Brush Border (brush + border)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Terms modified by Brush Border

  • brush border membrane
  • brush border membrane vesicle

  • Selected Abstracts


    Molecular identification and localization of cellular titin, a novel titin isoform in the fibroblast stress fiber

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 6 2007
    Peter J. Cavnar
    Abstract We previously discovered a large titin-like protein,c-titin,in chicken epithelial brush border and human blood platelet extracts that binds ,-actinin and organizes arrays of myosin II bipolar filaments in vitro. RT-PCR analysis of total RNA from human megakaryoblastic (CHRF-288-11) and mouse fibroblast (3T3) nonmuscle cells reveal sequences identical to known titin gene exon sequences that encode parts of the Z-line, I-band, PEVK domain, A-band, and M-line regions of striated muscle titins. In the nonmuscle cells, these sequences are differentially spliced in patterns not reported for any striated muscle titin isoform. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies raised against expressed protein fragments encoded by the Z-repeat and kinase domain regions react with the c-titin band in Western blot analysis of platelet extracts and immunoprecipitate c-titin in whole platelet extracts. Immunofluorescent localization demonstrates that the majority of the c-titin colocalizes with ,-actinin and actin in 3T3 and Indian Muntjac deer skin fibroblast stress fibers. Our results suggest that differential expression of titin gene exons in nonmuscle cells yields multiple novel isoforms of the protein c-titin that are associated with the actin stress fiber structures. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 2007. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Histology and ultrastructure of the salivary glands and salivary pumps in the scorpionfly Panorpa obtusa (Mecoptera: Panorpidae)

    ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 4 2010
    Shuyu Liu
    Abstract Liu, S. and Hua, B. 2009. Histology and ultrastructure of the salivary glands and salivary pumps in the scorpionfly Panorpa obtusa (Mecoptera: Panorpidae). ,Acta Zoologica (Stockholm) 91: 457,465. The morphology, histology and ultrastructure of the salivary glands and salivary pumps in the scorpionfly Panorpa obtusaCheng 1949 were investigated using light microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The salivary glands display a distinct sexual dimorphism. The female has only two small sac-like glands located in the prothorax, while the male possesses six long tubular glands extending into the sixth abdominal segment. The male salivary glands can be divided into five distinct regions. The apical long, thin secretory region possesses numerous secretory cells containing large secretory vesicles; the salivary reservoir expands in diameter, accumulating and temporarily storing the saliva in addition to secreting saliva; the constricted region contains prismatic cells with complex infolded plasma membrane; the sac has an internal brush border to absorb water and ions; the common salivary duct contains longitudinal muscles in the male, but not in the female. The salivary pump possesses independent strong dorsal muscles and abundant internal palm spines near its orifice. The anatomy and ultrastructure of the salivary glands and the salivary pump of scorpionflies as well as their possible functions are briefly discussed. [source]


    Dietary pectin up-regulates monocaboxylate transporter 1 in the rat gastrointestinal tract

    EXPERIMENTAL PHYSIOLOGY, Issue 4 2009
    Doaa Kirat
    This work was undertaken to study the effect of pectin feeding on the expression level, cellular localization and functional activity of monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) in the gastrointestinal tract of rats. The results indicated that MCT1 protein level was significantly increased along the entire length of the gastrointestinal tract of pectin-fed rats in comparison with control animals. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed an increase in MCT1 in the stratified squamous epithelia of the forestomach as well as in the basolateral membranes of the cells lining the gastric pit of the glandular stomach of pectin-fed rats when compared with control animals. The parietal cells, which showed barely any or no detectable MCT1 in the control group, exhibited a strong intensity of MCT1 on the basolateral membranes in pectin-fed rats. In the small intestine of pectin-fed rats, strong immunopositivity for MCT1 was detected in the brush border and basolateral membranes of the absorptive enterocytes lining the entire villi, while in control rats, weak reactivity was detected on the brush border membrane in a few absorptive enterocytes in the villus tip. In the large intestine of control animals, MCT1 was detected on the basolateral membranes of the epithelia lining the caecum and colon. This staining intensity was markedly increased in pectin-fed rats, along with the appearance of strong reactivity for MCT1 on the apical membranes of the surface and crypt epithelia of caecum and colon. Our results also showed that MCT1 co-localizes with its chaperone, basigin (CD147), in the rat gastrointestinal tract, and that the pectin feeding increased the expression of CD147. In vivo functional studies revealed an enhanced acetate absorption in the colon of pectin-fed in comparison with control animals. We conclude that MCT1 is up-regulated along the gastrointestinal tract of pectin-fed rats, which might represent an adaptive response to the increased availability of its substrates. [source]


