Breast

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Breast

  • adjuvant breast
  • chicken breast
  • contralateral breast
  • female breast
  • human breast
  • leave breast
  • male breast
  • mother breast
  • national surgical adjuvant breast
  • normal breast
  • right breast
  • surgical adjuvant breast
  • turkey breast

  • Terms modified by Breast

  • breast abscess
  • breast adenocarcinoma
  • breast adenocarcinoma cell
  • breast augmentation
  • breast biopsy
  • breast cancer
  • breast cancer bone metastasis
  • breast cancer care
  • breast cancer case
  • breast cancer cell
  • breast cancer cell line
  • breast cancer cell proliferation
  • breast cancer data
  • breast cancer detection
  • breast cancer development
  • breast cancer diagnosis
  • breast cancer family
  • breast cancer growth
  • breast cancer incidence
  • breast cancer mcf-7 cell
  • breast cancer metastase
  • breast cancer metastasis
  • breast cancer mortality
  • breast cancer patient
  • breast cancer patients.
  • breast cancer progression
  • breast cancer rate
  • breast cancer recurrence
  • breast cancer resistance protein
  • breast cancer risk
  • breast cancer risk factor
  • breast cancer sample
  • breast cancer screening
  • breast cancer screening program
  • breast cancer specimen
  • breast cancer study
  • breast cancer subtype
  • breast cancer surgery
  • breast cancer survival
  • breast cancer survivor
  • breast cancer therapy
  • breast cancer tissue
  • breast cancer treatment
  • breast cancer.
  • breast cancers
  • breast carcinogenesi
  • breast carcinoma
  • breast carcinoma cell
  • breast carcinoma cell line
  • breast carcinoma patient
  • breast carcinoma tissue
  • breast cell
  • breast clinic
  • breast condition
  • breast conservation
  • breast conservation surgery
  • breast conservation therapy
  • breast conservation treatment
  • breast conserving surgery
  • breast density
  • breast development
  • breast disease
  • breast diseases
  • breast enlargement
  • breast epithelial cell
  • breast epithelium
  • breast examination
  • breast feeding
  • breast fillet
  • breast hamartoma
  • breast health
  • breast height
  • breast imaging
  • breast irradiation
  • breast lesion
  • breast lump
  • breast magnetic resonance imaging
  • breast malignancy
  • breast mass
  • breast meat
  • breast metastasis
  • breast milk
  • breast milk sample
  • breast mri
  • breast muscle
  • breast pathology
  • breast pump
  • breast reconstruction
  • breast specimen
  • breast stage
  • breast stimulation
  • breast surgeon
  • breast surgery
  • breast symptom
  • breast tenderness
  • breast tissue
  • breast tumor
  • breast tumour
  • breast ultrasound

  • Selected Abstracts


    FACTORS AFFECTING LIPID OXIDATION IN BREAST AND THIGH MUSCLE FROM CHICKEN, TURKEY AND DUCK

    JOURNAL OF FOOD BIOCHEMISTRY, Issue 4 2010
    Y. GONG
    ABSTRACT Lipid oxidation occurred rapidly in turkey muscle, intermediate in duck and slowest in chicken. pH was lowest in turkey muscle. Chicken muscle had a lower content of polyunsaturated fatty acids compared with turkey and duck muscles. The aqueous fraction of duck breast inhibited hemoglobin-mediated lipid oxidation in washed muscle more effectively than aqueous fractions from turkey and chicken muscle. ,-Tocopherol content was highest in duck muscle, intermediate in chicken and lowest in turkey. Depletion of tocopherols during frozen storage was more rapid in turkey and duck compared with chicken. It was thought that the elevated tocopherol level in chicken muscle may be caused by less efficient catabolism via the omega hydroxylation pathway. However, tocopherol hydroxylase activity was similar in chicken compared with turkey liver microsomes. Heme pigment content was around sixfold higher in duck breast compared with chicken and turkey breast. Duck thigh had especially elevated pH. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS This work describes a number of factors that explain the wide variation in oxidative stability (chicken > duck > turkey) when comparing muscle tissues from the three avian species. These factors include muscle pH, concentration of heme pigments, fatty acid unsaturation, inhibitors of lipid oxidation in the aqueous fraction of the muscle, tocopherol content in lipid phases and depletion rates of tocopherol. These factors should be considered when developing strategies to inhibit lipid oxidation in muscle foods. The relatively high content of ,-tocopherol in chicken muscle compared with turkey should be a subject of further research to better understand the mechanisms by which certain animal species preferentially deposit the molecule into muscle. [source]


    SENSORY AND MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY EVALUATION OF VACUUM-PACKED SLICED COOKED CHICKEN BREAST.

