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Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Chlorpyrifos-induced DNA damage in rat liver and brain

Anugya Mehta
Abstract Chlorpyrifos (O,O'-diethyl- O -3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl phosphorothionate, CPF) is a broad spectrum organophosphate pesticide used to control a variety of pests. The present study was undertaken to test the in vivo genotoxic potential of CPF in rats, using the single cell gel electrophoresis (or comet) assay. The rats were administered 50 mg and 100 mg CPF/kg body weight daily for 1, 2, and 3 days as well as 1.12 mg and 2.24 mg CPF/kg body weight for 90 days. The level of DNA damage was estimated by scoring 100 cells per animal, dividing into five types: types 0, I, II, III, and IV. The results clearly indicate that exposure to CPF, acutely or chronically, caused a dose-dependent increase in DNA damage in the liver and brain of rats. From the present study, it can be concluded that CPF exhibits genotoxic potential in vivo. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Improved outcome of EAN, an animal model of GBS, through amelioration of peripheral and central inflammation by minocycline

Zhi-Yuan Zhang
Abstract Experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN) is a widely used animal model of the human acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, which is the most common subtype of Guillain-Barré Syndrome. EAN is pathologically characterized by breakdown of the blood-nerve barrier, infiltration of reactive immune cells, local inflammation, demyelination in the peripheral nervous system and mechanical allodynia. Minocycline is known to have neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects. Furthermore, relieve of neuropathic pain following minocycline administration was observed in a variety of animal models. Here, we investigated the effects of minocycline on rat EAN. Suppressive treatment with minocycline (50 mg/kg body weight daily immediately after immunization) significantly attenuated the severity and duration of EAN. Macrophage and T-cell infiltration and demyelination in sciatic nerves of EAN rats treated with minocycline were significantly reduced compared to phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-treated EAN rats. mRNA expressions of matrix metallopeptidase-9, inducible nitric oxide synthase and pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 , and tumour necrosis factor-, in EAN sciatic nerves were greatly decreased by administration of minocycline as well. Furthermore, minocycline attenuated mechanical allodynia in EAN rats and greatly suppressed spinal microglial activation. All together, our data showed that minocycline could effectively suppress the peripheral and spinal inflammation (immune activation) to improve outcome in EAN rats, which suggests that minocycline may be considered as a potential candidate of pharmacological treatment for autoimmune-mediated neuropathies. [source]

Growth and Survival of Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, Fry Fed Diets with 36 or 45% Total Protein and All Plant or Animal Protein Sources

Todd D. Sink
The basic nutrient requirements for channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, are well known, with anecdotal evidence suggesting that catfish fry grow faster and have better survival when fed an animal protein diet. However, the ability to grow channel catfish as small as 11 g on all plant diets and a lack of published data showing the superiority of fish or animal proteins compared to nutritionally equivalent plant proteins for catfish fry indicates that it may be possible to raise channel catfish fry on diets with only plant protein sources. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to compare the effects of 36 and 45% animal protein diets and 36 and 45% all plant protein diets on catfish fry growth and survival. Experimental diets were formulated to contain: 36% all plant protein (primarily from soybean meal); 36% animal and plant protein (,45% of crude protein as fish meal); 45% all plant protein (primarily from soy protein concentrate and soybean meal); and 45% animal and plant protein (,60% of crude protein as fish meal). The catfish were fed at a rate of 20% of body weight daily for 28 d using 24-h automated feeders. Mean ending weights and lengths of catfish fry were not significantly different (P > 0.05) for any treatment. Mean mortality was also not significantly different (P > 0.05) among diets. Regression analysis of growth rate and analysis of variance of final weights revealed that there was no significant difference in growth rate for any of the four diets. These results indicate that growth is not limited in channel catfish fry fed all plant protein diets, and that there is no apparent advantage to the inclusion of animal protein in diets for channel catfish fry. [source]

Assessing the use of a dietary probiotic/prebiotic as an enhancer of spinefoot rabbitfish Siganus rivulatus survival and growth