    SAP-1 is a microvillus-specific protein tyrosine phosphatase that modulates intestinal tumorigenesis

    GENES TO CELLS, Issue 3 2009
    Hisanobu Sadakata
    SAP-1 (PTPRH) is a receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase (RPTP) with a single catalytic domain in its cytoplasmic region and fibronectin type III-like domains in its extracellular region. The cellular localization and biological functions of this RPTP have remained unknown, however. We now show that mouse SAP-1 mRNA is largely restricted to the gastrointestinal tract and that SAP-1 protein localizes to the microvilli of the brush border in gastrointestinal epithelial cells. The expression of SAP-1 in mouse intestine is minimal during embryonic development but increases markedly after birth. SAP-1-deficient mice manifested no marked changes in morphology of the intestinal epithelium. In contrast, SAP-1 ablation inhibited tumorigenesis in mice with a heterozygous mutation of the adenomatous polyposis coli gene. These results thus suggest that SAP-1 is a microvillus-specific RPTP that regulates intestinal tumorigenesis. [source]


    Preserved Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 3 expression and localization, but decreased NHE3 function indicate regulatory sodium transport defect in ulcerative colitis,

    INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES, Issue 7 2010
    Sunil Yeruva PhD
    Abstract Background: A major causative factor of diarrhea in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients is the loss of Na+ absorptive capacity of the inflamed colonic mucosa. Potential contributing mechanisms include reduced driving force for active transport, and impaired expression, mislocalization, or defective transport function of Na+ absorptive proteins. We therefore studied the expression, brush border membrane (BBM) localization, and transport capacity of the major intestinal Na+ absorptive protein, the Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) in biopsies from UC patients. Methods: In UC and control biopsies, inflammation was graded histologically, NHE3, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-,), villin, as well as other housekeeping genes were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), BBM localization of NHE3 determined by immunohistochemistry, and confocal microscopy. Na+ absorptive capacity was assessed by 22Na+ isotope fluxes and NHE3 transport activity measured microfluorometrically in BCECF-loaded surface colonocytes within isolated crypts. Results: In mildly, moderately, and severely inflamed sigmoid colon of UC patients, neither NHE3 mRNA expression nor the abundance of NHE3 in the BBM was significantly altered compared to other structural components of the BBM. However, Na+ absorption was strongly reduced by ,80% and acid-activated NHE3 transport activity was significantly decreased in the surface cells of sigmoid colonic crypts even in moderately inflamed mucosa. Conclusions: In the colonic mucosa of patients with active UC, NHE3 transport capacity was found significantly decreased despite correct NHE3 location and abundance in the brush border, independent of current treatment. These findings suggest functional NHE3 transport as a novel factor for inflammatory diarrhea in UC patients. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2010) [source]


    Changes in immune and enzyme histochemical phenotypes of cells in the intestinal mucosa of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., with soybean meal-induced enteritis

