Body Weight Change (body + weight_change)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Less frequent body weight gain in elderly type 2 diabetic patients treated with glimepiride

GERIATRICS & GERONTOLOGY INTERNATIONAL, Issue 1 2003
Kaori Inoue
Background: The purpose of the present paper was to study the effect of a new sulfonylurea, glimepiride, which has an extra-pancreatic action that improves insulin resistance, on glycemic control and body weight gain in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods: Thirty-seven type 2 diabetic patients being treated with either gliclazide or glibenclamide were switched to glimepiride for 6 months and clinical parameters were compared between elderly (, 65 years old, n = 9) and non-elderly (< 65 years old, n = 28) patients. Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups in baseline characteristics, or in changes in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and HbA1c. For body weight change, however, none of the elderly patients (0/9) exhibited an increase, but 9 of 28 (32%) non-elderly subjects showed body weight gain (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Body weight gain with glimepiride treatment is less frequent in elderly patients with type 2 DM than in non-elderly patients with the disease. These data together with the recent increase in obese elderly patients with diabetes suggest that glimepiride is recommended for treatment of type 2 diabetes in this age group. [source]


Effects of vitamin E and selenium on performance, digestibility of nutrients, and carcass characteristics of Japanese quails reared under heat stress (34 C)

JOURNAL OF ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY AND NUTRITION, Issue 11-12 2001
K. Sahin
This study was conducted to determine the effects of vitamin E (dL-,-Tocopheryl acetate) and selenium (Se; Na2 -SeO3) on performance, digestibility of nutrients and carcass characteristics of Japanese quails reared under chronic heat stress (34 C). A total of 120 10-day-old Japanese quails were randomly assigned to four treatment groups, three replicates of 10 birds each. The birds with a 2 2 factorial design received either two levels of vitamin E (125 and 250 mg/kg of diet) or two levels of Se (0.1 or 0.2 mg/kg of diet). A 250-mg vitamin E/kg of diet compared with that of 125 mg/kg of diet and higher dietary Se inclusions (0.1 vs. 0.2 mg/kg) resulted in a better performance (p=0.001). The interaction between vitamin E and Se for feed intake (p=0.03), final body weight change (p=0.03) and feed efficiency (p=0.001) was detected. Carcass yield increased with increasing both dietary vitamin E and Se (p=0.001). The interactions on carcass characteristics were all non-significant (p > 0.06). Digestibility of nutrients (DM, OM, CP and ether extract) was higher with higher dietary vitamin E (p=0.03), and DM digestibility was also higher with higher dietary Se (p=0.05). There were no interactions detected for digestibility of nutrients (p=0.28). From the results of the present study, it was concluded that a combination of 250 mg of vitamin E and 0.2 mg of Se provides the greatest performance in Japanese quails reared under heat stress and this combination can be considered as a protective management practice in Japanese quail diets, reducing the negative effects of heat stress. [source]


Comparative dry matter intake and nutrient utilisation efficiency in lactating cattle and buffaloes

