Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Bream

  • black bream
  • black sea bream
  • gilthead sea bream
  • juvenile black sea bream
  • red sea bream
  • sea bream
  • silver bream
  • threadfin bream
  • white bream
  • white sea bream

  • Selected Abstracts

    Tuna Pepsin: Characteristics and Its Use for Collagen Extraction from the Skin of Threadfin Bream (Nemipterus spp.)

    S. Nalinanon
    ABSTRACT:, Pepsin from the stomach of albacore tuna, skipjack tuna, and tongol tuna was characterized. Pepsin from all tuna species showed maximal activity at pH 2.0 and 50 °C when hemoglobin was used as a substrate. Among the stomach extract of all species tested, that of albacore tuna showed the highest activity (40.55 units/g tissue) (P < 0.05). Substrate-Native-PAGE revealed that pepsin from albacore tuna and tongol tuna consisted of 2 isoforms, whereas pepsin from skipjack tuna had only 1 form. The activity was completely inhibited by pepstatin A, while EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid), SBTI (soybean trypsin inhibitor), and E-64 (1-(L -trans-epoxysuccinyl-leucylamino)-4-guanidinobutane) exhibited negligible effect. The activity was strongly inhibited by SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate) (0.05% to 0.1%, w/v). Cysteine (5 to 50 mM) also showed an inhibitory effect in a concentration dependent manner. ATP, molybdate, NaCl, MgCl2, and CaCl2 had no impact on the activity. When tuna pepsin (10 units/g defatted skin) was used for collagen extraction from the skin of threadfin bream for 12 h, the yield of collagen increased by 1.84- to 2.32-fold and albacore pepsin showed the comparable extraction efficacy to porcine pepsin. The yield generally increased with increasing extraction time (P < 0.05). All collagen obtained with the aid of tuna pepsin showed similar protein patterns compared with those found in acid-solubilized collagen. Nevertheless, pepsin from skipjack tuna caused the degradation of , and , components. All collagens were classified as type I with large portion of ,-chain. However, proteins with molecular weight (MW) greater than 200 kDa were abundant in acid-solubilized collagen. [source]

    Biochemical and Conformation Changes of Actomyosin from Threadfin Bream Stored in Ice

    J. Yongswawatdigul
    ABSTRACT: Biochemical and conformational changes of actomyosin stored in ice were investigated. The K-value of threadfin bream increased from 9% to 40% after storage for 12 d. Ca2+ -, EDTA-, Mg2+ -, and Mg2+ -Ca2+ -ATPase activities of actomyosin decreased, whereas Mg2+ -EGTA ATPase activities increased. Total SH content of actomyosin increased after 3 d and decreased thereafter. Surface hydrophobicity gradually increased within 6 d. Protein loss during washing increased with storage time. A significant reduction (50%) of breaking force of thrice-washed mince was observed in fish stored in ice for 6 d. There was no evidence of proteolysis of muscle proteins stored up to 9 d as shown with SDS-PAGE. [source]

    Accumulation of Mycosporine-like Amino Acids in Asparagopsis armata Grown in Tanks with Fishpond Effluents of Gilthead Sea Bream, Sparus aurata

    Félix L. Figueroa
    Both the effects of total ammonium nitrogen (TAN) fluxes and the algal densities on MAA accumulation were investigated. MAAs increased with the TAN flux, but only until values lower than 100 ,M/h. Above this flux, the MAA content decreased, whereas algal yield increased. The content of individual MAAs was related to nitrogen (N) status, that is, shinorine percentage slightly decreased and palythine increased with increasing N fluxes. The decrease of MAAs at high flux of N (up to 100 ,M/h) is related to the decrease of water residence time and the decrease of the biofiltration efficiency. Under different TAN fluxes and algal densities, MAA content was negatively related to algal yield indicating that MAAs were accumulated only under a high ammonium-N availability. Thus, an energy allocation between growth (primary metabolism) and MAA accumulation (secondary metabolism) is regulated by the absorption capacity of inorganic N. In conclusion, A. armata, in addition to its high biofiltration capacity of nutrients, is a good source of MAAs as potential UV screen photoprotectors. [source]

    Dietary Lipid Utilization by White Sea Bream (Diplodus sargus) Juveniles

    R. Sá
    Six experimental diets were formulated to be isoproteic (45% protein) and to contain from 9 to 24% dietary lipid levels (dry matter basis). Fish meal and fish oil were used as the main protein and lipid sources, respectively. At the end of the trial, there were no significant differences (P > 0.05) among groups in fish performance or in whole-body composition. From the results of this trial, it is concluded that, within the range of values tested, increasing dietary lipid levels above 9% has no advantage as it does not promote growth or spare protein for growth purposes. [source]

    Effects of Restricted Feeding Regimes on Growth and Feed Utilization of Juvenile Gilthead Sea Bream, Sparus aurata

