Bruxism

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Bruxism

  • sleep bruxism


  • Selected Abstracts


    Influence of psychosocial factors on the development of sleep bruxism among children

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PAEDIATRIC DENTISTRY, Issue 5 2009
    JUNIA M. SERRA-NEGRA
    Background., Bruxism is described as an orofacial parafunction that affects both children and adults. The maintenance of the childhood habit into adulthood may compromise health. As there are few studies on this issue, there is a need for further research on sleep bruxism among children. Aim., The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of sleep bruxism in children and the influence of psychosocial factors. Methods., A cross-sectional study was carried out on 652 randomly selected children aged 7,10 years at public and private schools in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The instruments used were: questionnaire for parents, Child Stress Scale, and the scales on neuroticism and responsibility from the prevalidated Big Five Questionnaire for Children. Psychological tests were administered and evaluated by psychologists. Sleep bruxism among children was reported by parents. The Social Vulnerability Index from the city hall database was used to determine the social classification of the families. The chi-squared test, binary and multivariate logistic regressions were used, with the significance level set at 5%. Results., A 35.3% prevalence of bruxism was found. No association was found between bruxism and stress, gender, age, or social vulnerability. The adjusted logistic model determined that children with high levels of neuroticism (OR = 1.9, CI 1.3,2.6) and responsibility (OR = 2.2, CI 1.0,5.0) are twice as likely to have the habit of sleep bruxism when compared to those who have low levels of these personality traits. Conclusions., A high degree of responsibility and neuroticism, which are individual personality traits, are determinant factors for the development of sleep bruxism among children. [source]


    Assessment of bruxism in the clinic,

    JOURNAL OF ORAL REHABILITATION, Issue 7 2008
    K. KOYANO
    Summary, Bruxism is a much-discussed clinical issue in dentistry. Although bruxism is not a life-threatening disorder, it can influence the quality of human life, especially through dental problems, such as tooth wear, frequent fractures of dental restorations and pain in the oro-facial region. Therefore, various clinical methods have been devised to assess bruxism over the last 70 years. This paper reviews the assessment of bruxism, provides information on various assessment methods which are available in clinical situations and discusses their effectiveness and usefulness. Currently, there is no definitive method for assessing bruxism clinically that has reasonable diagnostic and technical validity, affects therapeutic decisions and is cost effective. One future direction is to refine questionnaire items and clinical examination because they are the easiest to apply in everyday practice. Another possible direction is to establish a method that can measure actual bruxism activity directly using a device that can be applied to patients routinely. More clinical studies should examine the clinical impact of bruxism on oral structures, treatment success and the factors influencing the decision-making process in dental treatment. [source]


    Is bruxism severity a predictor of oral splint efficacy in patients with myofascial face pain?

    JOURNAL OF ORAL REHABILITATION, Issue 1 2003
    K. G. Raphael
    summary, Both the efficacy and mechanism of any effect of oral splint therapy for patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) are a matter of controversy. To address these issues, this study tested the hypothesis that oral splints produce the most marked pain relief for those TMD patients with myofascial face pain (MFP) who also brux (i.e. grind or clench) more than other MFP patients. In a 6-week randomized controlled clinical trial, 52 women with MFP were randomly assigned to receive either a full-coverage hard acrylic splint or a palatal-only splint. Bruxism was assessed both by self-report and by an objective assessment of molar microwear changes over a 2-week period prior to the start of the trial. Tested across multiple outcome measures, results indicated that those receiving the full-coverage splint had marginally better improvement on some pain-related measures than those receiving the palatal splint, but severity of bruxism did not moderate the therapeutic effect of the full-coverage splint. These findings strongly argue against the belief that oral splints reduce MFP by reducing bruxism and raise questions about the importance of bruxism in the maintenance of MFP. [source]


    Reported bruxism and stress experience

    COMMUNITY DENTISTRY AND ORAL EPIDEMIOLOGY, Issue 6 2002
    J. Ahlberg
    Abstract,,, The aim of the study was to analyze whether perceived bruxism was associated with stress experience, age, gender, work role, and occupational health care use among a nonpatient multiprofessional population. Altogether, 1784 (age 30,55 years) employees of the Finnish Broadcasting Company were mailed a self-administered questionnaire covering demographics, perceived bruxism, total stress experience and the use of health care services provided by the company. The response rate was 75% (n = 1339, 51% men) and mean age was 46 years (SD = 6) in both genders. There were no significant differences in demographic status by age and gender. Bruxism and stress experiences did not significantly vary with regard to category of work, but both were significantly more frequent among women (P < 0.05). In all work categories frequent bruxers reported more stress, and the perceptions were significantly differently polarized between the groups (P < 0.001). According to logistic regression, frequent bruxism was significantly positively associated with severe stress experience (Odds ratio = 5.00; 95% CI = 2.84,8.82) and female gender (Odds ratio = 2.26; 95% CI = 1.43,3.55). Frequent bruxism was also significantly positively associated with the numbers of occupational health care and dental visits (P < 0.01), and slightly negatively associated with increasing age and work in administration (P < 0.05). It was concluded that bruxism may reveal ongoing stress in normal work life. [source]