    JOURNAL OF FOOD QUALITY, Issue 2 2003
    SHELF-LIFE ESTIMATION
    Sensory evaluation and a microbiological study charted the development of lactic acid and psychotropic bacteria and of Brochothrix thermosphacta. Six different sensory methods were used to estimate product shelf-life; of these, the method based on average smell and taste was deemed the most suitable, since these parameters had a greater impact on shelf-life. From a microbiological point of view, mean shelf-life times were estimated at each temperature and compared with the estimates of the tasting panel. In the samples stored at the three lowest study temperatures (2.3, 6.5 and 10C), lactic acid and psychotropic bacteria counts of 107,108 cfu/g were not achieved; this agrees with the absence of sensory rejection at the end of the experiment. At 13.5 and 17.7C, mean shelf-life estimated microbiologically was shorter than that estimated using sensory methods. This difference, which here amounted to at least 8 days, is due to the so-called "delayed change", reported in previous experiments with cooked meat products. [source]


    EFFECTS OF BIFIDOCIN B AND LACTOCOCCIN R ON THE GROWTH OF LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES AND BACILLUS CEREUS ON STERILE CHICKEN BREAST

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SAFETY, Issue 4 2007
    ZELIHA YILDIRIM
    ABSTRACT In the study, the efficacies of bifidocin B and lactococcin R produced by Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris R to control Listeria monocytogenes or Bacillus cereus in irradiated raw chicken breast during storage at 5,8C for 28 days or at 22,25C for 24 h were determined. Each irradiated raw chicken breast was inoculated with 106 cfu/g L. monocytogenes or B. cereus. It was found that both bacteriocins were more effective against L. monocytogenes or B. cereus at 5,8C than at 22,25C, and that lactococcin R was more inhibitory than bifidocin B. Challenge study analysis demonstrated that incorporation of bifidocin B or lactococcin R at a level of 1,600 or 3,200 AU/g could effectively inhibit the growth of L. monocytogenes or B. cereus for 3,4 weeks at 5,8C or 6,12 h at 22,25C. [source]


    RE: ASTHMA PREVENTION: BREAST IS BEST?

    JOURNAL OF PAEDIATRICS AND CHILD HEALTH, Issue 11 2005
    Professor M Sears
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    INDETERMINATE RESULTS IN CORE BIOPSIES OF BREAST FROM MAMMOGRAPHICALLY DETECTED LESIONS: OUTCOMES OF EXCISION BIOPSY

    PATHOLOGY INTERNATIONAL, Issue 12 2001
    Harvey J
    INTRODUCTION: Protocols for excision of mammographically detected lesions following core biopsy include all diagnoses of atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) or intraductal atypia of uncertain significance (AUS). The aims of this study were to look at: i) the prevalence of reporting ADH and AUS, ii) the proportion of cases where excision revealed breast carcinoma, iii) whether any cases could be downgraded to hyperplasia on review. METHODS: Breast core biopsy reports from the SCGH Breast Centre for the years 1999,2000 were retrieved. The results of excision biopsy were obtained and slides reviewed. RESULTS: There were 1048 core biopsies from 911 women. Breast carcinoma was diagnosed in 197 samples (18.8%) including 88 with invasive carcinoma (8.4%), 109 with ductal carcinoma in situ (10.4%) and 3 samples (2.9%) suspicious of invasive carcinoma. The suspicious cases all proved to be invasive carcinomas. There were 53 samples (5.1%) with a diagnosis of ADH or AUS. 46 were excised, showing 7 invasive carcinomas 15 DCIS, 11 ADH, 2 lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS), 1 mucocoele-like lesion, 1 fibroadenoma and 9 fibrocystic change (FCC). The 22 malignancies represented 47.8% of the excised lesions. At review, 8 of the 53 original diagnoses were downgraded to benign hyperplasia; 5 underwent excision; 2 showed ,incidental' invasive carcinomas, 1 ,incidental' LCIS, 1 ADH and 1 FCC. CONCLUSIONS: There was a low prevalence of reporting of ADH and AUS in core biopsies (5.1%) and a high rate of carcinoma (47.8%) in subsequent excision biopsies. Very few diagnoses of ADH/AUS were downgraded at review. Current protocols for excision of lesions with a core biopsy diagnosis of ADH/AUS appear to be justified. [source]