    JOURNAL OF FISH DISEASES, Issue 2 2000
    A M Bakke-McKellep
    Extracted soybean meal (SBM) in the diet for Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., causes an inflammatory response in the distal intestine. The morphological changes of the epithelial cells and a characterization of the inflammatory cell infiltrate of the distal intestinal mucosa were studied using a panel of enzyme and immunohistochemical markers. The salmon (average body weight 927 g) used in the study were fed either a fishmeal-based diet (control diet) or a diet in which 30% of the fishmeal protein was replaced with SBM protein (SBM diet). In salmon fed SBM, there were markedly reduced enzyme reactivities in the distal intestinal epithelial cells, both in the brush border [5,-nucleotidase (5,N), Mg2+-ATPase, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and leucine aminopeptidase (LAP)] and in the intracellular structures [alkaline and acid phosphatase, non-specific esterase (NSE) and alanine aminopeptidase (AAP)]. There appeared to be an increased presence of cells of monocytic lineage, including macrophages, as well as neutrophilic granulocytes and immunoglobulin (Ig) M in the lamina propria of the SBM-fed fish. The mid intestine showed little response to the diet. The results suggest that toxic/antigenic component(s) of SBM affect the differentiation of the distal intestinal epithelial cells and may help explain the reduced nutrient digestibilities previously reported in salmonids fed extracted SBM. [source]


    Confocal endomicroscopy for phenotypic diagnosis of gastric cancer

    JOURNAL OF GASTROENTEROLOGY AND HEPATOLOGY, Issue 4 2010
    Kakunori Banno
    Abstract Background and Aim:, Relationships between mucin phenotype and malignant potential in gastric cancers have attracted attention. We attempted to assess the possibility of obtaining phenotypic diagnoses by confocal endomicroscopy. Methods:, Confocal images of target lesions were obtained in 29 of 40 patients with gastric cancer. Appearances of the brush border, goblet cells, and gastric foveolar epithelium were investigated with immunohistochemical staining using CD10, MUC2, and human gastric mucin to evaluate phenotypic expression in gastric carcinomas. Confocal images were compared with immunohistochemical findings for goblet cells and brush borders. Results:, Both the endoscopists and the pathologist obtained high accuracy rates for differential diagnosis. Sensitivity and specificity for goblet cells were 85.7% and 92.3% (Endoscopist A), and 85.7% and 88.5% (Endoscopist B). The ,-value for correspondence between two endoscopists for the diagnosis of goblet cells in confocal images was 0.73. Sensitivity and specificity for the brush border were 93.8% and 91.7% (Endoscopist A), and 81.3% and 91.7% (Endoscopist B). The ,-value for correspondence between two endoscopists for diagnosis of the brush border in confocal images was 0.79. Intestinal phenotypic gastric cancers show a brush border, goblet cells, or both. Sensitivity and specificity for the intestinal phenotype in confocal endomicroscopy were 90.9% and 77.8% (Endoscopist A), and 86.4% and 83.3% (Endoscopist B). Conclusion:, The confocal endomicroscopic diagnosis of the mucin phenotype in gastric cancers was limited to intestinal and mixed phenotypes, but may be useful for the diagnosis of mucin phenotype and differential diagnosis. [source]


    Na+ -H+ exchanger 3 (NHE3) is present in lipid rafts in the rabbit ileal brush border: a role for rafts in trafficking and rapid stimulation of NHE3

