pathogen of pea. Group II (four glasshouse samples and two field samples) had ITS sequences 99% similar to those of E. trifolii and produced chasmothecia with dichotomously branched appendages similar to those of E. trifolii. There are fourteen nucleotide differences in the ITS region between the two groups. The correlation of rDNA ITS sequences with teleomorphic features for each of the two groups confirms their identity. Repeated samplings and artificial inoculations indicate that both E. pisi and E. trifolii infect pea in the US Pacific Northwest. Erysiphe trifolii is not previously known as a pathogen of pea. The existence of two distinct powdery mildew species infecting pea in both glasshouse and field environments may interfere with the powdery mildew-resistance breeding programmes, and possibly explains putative instances of breakdown of resistance in previously resistant pea breeding lines. [source]


Identification of isolate-specific and partial resistance to septoria tritici blotch in 238 European wheat cultivars and breeding lines

PLANT PATHOLOGY, Issue 6 2006
L. S. Arraiano
From a total of 238 European cultivars and breeding lines screened for isolate-specific resistance to septoria tritici blotch (STB) with eight Mycosphaerella graminicola isolates from five different countries, 142 lines were resistant to Ethiopian isolate IPO88004, and 43 lines were specifically resistant to IPO323, with little or no leaf area bearing pycnidia of M. graminicola. These lines probably all have the resistance gene Stb6. Specific resistances to isolates CA30JI, IPO001, IPO89011, IPO92006 and ISR398 were less common. Seventy-three per cent of the lines were specifically resistant to at least one isolate and 36 lines were resistant to more than one isolate. The line with the greatest number of specific resistances was the spring cultivar Raffles, with five. The most resistant line in which no specific resistance was identified was the Italian landrace Rieti, an ancestor of many modern European wheat cultivars. There was also a wide range of partial resistance among the lines tested, expressed in detached seedling leaves. Information about the resistance of wheat lines to M. graminicola isolates will assist breeders to choose parents of crosses from which progeny with superior resistance to STB may be selected. [source]


A major SNP resource for dissection of phenotypic and genetic variation in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

ANIMAL GENETICS, Issue 1 2010
D. C. Ciobanu
Summary Bioinformatics and re-sequencing approaches were used for the discovery of sequence polymorphisms in Litopenaeus vannamei. A total of 1221 putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in a pool of individuals from various commercial populations. A set of 211 SNPs were selected for further molecular validation and 88% showed variation in 637 samples representing three commercial breeding lines. An association analysis was performed between these markers and several traits of economic importance for shrimp producers including resistance to three major viral diseases. A small number of SNPs showed associations with test weekly gain, grow-out survival and resistance to Taura Syndrome Virus. Very low levels of linkage disequilibrium were revealed between most SNP pairs, with only 11% of SNPs showing an r2 -value above 0.10 with at least one other SNP. Comparison of allele frequencies showed small changes over three generations of the breeding programme in one of the commercial breeding populations. This unique SNP resource has the potential to catalyse future studies of genetic dissection of complex traits, tracing relationships in breeding programmes, and monitoring genetic diversity in commercial and wild populations of L. vannamei. [source]


Responses of genotypes from species of Trifolium, Ornithopus, Biserrula and Hedysarum to a highly virulent race of Phytophthora clandestina and new sources of resistance

ANNALS OF APPLIED BIOLOGY, Issue 2 2009
H. Li
Abstract Thirty-six genotypes, including 15 cultivars and 10 breeding lines of Trifolium subterraneum, a single genotype of each of seven other species of Trifolium (viz. Trifolium dasyurum, Trifolium glanduliferum, Trifolium incarnatum, Trifolium michelanium, Trifolium purpureum, Trifolium spumosum and Trifolium vesiculosum), Biserrula pelecinus, Hedysarum coronarium, Ornithopus compressus and Ornithopus sativus were screened under controlled environmental conditions for resistance to root disease caused by the most pathogenic race of Phytophthora clandestina occurring in Australia, namely race 177. This is the first time any of these genera/species other than T.subterraneum has ever been screened for its response to P. clandestina. The root disease caused by P.clandestina is the first report of susceptibility to this pathogen for the seven other species of Trifolium and also for B.pelecinus, H.coronarium and O.sativus. Within T.subterraneum, a very high level of resistance was identified in cvs Denmark, Junee and Meteora [scores ,1.5 (0,5 scale where 0 = no disease) across two separate screening tests] and in the breeding lines SL027 and SM023 (scores ,1.3 across two separate screening tests). Six of the seven other species of Trifolium (viz. T.dasyurum, T.glanduliferum, T.incarnatum, T.michelanium, T.purpureum and T.spumosum) showed a high level of resistance (scores ,0.8 across two separate screening tests), while T.vesiculosum showed a disease score of ,1.2 across both screening tests. O.compressus showed no disease in either test, and O.sativus showed a disease score of ,0.7 across both screening tests. H.coronarium was susceptible with a disease score of ,2.8 across two separate screening tests, while B.pelecinus was highly susceptible with disease scores of 3.5 and 4.6 in these tests. The high levels of resistance identified against P.clandestina are useful sources of resistance that can be exploited commercially, either directly to minimise damage from this disease or as parents in breeding programs to develop cultivars within the genera/species tested with improved resistance to this highly pathogenic race of P.clandestina. [source]