    UNSPECIFIED SOLITARY PERIPHERAL T-CELL LYMPHOMA OF THE BREAST IN A TEENAGED GIRL

    PEDIATRIC DERMATOLOGY, Issue 2 2006
    Evren Sarifakioglu M.D.
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    BS14 UPDATE ON IN SITU PROLIFERATIONS OF THE BREAST

    ANZ JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Issue 2007
    G. C. Harris
    This is a pathologist's view of in situ proliferations of the breast, particularly those other than DCIS. The increasing evidence for Lobular Carcinoma In Situ (LCIS) as a non-obligate precursor, at least in some instances, and the emerging entity of pleomorphic LCIS will be discussed. Columnar cell proliferations including Flat Epithelial Atypia will also be presented with particular emphasis on clinical significance and currently recommended management strategies. A short discussion of other "indeterminate" in situ proliferations will also be included. [source]


    COATING CHARACTERISTICS OF FRIED CHICKEN BREASTS PREPARED WITH DIFFERENT PARTICLE SIZE BREADING

    JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESSING AND PRESERVATION, Issue 1 2002
    MOHAMAD YUSOF MASKAT
    Characteristics of coatings formed from breading of different particle sizes were investigated in breaded, fried chicken breasts. Breading was divided into three categories namely, small (particle size , U.S. No. 60 mesh), medium (particle size between U.S. No. 20 and U.S. No. 60 mesh) and large (particle size > U.S. No. 20 mesh). Chicken breasts were battered, breaded and deep-fat fried for 240 s at 160C. Smaller breading particle size produced smoother and more uniform coatings. Compressive force at 80% strain was 14.3, 85.6 and 130.5 N for small medium and large particle size breading, respectively. With larger breading particle size, L* and a* color values increased, while b* values showed no significant change. Acoustical data taken during compression of coatings did not show any significant differences due to different breading particle sizes. [source]


    EFFECT OF BREADING PARTICLE SIZE ON COATING ADHESION IN BREADED, FRIED CHICKEN BREASTS

    JOURNAL OF FOOD QUALITY, Issue 2 2004
    MOHAMAD YUSOF MASKAT
    ABSTRACT The effect of particle size on coating adhesion was measured for battered chicken breasts. Bread crumbs were separated into small (, 250 ,m), medium (250 ,m-850 ,m), and large (> 850 ,m) particles. Chicken breasts were battered, breaded, and deep-fat fried for 240 s at 160C. Fried products were analyzed for coating adhesion, moisture content, and yield parameters. Coating adhesion was highest in coatings formed from small particle size breading, and lowest in those made from large particle size breading. Chicken breasts coated using small particle size breading had higher moisture in the surface region of the meat as well as in the coating. SEM of the coatings showed greater merging between the breading and the batter with decreasing breading particle size. No significant differences were observed in coating pickup, cooking loss, or yield between samples coated with different particle size breading. [source]


    Skin Angiosarcoma Arising in an Irradiated Breast: Case-Report and Literature Review

    DERMATOLOGIC SURGERY, Issue 3 2006
    FAUSTO CATENA MD
    BACKGROUND Angiosarcoma (AS) is a rare, invasive malignancy originating from endothelial cells caused by many different clinical situations. AS following radiotherapy for breast cancer after conservative surgery is a rare but well-known association. OBJECTIVE The aim of this article is to describe a case of AS after breast conserving surgery and to review the literature to date. RESULTS We report the case of an 84-year-old woman who developed AS four years after she was subjected to quadrantectomy for invasive ductal cancer, followed by 30 tangent field radiotherapy sessions. She presented with a one-month history or red papular skin eruptions on the operated breast. Skin lesions were submitted for biopsy, and they were positive for AS. The patients was subjected to surgical excision of the remaining breast including all AS lesions. She is alive with no evidence of disease after 10 months follow-up. CONCLUSION Post-radiotherapy AS is rare neoplasm, but it should be considered in the case of patients with red lesions after breast conserving surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy. [source]


    Role of Pap Test terminology and age in the detection of carcinoma invasive and carcinoma in situ in medically underserved California women