    A review of the acute subjective effects of MDMA/ecstasy

    ADDICTION, Issue 7 2006
    Chelsea A. Baylen
    ABSTRACT Aim Although several relatively recent reviews have summarized the neuropsychiatric effects associated with chronic ecstasy use, there is no published comprehensive review of studies on the acute subjective effects (ASEs) of MDMA/ecstasy. Design The present study reviewed the prevalence, intensity and duration of ASEs collected from 24 studies that provided frequency data on the prevalence of self-reported ecstasy effects and/or provided data on the intensity of ecstasy effects. Findings Although hundreds of ASEs have been reported following MDMA consumption, we identified a subset of effects reported repeatedly by meaningful proportions and large numbers of participants across multiple investigations, most of which were either emotional (e.g. anxiety, depression, closeness, fear, euphoria, calmness) or somatic (e.g. nausea/vomiting, bruxism, muscle aches/headache, sweating, numbness, body temperature changes, fatigue, dizziness, dry mouth, increased energy). Only one sexual ASE (sexual arousal/increased sensual awareness), one cognitive ASE (confused thought), one sensory,perceptual ASE (visual effects/changes in visual perception), one sleep-related ASE (sleeplessness) and one appetite-related ASE (decreased appetite) were reported across five or more investigations. Three factors,number of hours between ingestion and assessment, dose level, and gender,have been associated with the acute subjective experience of MDMA/ecstasy., Conclusions This review provides useful information for clinicians and researchers who want to understand the desirable and undesirable ASEs that may motivate and restrain ecstasy use, for public health advocates who seek to reduce biomedical harms (e.g. fainting, dehydration, shortness of breath, bruxism) associated with recreational use of MDMA/ecstasy, and for educators who wish to design credible prevention messages that neither underestimate nor exaggerate users' experiences of this drug. [source]


    Effects of an occlusal splint compared with cognitive-behavioral treatment on sleep bruxism activity

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ORAL SCIENCES, Issue 1 2007
    Michelle A. Ommerborn
    The impact of an occlusal splint (OS) compared with cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) on the management of sleep bruxism (SB) has been poorly investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an OS with CBT in SB patients. Following a randomized assignment, the OS group consisted of 29, and the CBT group of 28, SB patients. The CBT comprised problem-solving, progressive muscle relaxation, nocturnal biofeedback, and training of recreation and enjoyment. The treatment took place over a period of 12 wk, and the OS group received an OS over the same time period. Both groups were examined pretreatment, post-treatment, and at 6 months of follow-up for SB activity, self-assessment of SB activity and associated symptoms, psychological impairment, and individual stress-coping strategies. The analyses demonstrated a significant reduction in SB activity, self-assessment of SB activity, and psychological impairment, as well as an increase of positive stress-coping strategies in both groups. However, the effects were small and no group-specific differences were seen in any dependent variable. This is an initial attempt to compare CBT and OS in SB patients, and the data collected substantiate the need for further controlled evaluations, using a three-group randomized design with repeated measures to verify treatment effects. [source]


    Relationship between symptoms of temporomandibular disorders and dental status, general health and psychosomatic factors in two cohorts of 70-year-old subjects

    GERODONTOLOGY, Issue 3 2007
    Tor Österberg
    Objective:, To study the prevalence of symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in two cohorts of 70-year-old subjects examined 8 years apart and analyse the relationship between such symptoms and dental status, general health and various background factors. Materials and methods:, Two cohorts of 70-year-old subjects, born in 1922 (n = 422) and 1930 (n = 491) respectively, were examined with an interval of 8 years. A TMD symptom index (0,5) was established on answers to five questions related to TMD symptoms. Results:, There were no statistically significant differences between the two cohorts for prevalence of TMD symptoms and TMD index, neither for headache, neck ache, bruxism and chewing ability. TMJ sounds was the most prevalent symptom, 14%, whereas other TMD symptoms had low prevalence. The distribution of the TMD symptom index showed that 81% reported no symptoms, 15% one symptom, 3% two symptoms and 1% three to five symptoms. Single TMD symptoms and the TMD index exhibited significant associations (p < 0.001) with bruxism, headache, neck pain and several general health and psychosomatic factors, but with dental status only in women. Logistic regression showed that bruxism, neck pain, mouth dryness and a number of psychosomatic factors were associated with the TMD index. Conclusions:, Besides TMJ sounds (14%), other TMD symptoms were rarely reported by the 70-year-old subjects. The TMD index was significantly associated with bruxism and several general health and psychosomatic complaints but with dental status only in women. [source]


    Influence of psychosocial factors on the development of sleep bruxism among children