Thermogravimetric evaluation of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) for the prediction of in vitro dry matter digestibility

ANNALS OF APPLIED BIOLOGY, Issue 3 2008
H.S.S. Sharma
Abstract Thermogravimetry (TG) can be used for assessing the compositional differences in grasses that relate to dry matter digestibility (DMD) determined by pepsin,cellulase assay. This investigation developed regression models for predicting DMD of herbage grass during one growing season using TG results. The calibration samples were obtained from a field trial of eight cultivars and two breeding lines. The harvested materials from five cuts were analysed by TG to identify differences in the combustion patterns within the range of 30,600°C. The discrete results including weight loss, peak height, area, temperature, widths and residue of three decomposition peaks were regressed against the measured DMD values of the calibration samples. Similarly, continuous weight loss results of the same samples were also utilised to generate DMD models. The r2 for validation of the discrete and the best continuous models were 0.90 and 0.95, respectively, and the two calibrations were validated using independent samples from 24 plots from a trial carried out in 2004. The standard error for prediction of the 24 samples by the discrete model (4.14%) was higher than that by the continuous model (2.98%). This study has shown that DMD of grass could be predicted from the TG results. The benefit of thermal analysis is the ability to detect and show changes in composition of cell wall fractions of grasses during different cuts in a year. [source]


Physiological responses of lupin genotypes to terminal drought in a Mediterranean-type environment

ANNALS OF APPLIED BIOLOGY, Issue 3 2007
J.A. Palta
Abstract Field experiments concerning lupin grown in a low-rainfall environment of the Mediterranean climatic region of Western Australia were conducted over three seasons to identify and evaluate the characteristics that maximise yield per unit of rainfall. The characteristics of early flowering and podding, high pod retention, fast rates of seed filling, osmotic adjustment and the degree of dry matter transfer from stem to the seed were studied in 12 lupin genotypes differing in seed yield under conditions of terminal drought. To allow recently released cultivars and advanced breeding lines to be evaluated, five to six genotypes were included in the first and the third year and nine in the second year. The genotypes were grown rainfed until pod set and then under a rainout shelter. Flowering and podding dates, pod retention, seed growth rate and osmotic adjustment were measured in detail, together with leaf water potential, seed yield and its components. The timing and intensity of development of the terminal drought varied from average in 1998 and 1999 to extreme in 2000. In each year, the seed yield under terminal drought showed genotypic differences, which appeared consistent with the timing and intensity of the development of terminal drought. Early flowering and podding were significantly correlated with seed yield. Fast rates of seed growth were highly and significantly correlated with high yields regardless of the intensity of development of terminal drought. Pod retention was highly correlated with yield in seasons in which the intensity of the development of terminal drought was average but not under extreme conditions of terminal drought. This was because the seed number per pod was markedly reduced to compensate for the high number of pods retained. Osmotic adjustment did not occur during the development of terminal drought in any of the genotypes. Dry matter transfer from stems to seeds was insignificant and not related to seed yield, suggesting that it is not a useful characteristic in screening for high yield under terminal drought. [source]


Osmotic adjustment of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) is not associated with changes in carbohydrate composition or leaf gas exchange under drought

ANNALS OF APPLIED BIOLOGY, Issue 2 2007
P.S. Basu
Abstract Genetic differences in osmotic adjustment (OA) have been reported among chickpea (Cicer arietinum) cultivars. In this study eight advanced breeding lines (ABLs) derived from a cross between CTS 60543 (high OA) and Kaniva (low OA) and Tyson (medium OA) and Kaniva, along with the parents, were evaluated for OA, leaf carbohydrate composition and leaf gas exchange under dryland field conditions in India. The water potential (WP) decreased to lower values (less than ,2.5 MPa) in Tyson, M 110 and M 86 than in the other genotypes. With decrease in WP, OA increased by 0.5 MPa in Kaniva and CTS 60543 to 1.3 MPa in M 55. As the decrease in WP varied with genotype, when OA was regressed against WP M 39 and M 55 had greater increases in OA with decrease in WP than the remaining nine genotypes, including the parents. As WP decreased, leaf starch content decreased while total soluble sugars, hexoses and sucrose increased: the decrease in starch was much smaller in M 93 and M 129 than in Tyson and M 51, but genotypic differences could not be detected in the increase in total sugars, hexoses or sucrose. The rates of photosynthesis and transpiration decreased as the WP became more negative, but M 129 reached low rates of photosynthesis (2 ,mol m,2 s,1) and transpiration at a WP of ,1.7 MPa, whereas Tyson reached the same low rate at ,2.4 MPa. While OA varied among the chickpea genotypes, the differences were not associated with the changes in carbohydrate composition or the rates of gas exchange at low values of WP. Further, the degree of OA of the 11 genotypes was not the same as when they were selected for differences in OA under rainout shelter conditions in the field in Australia, suggesting that OA may show poor stability depending upon the stress level, location or physiological stage of the plant. This suggests that OA is not a valuable drought-resistance trait to select for in chickpea breeding programmes. [source]