    Orhan Tufan Eroldo
    The effect of restricted feeding on growth, feed efficiency, and body composition was studied in juveniles of gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata. Juveniles (6.4 g) were stocked into 12 tanks at a density of 16 fish per tank. Four different feeding schedules were tested on triplicate groups of juvenile fish: (1) control fed for 48 d without deprivation, (2) starvation for 1 d and then refed for 2 d (S1), (3) 50% satiation for 2 d and then refed to apparent satiation for 2 d (R2), and (4) 50% satiation for 6 d and then refed to apparent satiation for another 6 d (R6). Results indicated that all fish subjected to cycled restricted feeding regimes were unable to achieve catching up with control group. The specific growth rate of fish in the control was significantly higher than those in S1, R2, and R6, which were not significantly different from each other. Protein efficiency and protein productive value were significantly higher in R2 compared to control, S1, and R6. Fish in R2 had lowest feed conversion ratio (1.12) compared to the control (1.17). Body protein composition in R6 was less than that of the control, S1, and R2, while moisture, lipid, and ash content were not significantly different compared to the control. [source]

    Foraging capacities and effects of competitive release on ontogenetic diet shift in bream, Abramis brama

    OIKOS, Issue 2 2002
    Anders Persson
    Bream (Abramis brama) undergo ontogenetic diet shift from zooplankton to benthic macroinvertebrates, but the switching size may be highly variable. To unravel under what conditions bream are pelagic versus benthic foragers, we experimentally determined size-dependent foraging capacities on three prey types from the planktivory and benthivory niche; zooplankton, visible and buried macroinvertebrates. From these data we derived predictions of size-dependent diet preferences from estimates of prey value and competitive ability, and tested these predictions on diet data from the field. Planktivorous foraging capacity described a hump-shaped relationship with bream length that peaked for small bream of 67 mm total length. Benthivory capacity increased with increasing bream size, irrespective if benthic prey were visible on the sediment surface or buried in the sediment. From the experimental data and relationships of metabolic demand we calculated minimum resource requirement for maintenance (MRR) for each of the prey categories used in experiments. MRR increased with bream size for both zooplankton and visible chironomids, but decreased with bream size for buried chironomids, suggesting that intermediate sized bream (120,300 mm) may be competitively sandwiched between small and large bream that are more competitive planktivores and benthivores, respectively. Prey value estimates and competitive abilities qualitatively predicted diet shift in a bream population being released from competition. Competitive release did not change the diet of the largest size-class feeding on an optimal diet of benthic invertebrates both before and after competitive release. However, profound diet shifts towards benthic macroinvertebrates were recorded for intermediate size-classes that fed on a suboptimal diet prior to competitive release. Thus, laboratory estimates of size-dependent foraging capacity of bream in planktivorous and benthivorous feeding niches provided useful information on size-specific competitive ability, and successfully predicted diet preference in the field. [source]

    Strategic Localization of Toll-like Receptor 4 in the Digestive Tract of Blunt Snout Bream (Megalobrama amblycephala)

    G. Y. Zhang
    Summary This study was performed to determine the localization strategies of Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4) in digestive tract (oesophagus, bulbodium, foregut, midgut and hindgut) of Blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) using immunohistochemical staining method. TLR4 positive cells were observed throughout the digestive tract. In the oesophagus, some positive reactions in lamina propria were found around small blood vessels and there were also some positive cells within the stratified squamous epithelium. Lots of positive cells were observed in the muscular layer of the oesophagus. In bulbodium, foregut and hindgut, the expression of TLR4 was mainly restricted to the apical surface of epithelial cells located at the bottom of the mucosal folds and the mesenchymal cells in lamina propria. It was very interesting that epithelial cells in the midgut, but none in other parts, had many TLR4 positive cytoplasmic granular structures which were also periodic acid Schiff positive. These findings suggested that TLR4 was expressed in a compartmentalized manner in the Blunt snout bream (M. amblycephala) digestive tract and provided novel information about the in vivo localization of pattern recognition receptors. [source]

    Determination of physical behaviour of feed pellets in Mediterranean water

    Paolo Vassallo
    Abstract Settled uneaten feed causes the most intense impact under sea cages, and settling velocity of the feed pellets represents a key parameter for waste dispersion models. Even if some data about physical properties of feed pellets have been published in the framework of salmonid rearing, there is a complete lack of information related to the Mediterranean Sea, as regards typical values of temperature, salinity and feed composition for Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata L.) and Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.). In this study we try to fill this lack, determining dimensions, water adsorption properties, floating times and settling velocities of a typical growing sequence of pellets for the species mentioned above, under defined laboratory conditions reproducing Mediterranean Sea water. The settling velocity increases with pellet size from 0.087, for the smallest pellet (3 mm), to 0.144 m s,1, for the 5 mm pellet. The biggest extruded pellet (6 mm) falls slower (0.088 m s,1). The floating time before pellet's fall is found to be a critical parameter in determining settling velocity. The latter depends on pellet's size, water temperature and salinity. The examined pellets reach a 42% of weight increase after 10 min of immersion, while no appreciable dimension change is observed. Our results are in part different from previous ones and could play a role in evaluating and modelling Mediterranean aquaculture environmental impact. [source]