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PAEDIATRIC DENTISTRY, Issue 5 2009
    JUNIA M. SERRA-NEGRA
    Background., Bruxism is described as an orofacial parafunction that affects both children and adults. The maintenance of the childhood habit into adulthood may compromise health. As there are few studies on this issue, there is a need for further research on sleep bruxism among children. Aim., The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of sleep bruxism in children and the influence of psychosocial factors. Methods., A cross-sectional study was carried out on 652 randomly selected children aged 7,10 years at public and private schools in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The instruments used were: questionnaire for parents, Child Stress Scale, and the scales on neuroticism and responsibility from the prevalidated Big Five Questionnaire for Children. Psychological tests were administered and evaluated by psychologists. Sleep bruxism among children was reported by parents. The Social Vulnerability Index from the city hall database was used to determine the social classification of the families. The chi-squared test, binary and multivariate logistic regressions were used, with the significance level set at 5%. Results., A 35.3% prevalence of bruxism was found. No association was found between bruxism and stress, gender, age, or social vulnerability. The adjusted logistic model determined that children with high levels of neuroticism (OR = 1.9, CI 1.3,2.6) and responsibility (OR = 2.2, CI 1.0,5.0) are twice as likely to have the habit of sleep bruxism when compared to those who have low levels of these personality traits. Conclusions., A high degree of responsibility and neuroticism, which are individual personality traits, are determinant factors for the development of sleep bruxism among children. [source]


    Diagnosis and Management of Maxillary Incisors Affected by Incisal Wear: An Interdisciplinary Case Report

    JOURNAL OF ESTHETIC AND RESTORATIVE DENTISTRY, Issue 6 2002
    JUSSARA KARINA BERNARDON
    ABSTRACT In the attempt to restore anterior teeth affected by erosion and bruxism, many clinicians have been frustrated with the constant restorative failures. Frequently, these failures are attributed to the restorative materials employed, especially in cases in which composite resins are used. However, some flaws of the restorations are related to the oversight of occlusal principles. The purpose of this article is to discuss the etiology, signs, and symptoms of incisal wear, with special attention to that caused by bruxism and chemical erosion. Relatively simple management techniques (e.g., occlusal adjustment, adhesive restorations) are proposed, and the diagnosis and management of a representative clinical case is presented. [source]


    Management of TMD: evidence from systematic reviews and meta-analyses

    JOURNAL OF ORAL REHABILITATION, Issue 6 2010
    T. LIST
    Summary, This systematic review (SR) synthesises recent evidence and assesses the methodological quality of published SRs in the management of temporomandibular disorders (TMD). A systematic literature search was conducted in the PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Bandolier databases for 1987 to September 2009. Two investigators evaluated the methodological quality of each identified SR using two measurement tools: the assessment of multiple systematic reviews (AMSTAR) and level of research design scoring. Thirty-eight SRs met inclusion criteria and 30 were analysed: 23 qualitative SRs and seven meta-analyses. Ten SRs were related to occlusal appliances, occlusal adjustment or bruxism; eight to physical therapy; seven to pharmacologic treatment; four to TMJ and maxillofacial surgery; and six to behavioural therapy and multimodal treatment. The median AMSTAR score was 6 (range 2,11). Eighteen of the SRs were based on randomised clinical trials (RCTs), three were based on case,control studies, and nine were a mix of RCTs and case series. Most SRs had pain and clinical measures as primary outcome variables, while few SRs reported psychological status, daily activities, or quality of life. There is some evidence that the following can be effective in alleviating TMD pain: occlusal appliances, acupuncture, behavioural therapy, jaw exercises, postural training, and some pharmacological treatments. Evidence for the effect of electrophysical modalities and surgery is insufficient, and occlusal adjustment seems to have no effect. One limitation of most of the reviewed SRs was that the considerable variation in methodology between the primary studies made definitive conclusions impossible. [source]


    Prevalence of temporomandibular disorder signs in patients with schizophrenia

    JOURNAL OF ORAL REHABILITATION, Issue 12 2009
    O. GURBUZ
    Summary, The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) signs in a group of institutionalized patients with schizophrenia. Three hundred thirty-nine patients with schizophrenia were examined and compared with 107 age-matched and gender-matched control subjects. TMD signs were evaluated according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria to assess temporomandibular joint pain to palpation, limitation of maximum mouth opening, alteration of mouth opening pathway (deviation/deflection) and temporomandibular joint noises. In addition, tooth wear was recorded for the assessment of bruxism. The prevalence of any TMD signs was observed higher (P = 0·001) in the patients with schizophrenia (284/339, 83·7%) than in the controls (72/107, 67·3%). The prevalence of more than one TMD sign was also significantly higher (P = 0·03) in the patients with schizophrenia (131/339, 38·6%) than in the controls (29/107, 27·1%). Significant differences between the two groups were apparent for joint pain on palpation (P = 0·006), deflection (P = 0·006) and joint sounds (P = 0·002). Severe tooth wear was evident in 39·2% of the patients with schizophrenia compared with 21·2% in the control group (P = 0·001). The finding of the present study showed that, compared to control population, chronically hospitalized patients with schizophrenia seem to be more prone to the development of TMD signs and severe tooth wear and bruxism. [source]


    Oro-facial activities in sleep bruxism patients and in normal subjects: a controlled polygraphic and audio,video study