Abstract The use of prebiotics and probiotics as feed supplements that improve efficiency of intestinal bacteria is becoming de rigueur in animal husbandry in many regions worldwide. We tested the effects of a commercial probiotic (Biogen®) containing allicin, high unit hydrolytic enzyme, Bacillus subtilis spores and ginseng extracts on survival, growth, carcass composition and feed cost/benefit in rabbitfish Siganus rivulatus. Fifteen net cages (100 × 100 × 40 cm; L × W × H) were stocked with 10 juvenile rabbitfish (10.3 g per fish) each and placed in a large rectangular tank and offered feed at 4% body weight daily. Cages were offered one of five isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets containing 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 g kg,1 probiotic at three replicates per treatment for 98 days. Fish in all cages were weighed at 2-week intervals and feed regimen was adjusted accordingly. Rabbitfish offered the control diet exhibited lower growth and feed utilization than all experimental treatments. There was no effect of probiotic inclusion level on survival but growth was better at all inclusion levels than in the control. No significant differences (P > 0.05) in growth were observed among fish groups fed various levels of the probiotic. Carcass composition was not affected by dietary probiotic inclusion. Ultimately, when all variables are considered, Biogen® inclusion to diets appears to reduce feed cost per unit growth of rabbitfish. [source]

Nutritional evaluation of dhaincha (Sesbania aculeata) seeds as dietary protein source for tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

M A Hossain
An 8-week feeding trial was conducted in a warmwater recirculation system at 27 ± 0.2 °C to evaluate the nutritive value of dhaincha (Sesbania aculeata) seed meal as a possible fish meal substitute in the diet of tilapia. Five isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated to contain 32% crude protein and 18.4 kJ g,1 gross energy. Sesbania seed meal was included in diets at various levels [0%, 9.7%, 19.4%, 29.1% and 38.8% for diets 1 (control), 2, 3, 4 and 5, respectively, which correspond to 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% of dietary crude protein]. Each treatment had two replicates, eight fish per replicate, with mean initial weight of 7.06 ± 0.03 g. Fish were fed 20 g kg,1 metabolic body weight daily. On the basis of the observed growth rate, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio, apparent net protein utilization and energy retention, diets 1 (control) and 2 (containing 9.7% Sesbania meal) were similar and significantly (P < 0.05) better than the other dietary groups. Fish fed diets 3, 4 and 5 containing higher levels of Sesbania meal showed significantly reduced growth performance compared with those fed diets 1 and 2. Fish fed diets 3, 4 and 5 had significantly lower faecal dry matter (DM) content, apparent crude protein, lipid and energy digestibility and reduced levels of cholesterol compared with the control and diet 2. Fish fed diets containing higher levels (>9.7%) of Sesbania meal had significantly higher whole-body moisture, lower lipid and gross energy content. The lower growth performance of fish fed diets containing higher levels of Sesbania meal is thought to result from the presence of tannins, saponin and the non-starch polysaccharide content of the seed. The results of this study showed that inclusion of up to 9.7% untreated Sesbania seed meal (10% of the dietary protein) in the diet did not affect the growth performance and nutrient utilization in tilapia. [source]

Absence of hypoglycemia in response to varying doses of recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-I (rhIGF-I) in children and adolescents with low serum concentrations of IGF-I

Jaime Guevara-Aguirre
Abstract Aim: To determine whether recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-I (rhIGF-I) administration to children with low IGF-I and relatively low insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP3) serum concentrations would result in hypoglycemia. Methods: Eighteen children age 11,19 y with serum levels of IGF-I,<,,,2 SDS and IGFBP3,<,0 SDS were randomly assigned to receive rhIGF-I at 80 µg/kg body weight daily (n=6), 40 µg/kg twice daily (n=6), or 80 µg/kg twice daily (n=6). After a 10-d dose escalation and 15 d of treatment at the specified dosage, a 25-h pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile was obtained, which included 22 blood glucose measurements. Regular meals and snacks were provided. Results: No signs or symptoms of hypoglycemia were noted throughout the study. There were no differences in mean blood glucose concentrations among the three dosage groups. The lowest glucose value recorded, 3.44 mmol/l, was 15 min after a morning injection of 80 µg/kg IGF-I, and promptly rose. Although subjects were selected on the basis of low concentrations of IGF-I to represent proposed candidates for rhIGF-I therapy, the mean and range of SDS for height were not different from those of previously studied normal Ecuadorian controls. Conclusion: In normal individuals with low serum concentrations of IGF-I and relatively low concentrations of IGFBP3, the administration of therapeutic doses of rhIGF-I, while maintaining reasonable food intake, does not result in hypoglycemia. [source]