    THE JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY, Issue 2 2001
    Xuhang Li
    1Rabbit ileal Na+ -absorbing cell Na+ -H+ exchanger 3 (NHE3) was shown to exist in three pools in the brush border (BB), including a population in lipid rafts. Approximately 50 % of BB NHE3 was associated with Triton X-100-soluble fractions and the other ,50 % with Triton X-100-insoluble fractions; ,33 % of the detergent-insoluble NHE3 was present in cholesterol-enriched lipid microdomains (rafts). 2The raft pool of NHE3 was involved in the stimulation of BB NHE3 activity with epidermal growth factor (EGF). Both EGF and clonidine treatments were associated with a rapid increase in the total amount of BB NHE3. This EGF- and clonidine-induced increase of BB NHE3 was associated with an increase in the raft pool of NHE3 and to a smaller extent with an increase in the total detergent-insoluble fraction, but there was no change in the detergent-soluble pool. In agreement with the rapid increase in the amount of NHE3 in the BB, EGF also caused a rapid stimulation of BB Na+ -H+ exchange activity. 3Disrupting rafts by removal of cholesterol with methyl-,-cyclodextrin (M,CD) or destabilizing the actin cytoskeleton with cytochalasin D decreased the amount of NHE3 in early endosomes isolated by OptiPrep gradient fractionation. Specifically, NHE3 was shown to associate with endosomal vesicles immunoisolated by anti-EEA1 (early endosomal autoantigen 1) antibody-coated magnetic beads and the endosome-associated NHE3 was decreased by cytochalasin D and M,CD treatment. 4We conclude that: (i) a pool of ileal BB NHE3 exists in lipid rafts; (ii) EGF and clonidine increase the amount of BB NHE3; (iii) lipid rafts and to a lesser extent, the cytoskeleton, but not the detergent-soluble NHE3 pool, are involved in the EGF- and clonidine-induced acute increase in amount of BB NHE3; (iv) lipid rafts and the actin cytoskeleton play important roles in the basal endocytosis of BB NHE3. [source]


    THE EPITHELIAL BRUSH BORDER Na+/H+ EXCHANGER NHE3 ASSOCIATES WITH THE ACTIN CYTOSKELETON BY BINDING TO EZRIN DIRECTLY AND VIA PDZ DOMAIN-CONTAINING Na+/H+ EXCHANGER REGULATORY FACTOR (NHERF) PROTEINS

    CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL PHARMACOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY, Issue 8 2008
    Boyoung Cha
    SUMMARY 1The Na+/H+ exchanger NHE3 associates with the actin cytoskeleton by binding ezrin both directly and indirectly. Both types of interaction are necessary for acute regulation of NHE3. Most acute regulation of NHE3 occurs by changes in trafficking via effects on exocytosis and/or endocytosis. However, NHE3 activity can also be regulated without changing the surface expression of NHE3 (change in turnover number). 2A positive amino acid cluster in the a-helical juxtamembrane region in the COOH-terminus of NHE3 (amino acids K516, R520 and R527) is necessary for binding to the protein 4.1, ezrin, radixin, moesin (FERM) domain III of ezrin. Direct binding of NHE3 to ezrin is necessary for many aspects of basal trafficking, including basal exocytosis, delivery from the synthetic pathway and movement of NHE3 in the brush border (BB), which probably contributes to endocytosis over a prolonged period of time. 3In addition, NHE3 binds indirectly to ezrin. The PDZ domain-containing proteins Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor (NHERF) 1 and NHERF2, as intermediates in linking NHE3 to ezrin, are necessary for many aspects of NHE3 regulation. The binding of NHERF,ezrin/radixin/moesin to NHE3 occurs in the cytosolic domain of NHE3 between amino acids 475 and 689. This NHERF binding is involved in the formation of the NHE3 complex and restricts NHE3 mobility in the BB. However, it is dynamic; for example, changing in some cases of signalling. Furthermore, NHERF binding is necessary for lysophosphatidic acid stimulation of NHE3 and inhibition of NHE3 by Ca2+, cAMP and cGMP. [source]


    Alterations in the expression of intestinal enzymes in rats exposed to nickel

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED TOXICOLOGY, Issue 5 2006
    Amika Singla
    Abstract The effect of feeding nickel (50 mg kg,1 body weight) daily for 7 days was studied on the development of various brush border enzymes across the crypt,villus axis. The activities of brush border maltase (P < 0.05), lactase (P < 0.05), alkaline phosphatase (P < 0.05) and leucine amino peptidase (P < 0.05) were augmented in purified brush borders, whereas sucrase, trehlase (P < 0.01) and glutamyl transpeptidase (P < 0.05) were reduced in nickel fed animals compared with controls. Kinetic and heat inactivation studies with brush border sucrase and alkaline phosphatase confirmed these findings. Western blot analysis of alkaline phosphatase showed a strong signal for the enzyme protein but a reduced level of sucrase antigen in nickel fed rat intestine compared with the controls. These findings suggest that the expression of various brush border enzymes along the crypt,villus axis is modulated in rat intestine exposed to nickel, which may disrupt the digestive functions of the intestinal tissue. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Confocal endomicroscopy for phenotypic diagnosis of gastric cancer