    JOURNAL OF ORAL REHABILITATION, Issue 2 2009
    K. M. C. DUTRA
    Summary, To our knowledge, the large spectrum of sleep motor activities (SMA) present in the head and neck region has not yet been systematically estimated in normal and sleep bruxism (SB) subjects. We hypothesized that in the absence of audio,video signal recordings, normal and SB subjects would present a high level of SMA that might confound the scoring specificity of SB. A retrospective analysis of several SMA, including oro-facial activities (OFA) and rhythmic masticatory muscle activities (RMMA), was made from polygraphic and audio,video recordings of 21 normal subjects and 25 SB patients. Sleep motor activities were scored, blind to subject status, from the second night of sleep recordings. Discrimination of OFA included the following types of activities: lip sucking, head movements, chewing-like movements, swallowing, head rubbing and scratching, eye opening and blinking. These were differentiated from RMMA and tooth grinding. The frequency of SMA per hour of sleep was lower in normal subjects in comparison with SB patients (P < 0·001). Up to 85% of all SMA in normal subjects were related to OFA while 30% of SMA in SB patients were related to OFA scoring (P < 0·001). The frequency of RMMA was seven times higher in SB patients than in normal subjects (P < 0·001). Several SMA can be observed in normal and SB subjects. In the absence of audio,video signal recordings, the discrimination of various types of OFA is difficult to achieve and may lead to erroneous estimation of SB-related activities. [source]


    Ambulatory polysomnography for the assessment of sleep bruxism

    JOURNAL OF ORAL REHABILITATION, Issue 8 2008
    S. DOERING
    Summary, Ambulatory polysomnography (PSG) is introduced as a new method for assessing sleep bruxism. Nocturnal recordings of masseter electromyography (EMG), electro-encephalography, electro-oculography, electrocardiography, thoracic effort and body position allow for the detection of typical nocturnal masseter activity as well as the determination of sleep stages. Twelve patients with a clinical diagnosis of bruxism were assessed with the ambulatory PSG, all of them fulfilled diagnostic PSG criteria according to Kato et al. (Dent Clin North Am. 2001; 45: 657,684). Per hour of sleep patients showed 34·2 (±10·6) EMG bursts and 5·6 (±1·3) sleep bruxism episodes. Because of the ability to determine sleep stages and the application in the home environment the ambulatory PSG represents a cost-saving alternative to sleep laboratory investigations that might be especially useful in field studies and clinical application. [source]


    Time-variant nature of sleep bruxism outcome variables using ambulatory polysomnography: implications for recognition and therapy evaluation

    JOURNAL OF ORAL REHABILITATION, Issue 8 2008
    J. VAN DER ZAAG
    Summary, The aim of this study was to quantify the time-variant nature of sleep bruxism (SB) and to discuss its consequences. Six clinically diagnosed bruxers and six non-bruxers participated. Four ambulatory polysomnographic (PSG) recordings were obtained for every participant. As SB outcome variables, the number of episodes per hour of sleep (Epi h,1), the number of bursts per hour (Bur h,1) and the bruxism time index (BTI: the percentage of total sleep time spent bruxing) were established. To quantify the time-variant nature of SB, standard errors of measurement (SEMs) were calculated. For the non-bruxers, the SEMs for Epi h,1, Bur h,1 and BTI were 1·0, 5·7 and 0·1. For the bruxers, the respective values were 2·1, 14·9 and 0·4. In the discussion, arguments are given that because of the time-variant nature of the PSG recordings, cut-off bands around cut-off points might be useful for the recognition of SB. [source]


    Bruxism physiology and pathology: an overview for clinicians,

    JOURNAL OF ORAL REHABILITATION, Issue 7 2008
    G. J. LAVIGNE
    Summary, Awake bruxism is defined as the awareness of jaw clenching. Its prevalence is reported to be 20% among the adult population. Awake bruxism is mainly associated with nervous tic and reactions to stress. The physiology and pathology of awake bruxism is unknown, although stress and anxiety are considered to be risk factors. During sleep, awareness of tooth grinding (as noted by sleep partner or family members) is reported by 8% of the population. Sleep bruxism is a behaviour that was recently classified as a ,sleep-related movement disorder'. There is limited evidence to support the role of occlusal factors in the aetiology of sleep bruxism. Recent publications suggest that sleep bruxism is secondary to sleep-related micro-arousals (defined by a rise in autonomic cardiac and respiratory activity that tends to be repeated 8,14 times per hour of sleep). The putative roles of hereditary (genetic) factors and of upper airway resistance in the genesis of rhythmic masticatory muscle activity and of sleep bruxism are under investigation. Moreover, rhythmic masticatory muscle activity in sleep bruxism peaks in the minutes before rapid eye movement sleep, which suggests that some mechanism related to sleep stage transitions exerts an influence on the motor neurons that facilitate the onset of sleep bruxism. Finally, it remains to be clarified when bruxism, as a behaviour found in an otherwise healthy population, becomes a disorder, i.e. associated with consequences (e.g. tooth damage, pain and social/marital conflict) requires intervention by a clinician. [source]