    DIAGNOSTIC CYTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 4 2004
    Lydia P. Howell M.D.
    Abstract Our goals were to evaluate Pap Test findings classified by the Bethesda system, and follow up biopsies from participants in the California Breast and Cervical Cancer Control Program (Ca-BCCCP) for: 1) correlation in the detection of carcinoma in situ (CIS) and carcinoma invasive (CI), and 2) age-related trends, with discussion in the context of the 2001 ASCCP Management Guidelines. Women (n = 52,339) who had their initial screening Pap Tests with Ca-BCCCP between January 1995,December 1999 were followed for diagnostic services through December 2000. Descriptive and analytical methods were used in the analysis. Of the Pap results, 81.9% were negative, 10.6% showed infection, 4.7% showed an epithelial abnormality as defined by the Bethesda system (atypical squamous cells of undertermined significance (ASCUS), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), or high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL)), 0.1% showed squamous-cell cancer (SCC), and 2.7% showed other or unsatisfactory. Subsequent to the initial Pap Test, follow-up results of carcinoma in situ (CIS) and carcinoma invasive (CI) accounted for 0.36% and 0.05% of the population, respectively. Among HSIL Pap Tests (n = 285), 40.7% had follow-up showing CIS. Among SCC Pap Tests, 17.9% had follow-up results of CIS and 28.6% CI. Of the 191 patients with CIS as a follow-up finding, the initial Pap smear showed: HSIL 60.7%, SCC 2.6%, LSIL 10.5%, ASCUS 13.6%, and negative or infection 9.9%. Of the 27 patients with CI, the initial Pap Test showed: HSIL 40.7%, SCC 29.6%, LSIL 7.4%, ASCUS 7.4%, and negative or infection 11.1%. Pap diagnoses of other or unsatisfactory accounted for 2.6% of the Pap results from patients with CIS and 3.7% of Pap results from patients with CI. Except for LSIL, there was an increasing age trend in the number of cases in each of Pap results, with the exception of age 65+ yr. However, the ratio of LSIL and ASCUS to negative cases decreased with age. (P < 0.0001 and 0.0293, respectively). HSIL Pap results indicate a reasonably high probability of CIS and CI. However, approximately 1/3 of patients with CIS and 1/4 of patients with CI presented with Pap diagnoses of less severity than HSIL. When a negative Pap Test result is chosen as reference group, there is a negative age trend for LSIL and ASCUS, and no age trend for other results. These findings all have important implications in the design of follow-up strategies, and support the 2001 ASCCP Consensus Guidelines for the Management of Women with Cervical Abnormalities. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2004;30:227,234. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Multiple primary cancer: an increasing health problem.

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CANCER CARE, Issue 6 2009
    Strategies for prevention in cancer survivors
    LÓPEZ M.L., LANA A., DÍAZ S., FOLGUERAS M.V., SANCHEZ L., COMENDADOR M.A., BELYAKOVA E., RODRÍGUEZ J.M. & CUETO A. (2009) European Journal of Cancer Care Multiple primary cancer: an increasing health problem. Strategies for prevention in cancer survivors This study was set to look for associations between the sites of the first and subsequent tumours in patients with multiple primary cancer (MPC) diagnosed from 1975 to 2002 in the reference hospital of a Spanish northern region, and propose prevention strategies. Patient and tumour variables were measured. Crude and standardized incidence rates per 100 000 inhabitants were obtained, and the association between MPC incidence and time was analysed by means of lineal regression. Relative risks were calculated to analyse associations between tumour sites. A total of 2737 MPC cases were registered (male/female ratio = 2). The percentage of MPC with respect to the total cancer increased from 1.78% in the 1975,1979 period to 7.08% in the 2000,2002 period (R2 = 0.92; P = 0.003). Great increase of incidence by time was found (R2 = 0.90; P = 0.004). Breast, prostate and bladder cancers increase risk of second tumour in female genital organs [RR 4.78 (3.84,5.93)], urinary system [RR 3.69 (2.89,4.69)] and male genital organs [RR 3.76 (2.84,4.69)] respectively. The MPC incidence is increasing. Interventions for MPC prevention, according to the European Code against Cancer, should be implemented early after the first cancer principally if patients suffer breast, bladder, prostate, larynx and colon cancers. [source]


    Awareness of breast and cervical cancer risk factors and screening behaviours among nurses in rural region of Turkey