    Alternative use of food resources causes intra-cohort variation in the size distribution of young-of-the-year perch (Perca fluviatilis)

    R. Urbatzka
    Abstract,,, Body sizes of young-of-the-year (YOY) perch (Perca fluviatilis) at the end of their first summer are extremely variable and range in different studies between 4 and 15 cm. To analyse whether size divergences in YOY perch may be attributed to alternative use of food resources, adult perch were stocked into two previously fishless ponds and growth, size distribution and food intake of the YOY perch were recorded. In addition to perch, adult bream (Abramis brama) were introduced to produce juvenile bream that could serve as a food resource for YOY perch. The body sizes of YOY perch at the end of the experiment ranged from 32 to 168 mm with a bimodal size distribution. The combination of stomach content analyses and stable isotope signatures revealed that the small size cohort were planctivorous/benthivorous while the large size cohort was piscivorous/cannibalistic. Results implicated that different feeding behaviour contributed to the size divergences in YOY perch and that the extreme growth of the large size cohort was induced by piscivory. [source]

    Recruitment patterns of six species of cyprinid fishes in the lower River Trent, England

    A. D. Nunn
    Abstract,,,Fisheries data were collected for six species of 0-group cyprinid fishes from eight sites in the lower reaches of the River Trent, England, between May and October 1999 inclusive, using a micromesh seine net. Recruitment and growth patterns were observed via monthly length,frequency histograms and estimations of mean length. In the cases of roach and dace, growth was approximately linear through the summer, before declining in September and October. In the cases of chub and gudgeon, and to a lesser extent bream and bleak, however, there were suggestions of multiple recruitment events. It is argued that some of the fish species examined in the present study adopt fractional or protracted spawning strategies in the lower River Trent. [source]

    Acute CO2 tolerance during the early developmental stages of four marine teleosts

    T. Kikkawa
    Abstract Ocean sequestration of CO2 is proposed as a possible measure to mitigate climate changes caused by increasing atmospheric concentrations of the gas, but its impact on the marine ecosystem is unknown. We investigated the acute lethal effect of CO2 during the early developmental stages of four marine teleosts: red sea bream (Pagrus major), Japanese whiting (Sillago japonica), Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), and eastern little tuna (Euthynnus affinis). The percentages of larvae that hatched and survived were not affected by exposure to water with a PCO2 of 1.0 kPa (= 7.5 mmHg) within 24 h. Median lethal PCO2 values for a 360-min exposure were 1.4 kPa (cleavage), 5.1 kPa (embryo), 7.3 kPa (preflexion), 4.2 kPa (flexion), 4.6 kPa (postflexion), and 2.5 kPa (juvenile) for red sea bream; 2.4 kPa (cleavage), 4.9 kPa (embryo), 5.9 kPa (preflexion), 6.1 kPa (flexion), 4.1 kPa (postflexion), and 2.7 kPa (juvenile) for Japanese whiting; 2.8 kPa (cleavage) and > 7.0 kPa (young) for Japanese flounder; and 11.8 kPa (cleavage) for eastern little tuna. Red sea bream and Japanese whiting of all ontogenetic stages had similar susceptibilities to CO2: the most susceptible stages were cleavage and juvenile, whereas the most tolerant stages were preflexion and flexion. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 18: 375,382, 2003 [source]

    Biological measurement of estrogenic activity in urine and bile conjugates with the in vitro ER-CALUX reporter gene assay

    Juliette Legler
    Abstract Although estrogens are excreted as biologically inactive conjugates, they can be reconverted to an active form, possibly by bacteria. A simple method was developed to deconjugate estrogen metabolites present in human urine and fish bile back to active estrogens by enzymatic hydrolysis with ,-glucuronidase or live Escherichia coli cells. Deconjugated extracts were tested for estrogenic activity in the in vitro stable estrogen receptor,mediated chemical-activated luciferase gene expression (ER-CALUX) assay. Estrogen glucuronides in urine obtained from human males and females were effectively converted to active forms after incubation with ,-glucuronidase or E. coli. The highest estrogenic activity was found in deconjugated metabolites from urine of a pregnant woman, in which levels up to 3,000 nmol estradiol equivalents per liter of urine were found after overnight incubation of urine with E. coli. Bile sampled from male bream and flounder from various freshwater and marine locations was also deconjugated and a good correlation was found between high biliary estrogenic activity and elevated levels of xenoestrogenic activity in surface water as well as in plasma vitellogenin. Therefore, the measurement of deconjugated bile could form a useful (indirect) biomarker for internal dose of xenoestrogens in male fish. [source]