    Assessment of bruxism in the clinic,

    JOURNAL OF ORAL REHABILITATION, Issue 7 2008
    K. KOYANO
    Summary, Bruxism is a much-discussed clinical issue in dentistry. Although bruxism is not a life-threatening disorder, it can influence the quality of human life, especially through dental problems, such as tooth wear, frequent fractures of dental restorations and pain in the oro-facial region. Therefore, various clinical methods have been devised to assess bruxism over the last 70 years. This paper reviews the assessment of bruxism, provides information on various assessment methods which are available in clinical situations and discusses their effectiveness and usefulness. Currently, there is no definitive method for assessing bruxism clinically that has reasonable diagnostic and technical validity, affects therapeutic decisions and is cost effective. One future direction is to refine questionnaire items and clinical examination because they are the easiest to apply in everyday practice. Another possible direction is to establish a method that can measure actual bruxism activity directly using a device that can be applied to patients routinely. More clinical studies should examine the clinical impact of bruxism on oral structures, treatment success and the factors influencing the decision-making process in dental treatment. [source]


    Frequency of parafunctional oral habits in patients with cerebral palsy

    JOURNAL OF ORAL REHABILITATION, Issue 5 2007
    A. O. L. ORTEGA
    Summary, Cerebral palsy (CP) is one of the most frequent conditions encountered in the daily practice of dentists who treat special-needs patients and it seems that parafunctional oral habits are often present in such individuals. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of occurrence of parafunctional habits in individuals with CP. Sixty-five patients with CP were evaluated through a questionnaire and clinical observation, regarding the following habits: pacifier-sucking, finger-sucking, biting objects, tongue interposition, and bruxism. The results showed that nine (13·8%) patients presented with pacifier-sucking, four (6·1%) showed finger-sucking, 12 (18·4%) had the habit of biting objects, 27 (41·5%) presented with tongue interposition, and 24 (36·9%) had eccentric bruxism. The significance of the presence of oral parafunctional habits in individuals with CP, revealed in this study, justifies the need to establish protocols for adequate prevention and clinical intervention in order to minimize the deleterious consequences that may result from such habits. [source]


    The effect of oral splint devices on sleep bruxism: a 6-week observation with an ambulatory electromyographic recording device

    JOURNAL OF ORAL REHABILITATION, Issue 7 2006
    T. HARADA
    summary, This study investigated the effect of stabilization splint (SS) and palatal splint (PS), which had the same design as SS except for the elimination of the occlusal coverage, on sleep bruxism (SB) using a portable electromyographic (EMG) recording system. Sixteen bruxers participated in this study. The EMG activities of the right masseter muscle during sleep were recorded for three nights each in the following five recording periods: before, immediately after, and 2, 4 and 6 weeks after the insertion of the splint. The crossover design, in which each splint was applied to each subject for 6 weeks with an interval of 2 months for a washout period, was employed in this randomized-controlled study. The number of SB events, duration and total activities of SB were analysed. The number of SB events before the insertion of splints (baseline) was 2·98 ± 1·61 times h,1. Both splints significantly reduced SB immediately after the insertion of devices (P < 0·05, one-way repeated-measures anova followed by Dunnett); however, no reduction was observed in 2, 4 or 6 weeks (P > 0·05). There was no statistical difference in the effect on SB between the SS and PS (P > 0·05, two-way repeated-measures anova). Both splints reduced the masseter EMG activities associated with SB; however, the effect was transient. [source]


    Condylar resorption during active orthodontic treatment and subsequent therapy: report of a special case dealing with iatrogenic TMD possibly related to orthodontic treatment

    JOURNAL OF ORAL REHABILITATION, Issue 5 2005
    Y. H. SHEN
    summary, A 28-year-old female underwent orthodontic treatment for approximately 22 months. During the later stages of this treatment, the patient reported right shoulder and neck-muscle pain. In addition, temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD) with a ,clicking' sound during mastication commenced 5 months prior to treatment completion. Specific medication to deal with these symptoms was suggested by medical specialists, as were some stress-relief methods, although the pain still progressed, and subsequent clinical and radiographical examinations were undertaken by another orthodontist. Right mandibular condylar resorption was observed from both the panorex and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) radiographs. No clinical signs of rheumatic disease were observed, although bruxism was noted. Following the termination of the orthodontic treatment by the second practitioner, the patient was treated with splint therapy 1 month subsequent to which, the previous symptoms of pain in the shoulder and neck, and the clicking sound during mastication had subsided. During the 14-month period of splint therapy and follow-up, new bone growth in the right condyle was observed from radiographs. [source]


    Symptoms and signs of temporomandibular disorders and oral parafunctions among Saudi children