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CANCER CARE, Issue 3 2008
    A. YAREN md
    Breast and cervical cancer are the most common causes of cancer mortality among women worldwide, but actually they are largely preventable diseases. There is limited data on breast and cervical cancer knowledge, screening practices and attitudes of nurses in Turkey. A self-administered questionnaire was used to investigate the knowledge and attitude of nurses on risk factors of the breast and cervical cancer as well as screening programmes such as breast self-examination (BSE), clinical breast examination, mammography (MMG) and papanicolaou (pap) smear test. In total, 125 out of 160 nurses participated in the study (overall response rate was 80.6%). The risk factors and symptoms of breast cancer was generally well known, except for early menarche (23.2%) and late menopause (28.8%). For cervical cancer, the correct risk factors mostly indicated by the nurses were early age at first sexual intercourse (56%), smoking (76%), multiple sexual partners (71.2%). As for screening methods, it was believed that BSE was a beneficial method to identify the early breast changes (84.8%) and MMG was able to detect the cancer without a palpable mass (57.6%). Little was known about the fact that women should begin cervical cancer screening approximately 3 years after the onset of sexual intercourse (23.2%) and if repeated pap smear test were normal, it could be done every 2,3 years. Most of the nurses considered that MMG decreases the mortality in breast cancer (65.6%) and also believed that pap smear test decreases the mortality in cervical cancer (75.2%). Despite high level of knowledge of breast cancer risk factors, symptoms and screening methods, inadequate knowledge of cervical cancer screening method were found among nurses. [source]


    Breast cancer-derived Dickkopf1 inhibits osteoblast differentiation and osteoprotegerin expression: Implication for breast cancer osteolytic bone metastases

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CANCER, Issue 5 2008
    Guojun Bu
    Abstract Most breast cancer metastases in bone form osteolytic lesions, but the mechanisms of tumor-induced bone resorption and destruction are not fully understood. Although it is well recognized that Wnt/,-catenin signaling is important for breast cancer tumorigenesis, the role of this pathway in breast cancer bone metastasis is unclear. Dickkopf1 (Dkk1) is a secreted Wnt/,-catenin antagonist. In the present study, we demonstrated that activation of Wnt/,-catenin signaling enhanced Dkk1 expression in breast cancer cells and that Dkk1 overexpression is a frequent event in breast cancer. We also found that human breast cancer cell lines that preferentially form osteolytic bone metastases exhibited increased levels of Wnt/,-catenin signaling and Dkk1 expression. Moreover, we showed that breast cancer cell-produced Dkk1 blocked Wnt3A-induced osteoblastic differentiation and osteoprotegerin (OPG) expression of osteoblast precursor C2C12 cells and that these effects could be neutralized by a specific anti-Dkk1 antibody. In addition, we found that breast cancer cell conditioned media were able to block Wnt3A-induced NF-kappaB ligand reduction in C2C12 cells. Finally, we demonstrated that conditioned media from breast cancer cells in which Dkk1 expression had been silenced via RNAi were unable to block Wnt3A-induced C2C12 osteoblastic differentiation and OPG expression. Taken together, these results suggest that breast cancer-produced Dkk1 may be an important mechanistic link between primary breast tumors and secondary osteolytic bone metastases. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Missing the Breast: Gender, Fantasy and the Body in the German Enlightenment , By Simon Richter

    JOURNAL FOR EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY STUDIES, Issue 3 2010
    Nicholas Saul
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Effect of dietary oregano oil and , -tocopheryl acetate supplementation on iron-induced lipid oxidation of turkey breast, thigh, liver and heart tissues