    Discards from the commercial gillnet fishery for dusky flathead, Platycephalus fuscus, in New South Wales, Australia: spatial variability and initial effects of change in minimum legal length of target species

    C. A. Gray
    Abstract A scientific observer programme was used to quantify the composition and magnitude of discards in the gillnet fishery for dusky flathead, Platycephalus fuscus (Cuvier), in three barrier estuaries in New South Wales, Australia, during the 2001 fishing season. Regulations only permit the retention of legal-sized dusky flathead and legal-sized blue swimmer crab, Portunus pelagicus L., and mud crab, Scylla serrata (Forskĺl); all other organisms were discarded. Sampling was stratified into two time periods; before and after 1 July 2001 which coincided with the increase in the minimum legal length (MLL) of dusky flathead from 33 to 36 cm total length (TL). Eighty one catches were sampled, yielding 38 finfish species and two portunid crab species. Legal-sized dusky flathead were the most abundant organism captured, accounting for 23,47% by number and 34,54% by weight of the mean observed catch depending on the estuary and survey period, with a mean catch of 25,59 flathead weighing 13,25 kg per fishing-night. Species composition and relative abundance of catches differed among estuaries, but not between sampling periods. Predominant bycatch species included legal and undersize blue swimmer crab, sea mullet, Mugil cephalus L., luderick, Girella tricuspidata (Quoy & Gaimard), bream, Acanthopagrus australis (Günther) and yellowfin leatherjacket, Meuschenia trachylepis (Günther). These five species accounted for 82% of total bycatch by number and 71% by weight, pooled across the three estuaries. More crabs were retained than discarded, with retained legal-size crabs (byproduct) accounting for 16% of total bycatch by number and 13% by weight, with an average of 5,22 crabs weighing 1,6 kg being caught per fishing-night, depending on the estuary. Overall, 7% of dusky flathead captured (number) were below the MLL of 36 cm and discarded, suggesting the nets as currently configured may be relatively selective in catching legal-size flathead. However, 41% of dusky flathead were <40 cm TL, indicating that if the MLL for this species is increased to this length as proposed, new nets must be introduced into the fishery. The findings are discussed in terms of making the flathead fishery more sustainable, including alternative management strategies for the fishery. [source]

    Comparison of losses of planktivorous fish by predation and seine-fishing in a lake undergoing long-term biomanipulation

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 12 2002
    Klaus Wysujack
    SUMMARY 1.,Piscivore stocking at artificially high densities and fishing are the two common approaches to reduce the amount of planktivorous and benthivorous fish in lake biomanipulation programmes. Both measures have advantages and disadvantages, but their relative efficacy has not previously been directly compared. 2.,We calculated the average annual catch of roach and bream in a lake undergoing long-term biomanipulation (Feldberger Haussee, Germany) by seining each year between 1992 and 1998. We compared this value with a bioenergetics estimate of annual consumption rates of the dominant cohorts of piscivores, pikeperch and pike, in 1997 and 1998. We also determined species composition and length distribution of prey fish in stomachs of the piscivores. 3.,Roach was the dominant prey species of both pikeperch and pike, whereas bream was rarely taken by either piscivorous species. Seining removed on average larger specimens of roach than were found in the stomachs of the piscivores. 4.,Based on stocking densities of the piscivores, published mortality rates, and individual consumption rates, feeding of pikeperch and pike on roach exceeded the manual removal of roach by seining by a factor of 4,15 (biomass) in 1997 and 1998. 5.,Based on these results, a combination of fishing and piscivore enhancement is recommended. Whereas the stocks of adult roach and bream have to be reduced mainly by fishing, the predation of piscivores should be directed predominantly towards the juvenile zooplanktivorous fish. Therefore, small size-classes of piscivorous fish should be promoted by fisheries management, including stocking and harvest regulations. [source]

    Colour improvement of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fillets by hydrogen peroxide for surimi production