    JOURNAL OF GASTROENTEROLOGY AND HEPATOLOGY, Issue 4 2010
    Kakunori Banno
    Abstract Background and Aim:, Relationships between mucin phenotype and malignant potential in gastric cancers have attracted attention. We attempted to assess the possibility of obtaining phenotypic diagnoses by confocal endomicroscopy. Methods:, Confocal images of target lesions were obtained in 29 of 40 patients with gastric cancer. Appearances of the brush border, goblet cells, and gastric foveolar epithelium were investigated with immunohistochemical staining using CD10, MUC2, and human gastric mucin to evaluate phenotypic expression in gastric carcinomas. Confocal images were compared with immunohistochemical findings for goblet cells and brush borders. Results:, Both the endoscopists and the pathologist obtained high accuracy rates for differential diagnosis. Sensitivity and specificity for goblet cells were 85.7% and 92.3% (Endoscopist A), and 85.7% and 88.5% (Endoscopist B). The ,-value for correspondence between two endoscopists for the diagnosis of goblet cells in confocal images was 0.73. Sensitivity and specificity for the brush border were 93.8% and 91.7% (Endoscopist A), and 81.3% and 91.7% (Endoscopist B). The ,-value for correspondence between two endoscopists for diagnosis of the brush border in confocal images was 0.79. Intestinal phenotypic gastric cancers show a brush border, goblet cells, or both. Sensitivity and specificity for the intestinal phenotype in confocal endomicroscopy were 90.9% and 77.8% (Endoscopist A), and 86.4% and 83.3% (Endoscopist B). Conclusion:, The confocal endomicroscopic diagnosis of the mucin phenotype in gastric cancers was limited to intestinal and mixed phenotypes, but may be useful for the diagnosis of mucin phenotype and differential diagnosis. [source]


    Morphological changes induced in the pig kidney by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy: Nephron injury

    THE ANATOMICAL RECORD : ADVANCES IN INTEGRATIVE ANATOMY AND EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY, Issue 1 2003
    Youzhi Shao
    Abstract While shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) is known to cause significant damage to the kidney, little is known about the initial injury to cells along the nephron. In this study, one kidney in each of six juvenile pigs (6,7 weeks old) was treated with 1,000 shock waves (at 24 kV) directed at a lower pole calyx with an unmodified HM-3 lithotripter. Three pigs were utilized as sham-controls. Kidneys were fixed by vascular perfusion immediately after SWL or sham-SWL. Three of the treated kidneys were used to quantitate lesion size. Cortical and medullary samples for light (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were taken from the focal zone for the shock waves (F2), the contralateral kidney, and the kidneys of sham-SWL pigs. Because preservation of the tissue occurred within minutes of SWL, the initial injury caused by the shock waves could be separated from secondary changes. No tissue damage was observed in contralateral sham-SWL kidneys, but treated kidneys showed signs of injury, with a lesion of 0.2% 0.1% of renal volume. Intraparenchymal hemorrhage and injury to tubules was found at F2 in both the cortex and medulla of SWL-treated kidneys. Tubular injury was always associated with intraparenchymal bleeding, and the range of tissue injury included total destruction of tubules, focal cellular fragmentation, necrosis, cell vacuolization, and membrane blebbing. The initial injury caused by SWL was cellular fragmentation and necrosis. Cellular vacuolization, membrane blebbing, and disorganization of apical brush borders appear to be secondary changes related to hypoxia. Anat Rec Part A 275A:979,989, 2003. 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]