    JOURNAL OF ORAL REHABILITATION, Issue 12 2003
    N. M. A. Farsi
    summary, This study aimed to record the prevalence of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and oral parafunctions among Saudi children. A questionnaire and a clinical examination of signs and symptoms of TMD were performed on 1940 stratified randomly selected schoolchildren. The sample was divided into three groups, 505 with primary, 737 with mixed and 734 with permanent dentition. The prevalence of TMD signs was found to be 20·7% and the most common sign of TMD was joint sounds (11·8%). The second most common sign was restricted mouth opening (5·3%). Muscle and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain as well as deviation upon jaw opening appeared infrequently. TMJ sounds were significantly increasing with age (P < 0·05). TMD symptoms as reported by the parents were evident in 24·2% of the returned questionnaires (1113). The most common symptoms were headache (13·6%) and pain on chewing (11·1%). The incidence of headache was found to be significantly increasing from primary to permanent dentition (P < 0·01). No sex difference in the prevalence of any symptom was reported. Nail biting was the most common oral parafunction (27·7%) while bruxism was the least common (8·4%). All parafunctions except bruxism were significantly related to age. Cheek biting and thumb sucking were reported more in females than in males. The importance of a screening examination for symptoms and signs of TMD should not be overlooked in the clinical assessment of the pediatric patient. [source]


    Is bruxism severity a predictor of oral splint efficacy in patients with myofascial face pain?

    JOURNAL OF ORAL REHABILITATION, Issue 1 2003
    K. G. Raphael
    summary, Both the efficacy and mechanism of any effect of oral splint therapy for patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) are a matter of controversy. To address these issues, this study tested the hypothesis that oral splints produce the most marked pain relief for those TMD patients with myofascial face pain (MFP) who also brux (i.e. grind or clench) more than other MFP patients. In a 6-week randomized controlled clinical trial, 52 women with MFP were randomly assigned to receive either a full-coverage hard acrylic splint or a palatal-only splint. Bruxism was assessed both by self-report and by an objective assessment of molar microwear changes over a 2-week period prior to the start of the trial. Tested across multiple outcome measures, results indicated that those receiving the full-coverage splint had marginally better improvement on some pain-related measures than those receiving the palatal splint, but severity of bruxism did not moderate the therapeutic effect of the full-coverage splint. These findings strongly argue against the belief that oral splints reduce MFP by reducing bruxism and raise questions about the importance of bruxism in the maintenance of MFP. [source]


    Validation of diagnostic criteria for sleep bruxism

    JOURNAL OF ORAL REHABILITATION, Issue 9 2002
    K. BABA
    Several diagnostic criteria for bruxism can be taken from the literature; however, most of them have never been validated. This study examined whether predictor variables taken from physical examinations and questionnaires were related to the actual bruxism levels. Fifty dental students agreed to participate in this study and eight examination variables and seven questionnaire variables were collected from them. The subjects measured their nocturnal EMG activity from the right masseter muscle for six consecutive nights in their home by means of a portable EMG device. Off-line analysis was performed on data from second to sixth nights. By using a custom made software, all EMG activity elevations above a minimum threshold of 50% of each subject's individually established maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) level were quantified with regard to the duration and number of elevations and then three outcome variables, which were event number per hour (number/h), event duration per hour (duration h,1), and duration per event (duration/event), were calculated. A multiple stepwise regression (MSR) analysis was conducted to assess the 15 predictor variables and the three outcome variables. These MSR analyses revealed that the joint sound score remained in the regression equation as a predictor (n=50, P < 0·05) of the likelihood that a subject would exhibit longer bruxism events (duration h,1and number h,1). It must be noted that the self-awareness and tooth attrition status were found not to be strong predictors and even for the above variable where significant association was found, the likelihood ratio between the variable and predicted outcomes was not robust. [source]


    A case,control study of temporomandibular disorders: symptomatic disc displacement

    JOURNAL OF ORAL REHABILITATION, Issue 5 2002
    A. M. Velly
    This case,control study was designed to investigate the risk factors for disc displacement (DD) without myofascial pain (MFP). The study population included 59 cases with DD without MFP, selected in two hospital dental clinics, and 100 concurrent controls selected in one of these clinics. The association with DD was evaluated for bruxism, head,neck trauma, orthodontic treatment, and sociodemographic characteristics by using unconditional logistic regression. In the multivariate analysis, excluding psychological factors, an association was found between DD and clenching,grinding (OR=3·57; 95% CI: 1·27,9·98). This association persisted when anxiety (OR=3·07; 95% CI: 1·08,8·70) or depression (OR=4·02; 95% CI: 1·43,11·31) was included in the model. A positive association was noted between orthodontic treatment and DD (OR=3·10; 95% CI: 1·06,9·65). The effect between orthodontic treatment and DD remained and increased with the inclusion of anxiety (OR=3·65; 95% CI: 1·15,11·61) or depression (OR=3·20; 95% CI: 1·06,9·65). A high level of anxiety (OR=2·40; 95% CI: 1·01,5·73), was positively related to DD. We concluded that clenching combined with grinding, and orthodontic treatment are factors related to DD. The interpretation of these associations, however, requires caution because of the inclusion of prevalent cases. [source]