    Ali Jafarpour
    Summary The preferred colour for surimi is white, but surimi prepared from light fillets of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is slightly pink. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2; 1,3% v/v) with and without sodium tri-polyphosphate (STP; 1,2% w/v) was added to a sodium carbonate bath (pH 7.0,11.5) resulting in a final pH range of 4.4,10.1 which was injected into carp fillets. After soaking and tumbling for 30 min at 4,10 °C, the fillets were evaluated for colour and water holding capacity (WHC). Fillets tumbled with treatment solution with different pH levels (7.0,11.5), but with no H2O2 or STP added, had improved colour with significantly (P < 0.05) higher L* compared with untreated fillets as the control. However, the colour improvement [(L* and colour deviation (,E)] was not significantly different (P > 0.05) within the pH levels (7.0,11.5) trialled. With increasing H2O2 levels (1,3%), fillets became lighter and ,E increased significantly (P < 0.05), especially with a 3% H2O2 treatment at pH of 10.5 (adjusted pH before H2O2 addition, actual pH after H2O2 addition was 8.2). The whiteness (L*,3b*) of kamaboko produced from treated (3% H2O2, pH 10.5) common carp light fillets was not significantly different to that of kamaboko from Alaska pollock and threadfin bream. Treatments combining H2O2 (3%) with STP (1,2%) significantly reduced the L* value obtained in comparison with fillets treated with only H2O2 (3%). Similarly, fillets treated with STP (1%) alone, resulting in lower L* values, irrespective of treatment pH (7.0,11.5). WHC, an indicator of the quality of the fillet texture, increased from 816 g/kg at pH 7.0 without STP to 841 g/kg at pH 11.5 with 1% STP. Treatment with H2O2 (without STP) decreased the WHC of the fillets. [source]

    Effect of soluble CO2 stabilisation and vacuum packaging in the shelf life of farmed sea bream and sea bass fillets

    Rogério Mendes
    Summary The objective of this study was to determine the differences of sensory, microbiological and chemical quality in vacuum-packaged fillets of sea bream and sea bass previously submitted to soluble gas solubilisation (SGS) with 100% CO2, at 2 bar for 30 and 60 min and stored at chilled temperature for 15 days. Apart from pH value that showed a regular increase during chilled storage, the other chemical index [total volatile bases nitrogen (TVB-N), trimethylamine nitrogen (TMA-N) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs)] had showed to be poor indicators of changes in quality of products. Final TVB-N values ranged from 16.0 to 17.4 mg N per 100 g and from 17.3 to 19.4 mg N per 100 g in sea bream and sea bass, respectively. Sensory evaluation resulted as the most reliable parameter of quality decay. The results show that SGS treatment kept the initial quality of fillets for longer time, which was particularly visible on the sea bream fillets, thus contributing to an extension in 2,3 days of the shelf life. SGS had also a positive effect in the delay of microbial growth. [source]

    Effects of differences in diet and seasonal changes on the fatty acid composition in fillets from farmed and wild sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) and sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.)

    Mustafa Yildiz
    Summary The effects of dietary fatty acids and seasonal variation on the fatty acid profiles of farmed and wild sea bream (Sparus aurata) and sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) were determined by analysis of their fillets. Farmed sea bream and sea bass were fed on the same commercial feeds all year. Fatty acid profiles in the fillets reflected the fatty acid profiles of the commercial feeds. The predominant fatty acids in the trial feeds, fillets of farmed and wild sea bream and sea bass were 16:0, 18:1n -9, 18:2n -6, 20:5n -3 and 22:6n -3. The fatty acid profiles in the fillets of farmed sea bream and sea bass did not differ (P > 0.05) except in the winter season compared with those of their wild counterparts. However, the content of eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n -3), docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n -3) in the fillets of the farmed and wild sea bass were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the farmed and wild sea bream. The wild sea bream had significantly (P < 0.05) higher total saturated fatty acid and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) levels, and lower total n -6 and n -3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels in winter than in the summer and spring seasons. Similarly, in the fillets of wild sea bass, total n -3 PUFA levels were significantly (P < 0.05) lower, and the MUFA levels were higher in winter than in the other seasons. These results indicate that the farmed fish fillets were good sources of n -3 PUFA in each of the three seasons. However, wild fish were good sources of n -3 PUFA in the spring and summer. [source]

    Sensory, chemical and microbiological quality parameters in sea bream (Sparus aurata) stored in ice or wrapped in cling film or in aluminium foil at 2 ± 1 °C

    Fatih Özogul
    Abstract The effects of aluminium foil and cling film on sensory (raw and cooked), chemical and microbiological quality changes in cultured sea bream (Sparus aurata) stored at 2 ± 1 °C were investigated. The worst quality in terms of colour and odour was observed for sea bream wrapped in aluminium foil (WAF) and followed by fish wrapped in cling film (WCF). The shelf-life of sea bream was found to be 18 days for ice and 8 days for both fish wrapped in cling film and aluminium foil according to panellist perceptions. The total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) value of sea bream stored in ice, wrapped in cling film and aluminium foil reached from initial value of 15.2 mg TVB-N/100 g to 28.6, 50.6 and 65.3 mg/100 g at 22, 15 and 15 days respectively. The highest growth of bacteria was found in sea bream for WAF, followed by WCF and lowest count was with ice storage condition. [source]

    Comparison of wild and cultured gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata); composition, appearance and seasonal variations