    JOURNAL OF ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY AND NUTRITION, Issue 9-10 2003
    G. Papageorgiou
    Summary Twenty-five 12-week-old turkeys randomly divided into five groups were given a basal diet, or a basal diet supplemented with 200 mg , -tocopheryl acetate/kg, or 100 mg oregano oil/kg or 200 mg oregano oil/kg, or 100 mg oregano oil plus 100 mg , -tocopheryl acetate/kg diet, for 4 weeks prior to slaughter. Breast, thigh, liver and heart tissues were subjected to iron-induced lipid oxidation, the extent of which was determined by third-order derivative spectrophotometry. Results showed that dietary oregano oil at the inclusion level of 200 mg oregano oil/kg diet was more effective in delaying lipid oxidation compared with the inclusion level of 100 mg/kg, but equivalent to the inclusion of 200 mg , -tocopheryl acetate/kg diet, which in turn was inferior to the combined inclusion of 100 mg oregano oil plus 100 mg , -tocopheryl acetate/kg, which was superior to all dietary treatments. Thigh tissue was more susceptible to oxidation than breast tissue, although it contained , -tocopherol at higher concentrations. Also, lipid oxidation in heart was relatively high, although it contained the highest , -tocopherol levels. This indicates that tissue , -tocopherol is one important factor influencing the level of lipid oxidation, but the distribution of lipids, iron and oregano oil in tissues must also be taken into consideration. Tissue , -tocopherol levels responded to dietary intake of 30,200 mg , -tocopheryl acetate/kg in the order heart > liver > thigh > breast. Breast, thigh and heart tissues from the oregano groups presented significantly (p < 0.05) higher levels of , -tocopherol compared with the control, the increase being positively correlated with the supplementation level. The increased levels of , -tocopherol in these tissues indicated that the dietary oregano oil exerted a protective action on , -tocopherol. [source]


    Active Packaging of Fresh Chicken Breast, with Allyl Isothiocyanate (AITC) in Combination with Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP) to Control the Growth of Pathogens

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 2 2010
    Joongmin Shin
    ABSTRACT:,Listeria monocytogenes,and,Salmonella typhimurium,are major bacterial pathogens associated with poultry products. Ally isothiocyanate (AITC), a natural antimicrobial compound, is reportedly effective against these pathogenic organisms. A device was designed for the controlled release of AITC with modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), and then evaluated for its ability to control the growth of,L. monocytogenes,and,S. typhimurium,on raw chicken breast during refrigerated storage. In order to obtain controlled release during the test period, a glass vial was filled with AITC and triglyceride. It was then sealed using high-density polyethylene film. The release of AITC was controlled by the concentration (mole fraction) of AITC in the triglyceride and by the AITC vapor permeability through the film. The fresh chicken samples were inoculated with one or the other of the pathogens at 104 CFU/g, and the packages (with and without AITC-controlled release device) were flushed with ambient air or 30% CO2/70% N2 before sealing, and then stored at 4 °C for up to 21 d. The maximum reduction in MAP plus AITC (compared to MAP alone) was 0.77 log CFU/g for,L.,monocytogenes,and 1.3 log CFU/g for,S.,typhimurium. The color of the chicken breast meat was affected by the concentration of AITC. Overall, a release rate of 0.6 ,g/h of AITC was found to not affect the color, whereas at 1.2 ,g/h of AITC the surface of the chicken was discolored. [source]


    Antioxidant Properties of Far Infrared-treated Rice Hull Extract in Irradiated Raw and Cooked Turkey Breast

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 6 2003
    S.-C. Lee
    ABSTRACT: The antioxidant effect of far infrared-treated rice hull (FRH) extracts in irradiated turkey breast meat was compared with that of sesamol and rosemary oleoresin. The FRH extracts significantly decreased thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances values and volatile aldehydes (hexanal, pentanal, and propanal) and was effective in reducing the production of dimethyl disulfide responsible for irradiation off-odor in irradiated raw and cooked turkey meat during aerobic storage. The antioxidant activity of FRH extracts (0.1%, wt/wt) was as effective as that of rosemary oleoresin (0.1%). However, the addition of FRH extracts increased red and yellow color intensities and produced an off-odor characteristic to rice hull in raw and cooked meat. [source]


    Response Surface Methodology for Reduction of Pinking in Cooked Turkey Breast Mince by Various Dairy Protein Combinations

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 3 2000
    A.J. Slesinski
    ABSTRACT: Nonfat dry milk (NFDM), sodium caseinate (SC), whey protein concentrate (WPC), and combinations of each were evaluated for abilities to reduce pink color development in cooked, ground, uncured turkey breast. Protein treatments were also evaluated in the presence of pink-color-generating ligands (nicotinamide, 1%, sodium nitrite, 10 ppm, and sodium nitrate, 50 ppm) with and without ethylenedinitrilo-tetraacetic acid disodium salt (200 ppm). NFDM and WPC at levels as low as 1.5% were effective in reducing CIE a* values (P < 0.05) regardless of ligand treatment; SC was not. EDTA reduced pink color within all protein and ligand treatments. Poultry producers can reduce pink color development in further-processed products by selective addition of dairy proteins. [source]