    Quantitative study of bite force during sleep associated bruxism

    JOURNAL OF ORAL REHABILITATION, Issue 5 2001
    K. Nishigawa
    Nocturnal bite force during sleep associated bruxism was measured in 10 subjects. Hard acrylic dental appliances were fabricated for the upper and lower dentitions of each subject. Miniature strain-gauge transducers were mounted to the upper dental appliance at the right and left first molar regions. In addition, thin metal plates that contact the strain-gauge transducers were attached to the lower dental appliance. After a 1-week familiarization with the appliances, nocturnal bite force was measured for three nights at the home of each subject. From the 30 recordings, 499 bruxism events that met the definition criteria were selected. The above described system was also used to measure the maximum voluntary bite forces during the daytime. The mean amplitude of detected bruxism events was 22·5 kgf (s.d. 13·0 kgf) and the mean duration was 7·1 s (s.d. 5·3 s). The highest amplitude of nocturnal bite force in individual subjects was 42·3 kgf (15·6,81·2 kgf). Maximum voluntary bite force during the daytime was 79·0 kgf (51·8,99·7 kgf) and the mean ratio of nocturnal/daytime maximum bite force was 53·1% (17·3,111·6%). These data indicate that nocturnal bite force during bruxism can exceed the amplitude of maximum voluntary bite force during the daytime. [source]


    A clinical diagnosis of diurnal (non-sleep) bruxism in denture wearers

    JOURNAL OF ORAL REHABILITATION, Issue 6 2000
    K. Piquero
    The purpose of this study was to establish a clinical method for diagnosing diurnal bruxism in denture wearers by recording masseter and anterior temporal electromygraph (EMG) activity. Seven suspected bruxists and five normal patients who wore complete dentures and/or distal extension base removable partial dentures were selected for participation. EMG activity in both the masseter and the anterior temporal muscles was recorded bilaterally during silent reading (10 min), maximal voluntary clenching (MVC), tapping in centric occlusion, lateral movements, chewing and swallowing. No significant differences of EMG activity were found between the groups during tapping, lateral movement, chewing and swallowing (P>0·05). However, during 10 min of silent reading, a significant difference was found between the groups when comparing masseter muscle activity (P<0·05). A threshold of 10% of MVC of at least 3-s duration was used to define an individual bruxism event. When the muscle activity recorded during silent reading was further analysed using these criteria, the control group displayed no bruxing activity while the suspected bruxist group displayed a mean frequency of six bruxism events (range 2,10). It was concluded that: (a) masseter muscle activity recorded during 10 min of silent reading showed significant difference between the groups; (b) the criteria selected in this study for the detection of sleep bruxism can also be used to assess diurnal bruxism; and (c) it is possible to diagnose diurnal bruxism in denture wearers by measuring the masseter EMG activity during 10 min of silent reading. [source]


    The effect of amitriptyline on pain intensity and perception of stress in bruxers

    JOURNAL OF PROSTHODONTICS, Issue 2 2001
    Ariel J. Raigrodski DMD
    Purpose The purpose of this clinical pilot study was to evaluate the effect of a tricyclic antidepressant, amitriptyline, on pain-intensity level and level of stress in bruxers. Materials and Methods In a randomized, double-blind, crossover experimental design, 10 subjects received active (amitriptyline 25 mg/night) and inactive (placebo 25 mg/night) medication, over a period of 4 weeks. Results The administration of amitriptyline for 4 weeks did not significantly (p > .05) reduce pain intensity. However, it significantly (p < .05) reduced the level of stress perception. Conclusion The results of this limited study do not support the administration of small doses of amitriptyline over a period of 4 weeks for the management of pain resulting from sleep bruxism. However, the results support the administration of small doses of amitriptyline for the management of the perception of stress levels associated with sleep bruxism. [source]


    Sleep problems and daytime somnolence in a German population-based sample of snoring school-aged children

    JOURNAL OF SLEEP RESEARCH, Issue 1 2007
    STEFFEN EITNER
    Summary Habitual snoring is associated with daytime symptoms like tiredness and behavioral problems. Its association with sleep problems is unclear. We aimed to assess associations between habitual snoring and sleep problems in primary school children. The design was a population-based cross-sectional study with a nested cohort study. The setting was twenty-seven primary schools in the city of Hannover, Germany. Habitual snoring and sleep problems were assessed in primary school children using an extended version of Gozal's sleep-disordered breathing questionnaire (n = 1144). Approximately 1 year later, parents of children reported to snore habitually (n = 114) and an equal number of children who snored never or occasionally were given the Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children, a validated questionnaire for the assessment of pediatric sleep problems. Snoring status was re-assessed using the initial questionnaire and children were then classified as long-term habitual snorers or ex-habitual snorers. An increasing prevalence of sleep problems was found with increasing snoring frequency for sleep-onset delay, night awakenings, and nightmares. Long-term habitual snorers were at significantly increased risk for sleep,wake transition disorders (e.g. rhythmic movements, hypnic jerks, sleeptalking, bruxism; odds ratio, 95% confidence interval: 12.0, 3.8,37.3), sleep hyperhidrosis (3.6, 1.2,10.8), disorders of arousal/nightmares (e.g. sleepwalking, sleep terrors, nightmares; 4.6, 1.3,15.6), and excessive somnolence (i.e. difficulty waking up, morning tiredness, daytime somnolence; 6.3, 2.2,17.8). Ex-habitual snorers were at increased risk for sleep,wake transition disorders (4.4, 1.4,14.2). Habitual snoring was associated with several sleep problems in our study. Long-term habitual snorers were more likely to have sleep problems than children who had stopped snoring spontaneously. [source]