    Kriton Grigorakis
    Major quality parameters, such as muscle composition, fat deposition, muscle fatty acid composition and external appearance were studied in wild and cultured gilthead sea bream. Muscle fat content and total depot fat (peritoneal and perivisceral fat) indicated a seasonal variation with minimum values observed in late spring and maximum in late summer. Gonadosomatic indices of cultured fish were lower than those found in wild specimens. Lipid content of cultured sea bream was much higher than that of wild fish. Differences were also observed in fatty acid profiles. Cultured fish were characterized by higher levels of monoenes, n-9 and 18:2n-6 fatty acids and wild fish by higher levels of saturates, 20:4n-6, n-3 fatty acids and n-3/n-6 ratios. Differences were also noted in the external appearance of fish. [source]

    Leptodora kindti and Flexible Foraging Behaviour of Fish , Factors behind the Delayed Biomass Peak of Cladocerans in Lake Hiidenvesi

    Laura Uusitalo
    Abstract In the eutrophic L. Hiidenvesi, the spring biomass maximum of cladoceran zooplankton is missing and the highest biomass takes place in July,August. The factors behind the delayed biomass peak were studied in four different basins of the lake with concomitant data on cladocerans assemblages, density of the predatory cladoceran Leptodora kindti and food composition of fish. In all the basins, the abundance of Leptodora peaked in June, being highest (up to 800 ind. m,3) in the two most shallow basins (max depth < 4 m). The duration of the high population density was short and in July-August Leptodora density stayed below 200 ind. m,3, although the water temperature was still favourable. The collapse of the Leptodora population coincided with the change in the feeding habits of fish. In early summer, fish predation was targeted mainly on copepods and zoobenthos, while in high summer Leptodora was one of the main preys of perch, white bream and bleak. The biomass of herbivorous cladocerans was below 10 ,g C l,1 in June, and climbed to a maximum in August in the two most shallow basins (34 and 76 ,g C l,1), in July in the deepest basin (27 ,g C l,1), and in September in the intermediate basin (55 ,g C l,1). In the two most shallow basins, the death rate of the dominating cladoceran, Daphnia cristata, closely followed the food consumption rate by the Leptodora population. In the deeper basins, the agreement was not so close, smelts (Osmerus eperlanus) and chaoborids being important predators of herbivores. The duration of the period of high Leptodora density thus depended on the predation pressure by fish, while the increased fish predation on Leptodora in July,August allowed the elevation of the biomass of herbivorous cladocerans. [source]

    Age and growth of the Randall's threadfin bream Nemipterus randalli (Russell, 1986), a recent Lessepsian migrant in Iskenderun Bay, northeastern Mediterranean

    D. Erguden
    Summary Randall's threadfin bream, Nemipterus randalli, first recorded in Iskenderun Bay in Turkey in 2008, seems to have increased in the region. The species, widespread in the western Indian Ocean and with a rapid expansion, appears to have migrated to the bay via the Red Sea. Although its presence in the region has been published, there has been little or no information as to age and growth parameters of this Lessepsian migrant in its new habitat. The present study aims to determine the basic age and growth parameters of the species colonized in the region. A total of 379 collected individuals were studied from November 2007 to October 2008. Total specimen lengths ranged from 4.80 to 21.50 cm, and weights from 1.10 to 138.36 g. Maximum age was 3 years for both sexes. The length,weight relationship was described as W = 0.0011 × L3.061 (r2 = 0.982). The von Bertalanffy growth parameters were: L, = 34.96 cm; K = 0.214 year,1; t0 = ,1.244 year for the entire population. These data were compared with results from studies made in other geographic areas. [source]

    Sorting grid trials to improve size selectivity of red mullet (Mullus barbatus) and annular sea bream (Diplodus annularis) in Turkish bottom trawl fishery

    C. Ayd
    Summary Sorting grids with two different bar spacings (12 mm and 14 mm) were tested to improve size selectivity of the commercially important fish species, red mullet (Mullus barbatus) and annular sea bream (Diplodus annularis), in Turkish bottom trawl fishery. Fishing trials were carried out with R/V ,Egesüf' between April and May 2003 in Izmir Bay, Aegean Sea, using a traditional bottom trawl. Selectivity data were collected by the top cover method and analyzed by means of a logistic equation with the maximum likelihood method. Selectivity parameters for individual hauls were obtained with the software program cc 2000. Mean selectivity was also estimated and compared using the EC Model software that takes between-haul variations into account. The codend catch size as an additional explanatory variable was used in the comparison. The Kolmogorov,Smirnov (K,S) test was also applied to detect differences between length-frequency distributions in the upper and lower bags of the 12 and 14 mm bar spacings for red mullet and annular sea bream. The mean L50 values of red mullet were 8.7 and 10.0 cm with the 12 and 14 mm grids, respectively. The L50 value of 14 mm was comparable with the L50 value of the codend mesh size; however, the 12 mm value was rather low. The mean L50 values of 12 and 14 mm bar spacings were 8.8 and 10.4 cm for annular sea bream, respectively; the value of 14 mm bar spacing was very close to 50% size at sexual maturity of the species (10.5 cm). The K,S test indicated length distributions of red mullet and annular sea bream in the 12 and 14 mm upper and lower bags as significantly different (P < 0.05). These results show that improving the size selectivity in a multi-species fishery using a single selective device is rather difficult. However, higher size selectivity can be obtained when considering the minimum landing size or the 50% sexual maturity size for a given species. [source]