    Hydrolytic and Oxidative Changes in the Lipids of Chicken Breast and Thigh Muscles During Refrigerated Storage

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 1 2000
    C. Alasnier
    ABSTRACT: The changes in free fatty acid (FFA) amount and composition and in Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were simultaneously determined in chicken breast and thigh muscles at intervals between 1 and 14 d of storage at 4 °C (1, 3, 7, 10, 14). The rates of lipid hydrolysis were fast in the first 3 d and then slowed until day 14; phospholipids showed the same pattern but hydrolysis of triacylglycerols was linear at least in thigh muscles. Oxidation increased linearly during storage. Thigh muscles contained 3 times more FFAs than breast muscles and 2 to 4 times less TBARS suggesting that lipolysis did not favor lipid oxidation although both increased concomitantly. [source]


    Pocket Radiologist: Breast , Top 100 Diagnoses, 1st edition

    JOURNAL OF MEDICAL IMAGING AND RADIATION ONCOLOGY, Issue 6 2005
    EJ Wylie
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Uncertainty in Breast, Prostate, and Colorectal Cancer: Implications for Supportive Care

    JOURNAL OF NURSING SCHOLARSHIP, Issue 1 2008
    Maya Shaha
    Purpose:The aim of this paper was to identify and explore the literature for key aspects of uncertainty experienced by patients who have been diagnosed with breast, prostate, or colorectal cancer. Organizing Construct: Throughout the cancer journey important decisions are made about treatments, symptom control, and supportive care and many approaches have been adopted to examine coping and uncertainty associated with a cancer diagnosis. Uncertainty and its associated attributes, such as stress or anxiety, fluctuate across the disease trajectory. To appreciate the changing nature of uncertainty one should consider its effect on specific patient groups by considering the available evidence. Methods: A comprehensive literature search that was focused on reviews and studies about uncertainty in cancer patients was conducted in PubMed and CINAHL. In total, 40 articles were identified that indicated uncertainty in patients with breast, prostate, or colorectal cancer, although the emphasis in each differed according to the nature and treatment of the disease. Findings: Uncertainty was found to comprise three main themes: uncertainty because of limited or lack of information, uncertainty concerning the course and treatment choices related to the disease, and uncertainty related to everyday life and coping with the disease. Conclusions: Uncertainty influences patients' experiences of their cancer and their coping. Whilst it might be impossible to avoid uncertainty entirely, its negative effects might be ameliorated by understanding patients' specific needs along the disease trajectory of breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer. [source]


    What's a Woman to do About the New Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening Recommendations?

    JOURNAL OF OBSTETRIC, GYNECOLOGIC & NEONATAL NURSING, Issue 2 2010
    Article first published online: 5 MAR 2010
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Health Promotion Begins at the Breast

    JOURNAL OF OBSTETRIC, GYNECOLOGIC & NEONATAL NURSING, Issue 3 2004
    Nancy K. Lowe Editor
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Asthma prevention: Breast is best?

    JOURNAL OF PAEDIATRICS AND CHILD HEALTH, Issue 7 2004
    A Kemp
    Abstract: Whilst breastfeeding has been considered to exert a preventative effect on the development of allergic disease, several recent publications have challenged this view, particularly with respect to the long-term outcomes for asthma. There are many other beneficial effects of breastfeeding apart from the possibility of allergy prevention. The suggestion that breastfeeding may increase the development of allergic disease raises concerns about the appropriate steps to take for primary prevention of allergy. It is concluded that breastfeeding can still be recommended for the beneficial effects in reducing atopic disease in childhood in addition to the other demonstrated benefits, and that there are unresolved questions concerning the few studies that suggest the possibility of increased allergic disease in later life. [source]


    Direct parametric inference for the cumulative incidence function

    JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL STATISTICAL SOCIETY: SERIES C (APPLIED STATISTICS), Issue 2 2006
    Jong-Hyeon Jeong
    Summary., In survival data that are collected from phase III clinical trials on breast cancer, a patient may experience more than one event, including recurrence of the original cancer, new primary cancer and death. Radiation oncologists are often interested in comparing patterns of local or regional recurrences alone as first events to identify a subgroup of patients who need to be treated by radiation therapy after surgery. The cumulative incidence function provides estimates of the cumulative probability of locoregional recurrences in the presence of other competing events. A simple version of the Gompertz distribution is proposed to parameterize the cumulative incidence function directly. The model interpretation for the cumulative incidence function is more natural than it is with the usual cause-specific hazard parameterization. Maximum likelihood analysis is used to estimate simultaneously parametric models for cumulative incidence functions of all causes. The parametric cumulative incidence approach is applied to a data set from the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project and compared with analyses that are based on parametric cause-specific hazard models and nonparametric cumulative incidence estimation. [source]


    Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Breast: A Review of a Single Institution's Experience

    THE BREAST JOURNAL, Issue 2 2010
    Amod A. Sarnaik MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Breast Hamartomas in Adolescent Females

    THE BREAST JOURNAL, Issue 5 2009
    Henry L. Chang MD
    Abstract:, Breast hamartomas are uncommon lesions that have not been extensively characterized in the adolescent population. A search of patient records at our institution over a 17-year period identified seven cases of breast hamartomas in patients less than 18 years of age. We examine and report the clinical, radiographic, and pathologic characteristics of these cases. Breast hamartomas present as painless, palpable masses in the adolescent population. Ultrasonography reveals a well-defined, solid, oval mass, similar to the more common fibroadenoma. Two of the patients underwent core needle biopsy for diagnosis as the only intervention with the remainder undergoing surgical excision. None of the patients had any complications from surgery. There was one recurrence 9 months after initial excision. Histologically, the hamartomas consisted of densely packed, enlarged lobules set within a fibrous stroma. Breast hamartomas are rare in the adolescent population. The clinical and radiographic features are similar to the more common fibroadenoma, but the pathologic findings are diagnostic. Recurrence can occur if excision is incomplete. Increased recognition and accurate diagnosis will improve our understanding of the natural history of these lesions. [source]


    Comparison of Two Score Systems in Bcl-2 and Bax Protein Expression in Invasive Ductal Carcinoma of Breast and Relation with Oestrogen and Progestrone Receptors

    THE BREAST JOURNAL, Issue 3 2009
    Ayatollahi Hossein MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Prognostic Significance of Oncogenic Markers in Ductal Carcinoma In Situ of the Breast: A Clinicopathologic Study

    THE BREAST JOURNAL, Issue 2 2009
    Sevilay Altintas MD
    Abstract:, Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a heterogeneous malignant condition of the breast with an excellent prognosis. Until recently mastectomy was the standard treatment. As the results of the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project-17 trial and the introduction of the Van Nuys Prognostic Index (VNPI) less radical therapies are used. Objectives are to identify clinicopathologic and biologic factors that may predict outcome. Cases of DCIS diagnosed in two Belgian University Centers were included. Paraffin-embedded material and Hematoxylin and Eosin stained slides of DCIS cases were reviewed and tumor size, margin width, nuclear grade, and comedo necrosis were assessed. Molecular markers (estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, HER1-4, Ki67, and c-myc) were assayed immunohistochemically. Applied treatment strategies were correlated with the prospective use of the VNPI score. Kaplan,Meier survival plots were generated with log-rank significance and multiple regression analysis was carried out using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis; 159 patients were included with a median age of 54 years (range 29,78); 141 had DCIS and 18 DCIS with microinvasion. The median time of follow-up was 54 months (range 5,253). Twenty-three patients developed a recurrence (14.5%). The median time to recurrence was 46 months (range 5,253). Before the introduction of the VNPI, 37.5% of the DCIS patients showed a recurrence while thereafter 6.7% recurred (p < 0.005). Two recurrences occurred in the VNPI group I (7.1%); seven in the VNPI group II (8.5%) (median time to recurrence 66.3 months) and 14 in the VNPI group III (28.5%) (median time to recurrence 40.2 months) (disease-free survival [DFS]: p < 0.05). A Cox proportional hazards regression analysis indicated that tumor size, margin width, pathologic class, and age were independent predictors of recurrence, but none of the studied molecular markers showed this. Overexpression of HER4 in the presence of HER3 was found to be associated with a better DFS (p < 0.05). This study confirms the value of the VNPI score and questions the benefit of an aggressive approach in the low-risk DCIS lesions. Independent predictors for recurrence included size, margin width, pathologic class, and age, but none of the molecular markers were part of it. Overexpression of HER4 in the presence of HER3 was associated with a better DFS. [source]