    Abfraction: separating fact from fiction

    AUSTRALIAN DENTAL JOURNAL, Issue 1 2009
    JA Michael
    Abstract Non-carious cervical lesions involve loss of hard tissue and, in some instances, restorative material at the cervical third of the crown and subjacent root surface, through processes unrelated to caries. These non-carious processes may include abrasion, corrosion and possibly abfraction, acting alone or in combination. Abfraction is thought to take place when excessive cyclic, non-axial tooth loading leads to cusp flexure and stress concentration in the vulnerable cervical region of teeth. Such stress is then believed to directly or indirectly contribute to the loss of cervical tooth substance. This article critically reviews the literature for and against the concept of abfraction. Although there is theoretical evidence in support of abfraction, predominantly from finite element analysis studies, caution is advised when interpreting results of these studies because of their limitations. In fact, there is only a small amount of experimental evidence for abfraction. Clinical studies have shown associations between abfraction lesions, bruxism and occlusal factors, such as premature contacts and wear facets, but these investigations do not confirm causal relationships. Importantly, abfraction lesions have not been reported in pre-contemporary populations. It is important that oral health professionals understand that abfraction is still a theoretical concept, as it is not backed up by appropriate clinical evidence. It is recommended that destructive, irreversible treatments aimed at treating so-called abfraction lesions, such as occlusal adjustment, be avoided. [source]


    Attrition, occlusion, (dys)function, and intervention: a systematic review

    CLINICAL ORAL IMPLANTS RESEARCH, Issue 2007
    Arie Van 't Spijker
    Abstract Objectives: Attrition and occlusal factors and masticatory function or dysfunction are thought to be related. This study aims to systematically review the literature on this topic with the emphasis to find evidence for occlusion-based treatment protocols for attrition. Materials and methods: Literature was searched using PubMed (1980 to 2/2006) and the Cochrane Library of Clinical Trials with the keywords ,tooth' and ,wear'. Five steps were followed. Exclusion was based on the following: (1) reviews, case-reports, studies on non-human tooth material, and studies not published in English and (2) historical or forensic studies. Included were (3) in vivo studies. Next, studies on (4) occlusal factors, function or dysfunction [temporomandibular disorders (TMD), bruxism], or intervention, and (5) attrition were included. Two investigators independently assessed the abstracts; measure of agreement was calculated using Cohen's ,; disagreement was resolved by discussion. Full-text articles were obtained and correlation between outcomes on occlusal factors, (dys)function, treatment, and attrition were retrieved. References in the papers included in the final analysis were cross-matched with the original list of references to add references that met the inclusion criteria. Results: The search procedure revealed 1289 references on tooth wear. The numbers of included studies after each step were (1) 345 (,=0.8), (2) 287 (,=0.87), (3) 174 (,=0.99), (4) 81 (,=0.71), and (5) 27 (,=0.68). Hand searches through the reference lists revealed six additional papers to be included. Analysis of the 33 included papers failed to find sound evidence for recommending a certain occlusion-based treatment protocol above another in the management of attrition. Conclusion: Some studies reported correlations between attrition and anterior spatial relationships. No studies were found suggesting that absent posterior support necessarily leads to increased attrition, though one study found that fewer number of teeth resulted in higher tooth wear index (on the remaining teeth). Attrition seems to be co-existent with self-reported bruxism. Reports on attrition and TMD signs and symptoms provide little understanding of the relationship between the two. [source]


    Perceived psychosocial job stress and sleep bruxism among male and female workers

    COMMUNITY DENTISTRY AND ORAL EPIDEMIOLOGY, Issue 3 2008
    Akinori Nakata
    Abstract,,, Objective:, Psychosocial job stress has been associated with sleep disturbances, but its association with sleep bruxism (SB), the stereotype movement disorder related to sleep, is not well understood. The aim of this epidemiological study was to examine the relationship between psychosocial job stress and SB. Methods:, 1944 male and 736 female factory workers participated in this study (response rate 78.1%). Perceived job stress was evaluated with the Japanese version of the generic job stress questionnaire, which covered 13 job stress variables. SB was assessed by the question, ,Do you grind or clench your teeth during your sleep or has anyone in your family told you that you grind your teeth during your sleep?' Response options were ,never', ,seldom', ,sometimes' or ,often'. SB was considered present if the answer was ,sometimes' or ,often'. Results:, Overall, 30.9% of males and 20.2% of females reported SB. In males, workers with low social support from supervisors [odds ratio (OR) = 1.34, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08,1.68] or from colleagues (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.17,1.83), and high depressive symptoms (OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.26,2.03) had a significantly increased risk of SB after controlling for confounders. By contrast, no significant association was found in females. Conclusions:, We conclude that SB is weakly associated with some aspects of job stress in men but not in women among the Japanese working population. [source]