    Role of habitat degradation in determining fish distribution and abundance along the lowland Warta River, Poland

    A. Kruk
    Summary The distribution and abundance of fish collected in 1996,1998 are compared in three river sections X, Y and Z in the 808-km-long Warta River, Poland. The upper section, X, was least human-modified, the middle section, Y, was the most polluted by industry and regulated, and the downstream section, Z, was moderately disturbed. The differences between X and Y in concentrations of dissolved oxygen, volatile phenols and nitrite nitrogen, and in the index of availability of hiding places, were highly significant because these parameters were several times worse in the Y section; in the Z section they assumed intermediate values. Although the abundance of certain fish species was changing along the downstream river gradient (i.e. differed the most between X and Z), both the Kohonen artificial neural network (SOM) and assemblage indices showed the biggest differences between X and Y, thus confirming the crucial role of the degradation of aquatic environment in shaping fish assemblages. The latter result ensued from the reaction of the rheophilic burbot, stone loach, gudgeon, chub and dace, which were most abundant in X, almost absent in Y and reoccurring in Z (although less numerous when compared with X). The opposite was recorded for mud loach, tench, ide and silver bream, which were most abundant in the degraded section Y, probably because of weak competition with the almost-absent rheophils. The abundance of two generalists, roach and pike, was similar in all three sections, i.e. changed neither along the downstream nor in the degradation gradient. [source]

    Blood cell profile of six Mediterranean mariculture fish species

    M. Pavlidis
    Summary The haematological profile and a description of the cell types from the peripheral blood of six Mediterranean fish species are presented. The highest haematocrit value was recorded in the saupe, Sarpa salpa (P < 0.001), the only herbivorous species, and which also lacked monocyte cells. Eosinophils were absent from the blood of the European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax. White sea bream, Diplodus sargus and gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata had statistically significantly high numbers of neutrophils and low numbers of lymphocytes (P < 0.001). The numbers of different leucocyte cell types were not influenced by sex or maturity stage in any species, although some variation in the maximum diameter of the cells was observed. [source]

    Dynamics of black spot sea bream (Pagellus bogaraveo) mean length: evaluating the influence of life history parameters, recruitment, size selectivity and exploitation rates

    K. Erzini
    Summary Stochastic simulations were used to evaluate the influence of recruitment pattern (log-normal, decreasing), size selectivity (normal, logistic model) and fishing mortality pattern (abrupt, continuous increase in fishing mortality) on the evolution of mean length and the dispersion of mean length for a relatively long-lived deep-water species, the black spot sea bream (Pagellus bogaraveo). An abrupt increase in fishing mortality resulted in mean size decreasing and stabilizing at a lower level while a steady increase in fishing mortality caused the continuous decrease in mean size that has been reported for many long-lived species. Decrease in mean size was greatest for logistic model simulations and for cases where fish were susceptible to capture at a small size. Logistic selectivity, with decreasing recruitment and increasing fishing mortality over time, resulted in mean length and variability in mean length trends similar to that observed for the Strait of Gibraltar fishery. Furthermore, it was found with the declining recruitment that moderate increases in fishing mortality can result in significant decreases in mean length. Given the importance of mean size as an indicator of the state of a resource, these simulations are a useful alternative or complement to standard fisheries assessment methods, helping to provide information on exploitation patterns and rates that can be used for conservation and management. [source]

    Sub-population structure of common fish species in the Elbe River estimated from DNA analysis

    C. Wolter
    Summary The aim of this study was to analyse the genetic structure of populations for seven common cyprinid fish species within a 120-km-long stretch of the lowland Elbe River, northern Germany. The results are needed for habitat modelling to estimate the proportion that environmentally based variance has of the total variances of home range, species distribution, habitat use and fish assemblage structure. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-fingerprinting offers a rapid, efficient method for generating genetic markers and was therefore used to obtain an overview on population-genetic structures of the following seven fish species: asp (Aspius aspius), bleak (Alburnus alburnus), blue bream (Abramis ballerus), common bream (Abramis brama), gudgeon (Gobio gobio), ide (Leuciscus idus) and roach (Rutilus rutilus). Of the 20 random primers, between eight (ide) and 18 (roach) produced polymorphic bands. The mean levels of genetic similarity between samples, estimated as bandsharing frequencies, varied between 76% in bleak and 98% in asp. The corresponding genetic distances among samples varied between 0.02 ± 0.01 in asp and 0.24 ± 0.09 in bleak. The genetic distances among samples were not significant in all of the pairwise comparisons, and correlated only weakly with the geographic distances among sampling sites. It was therefore concluded that the stretch of the Elbe surveyed was inhabited by single, panmictic populations of the species studied and thus that the observed habitat preferences, fish distribution, home range and ecological performance of species within this area will depend on stochastic environmental factors or result from biotic interactions. [source]

    Genetic interactions between marine finfish species in European aquaculture and wild conspecifics

    The principal species of marine aquaculture in Europe are Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and sea bream (Sparus auratus). For Atlantic salmon and sea bass, a substantial part of total genetic variation is partitioned at the geographical population level. In the case of sea bream, gene flow across the Azores/Mediterranean scale appears to be extensive and population structuring is not detected. For Atlantic salmon and sea bass, natural population structure is at risk from genetic interaction with escaped aquaculture conspecifics. The locally adaptive features of populations are at risk from interbreeding with non-local aquaculture fish. Wild populations, generally, are at risk from interactions with aquaculture fish that have been subject to artificial selection or domestication. Atlantic salmon is the main European aquaculture species and its population genetics and ecology have been well-studied. A general case regarding genetic interactions can be based on the information available for salmon and extended to cover other species, in the appropriate context. A generalized flow chart for interactions is presented. Salmon escape from aquaculture at all life stages, and some survive to breed among wild salmon. Reproductive fitness in the escaped fish is lower than in native, wild fish because of behavioural deficiencies at spawning. However, as the number of salmon in aquaculture greatly exceeds the number of wild fish, even small fractional rates of escape may result in the local presence of large numbers, and high frequencies, of escaped fish. At present, policy and legislation in relation to minimizing genetic interactions between wild and aquaculture fish is best developed for Atlantic salmon, through the recommendations of the Oslo Agreement developed by the North Atlantic Salmon Conservation Organization and subsequent agreements on their implementation. In future, the potential use of genetically modified fish in aquaculture will make additional policy development necessary. Improved containment is recommended as the key to minimizing the numbers and therefore the effects of escaped fish. Emergency recovery procedures are recommended as a back-up measure in the case of containment failure. Reproductive sterility is recommended as a future key to eliminating the genetic potential of escaped fish. The maintenance of robust populations of wild fish is recommended as a key to minimizing the effects of escaped fish on wild populations. [source]

    A review of marine aquaculture in Spain: production, regulations and environmental monitoring

    A. Sánchez-Mata
    Summary In this review the main aspects concerning Spanish marine aquaculture production, and its control, are summarized. Aquaculture in Spain has been dominated by extensive shellfish farming, mainly mussels (3242 rafts; 260 000 t year -1 in 1998), since the beginning of the 1950s. This type of farming was the most lucrative marine aquaculture activity in the Galician Rías (NW of the Iberian Peninsula) in terms of production. In recent years, finfish farming has developed in a number of Mediterranean locations, with turbot, sea bream and sea bass as the most important species produced (18 300 t year -1 in 1998). Environmental, food-quality and medicine standards are also reviewed in this paper including the regulations, rules, farm licensing, permits and monitoring programmes involved. [source]

    Feeding efficiency of white bream at different inorganic turbidities and light climates

    Z. Pekcan-Hekim
    Experiments were conducted to test the effects of turbidity (10,50 NTU) and light (0,2 ,E m,2 s,1) on the feeding efficiency of white bream Abramis björkna preying on Chaoborus flavicans. Increased turbidity and low light levels did not have a significant impact on the feeding of white bream. In total darkness feeding was impeded indicating that white bream depends on vision for feeding. The dominance of white bream in temperate eutrophic lakes could be attributed to their success of feeding in turbid and low light environments. [source]

    Identifying migratory contingents of fish by combining otolith Sr:Ca with temporal collections of ambient Sr:Ca concentrations

    T. S. Elsdon
    Ambient strontium:calcium (Sr:Ca) concentrations were determined at the temporal scales of months, weeks and days, in summer and winter at two estuarine sites, and experimentally derived correlations between ambient and otolith Sr:Ca were used to estimate the otolith Sr:Ca concentrations of ,resident' black bream Acanthopagrus butcheri. Wild black bream were collected in summer and winter at the end of the temporal water sampling, and their otolith Sr:Ca concentrations were examined. Wild fish were classified as ,resident' if their otolith Sr:Ca matched the predicted concentrations of resident fish, and ,migrant' if this did not occur. In winter, all fish were classified as resident. In summer, all fish were classified as migrants, with fish spending an average of only 16·8% (estuary 1) and 61·1% (estuary 2) of their time at each estuarine location. [source]