JOURNAL OF THE SCIENCE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE, Issue 4 2003
Shyam S Paul
Abstract An attempt was made to assess the comparative dry matter intake and nutrient utilisation efficiency of lactating buffaloes and cows based on results obtained from experimental feeding trials conducted in India. Data on dry matter (DM) intake, total digestible nutrient (TDN) intake, digestible crude protein (DCP) intake, body weight or metabolic body size (MBS), body weight change, milk yield or 4% fat-corrected milk (FCM) yield, milk fat percentage and roughage/concentrate ratio in the diet of lactating buffaloes and cows were collected from published reports. The data were processed and analysed to assess the comparative dry matter intake and nutrient utilisation efficiency using suitable statistical analysis models. DM intake was significantly (P,<,0.01) lower in buffaloes (2.57,kg DM per 100,kg body weight or 119.2,g,kg,1 MBS) than in cattle (3.09,kg DM per 100,kg body weight or 132.0,g,kg,1 MBS). Mean gross energetic efficiency (30.53 versus 27.83%; P,<,0.01), gross protein efficiency (45.48 versus 37.06%; P,<,0.01), net energetic efficiency (69.16 versus 64.10%; P,<,0.05) and net protein efficiency (80.15 versus 59.59%; P,<,0.001) were significantly higher in buffaloes than in cattle. Lactating buffaloes consumed significantly less (P,<,0.001) protein (75.69,g DCP) and less (P,<,0.01) energy (695.9,g TDN) than cows (93.89,g DCP, 774.8,g TDN) for production of 1,kg of 4% fat-corrected milk. Buffaloes had higher energy and protein utilisation efficiencies as compared with cattle at similar fat-corrected milk production level, plane of energy and protein nutrition, body size and body weight change. Buffaloes (1.189,kg DM,kg,1 4% FCM) consumed a similar (P,>,0.05) amount of feed dry matter to that of cows (1.267,kg DM,kg,1 4% FCM). However, when DM intake,kg,1 FCM (4%) was compared at constant levels of metabolic body size, fat-corrected milk, body weight change, dietary energy concentration and green forage percentage in the diet, lactating buffaloes consumed significantly less DM,kg,1 FCM yield as compared with cattle. It was concluded that DM intake was lower in lactating buffaloes. Moreover, lactating buffaloes utilised dietary dry matter, energy and protein for milk production more efficiently than cattle. 2003 Society of Chemical Industry [source]


A Mediterranean diet rich in virgin olive oil may reverse the effects of the -174G/C IL6 gene variant on 3-year body weight change

MOLECULAR NUTRITION & FOOD RESEARCH (FORMERLY NAHRUNG/FOOD), Issue S1 2010
Cristina Razquin
Abstract Only a few studies have analyzed the effects of the potential interaction between the -174G/C polymorphism of IL6 gene and the adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) on adiposity indexes. Our aim was to investigate the interplay between the -174G/C polymorphism of the IL6 gene and a Mediterranean-style diet on body weight changes after 3 years of nutritional intervention in a high cardiovascular risk population. A total of 737 participants, aged 55,80 years were assigned to a low-fat diet or to a Mediterranean-style diet group with high intake of virgin olive oil (VOO) or nuts. Anthropometric measurements were taken at baseline and after 3-year follow-up. The -174G/C polymorphism of the IL6 gene was genotyped. Minor allele frequency (C) was 0.39. At baseline, the CC genotype was associated with higher measures of adiposity. After 3 years, a significant interaction (p=0.028) was found between the polymorphism (GG+GC versus CC) and the nutritional intervention: CC subjects following the MD+VOO had the lowest body weight gain. In conclusion, at baseline, CC subjects for the -174G/C polymorphism of IL6 had the highest body weight and BMI. However, after 3 years of nutritional intervention with MD+VOO, these subjects were predicted to have the greatest reduction in body weight. [source]


Baseline Leptin Levels Predict Change in Leptin Levels During Weight Loss in Obese Breast Cancer Survivors

THE BREAST JOURNAL, Issue 2 2007
Ananda Sen PhD
Abstract:, Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone involved in regulation of satiety, and it also appears to have a role in breast cancer risk. Leptin therefore might be a useful indicator of the potential preventive effects of weight loss in breast cancer survivors. In this study we examined whether the change in leptin levels could be predicted by weight loss in obese breast cancer survivors. The subjects in this study were participating in a randomized trial of an individualized approach towards weight loss in Detroit, MI. Breast cancer survivors (body mass index of 30,44 kg/m2) were enrolled and fasting blood samples were obtained for leptin analysis over 1 year of study. Leptin levels were available from at least two time points for 36 women, and weight change ranged from a gain of 11% to a loss of 25% of baseline weight. Using a repeated-measures regression model, both baseline leptin level and concurrent percent body fat were found to synergistically predict leptin levels. Thus, for women with the same body fat, those with higher baseline leptin levels are predicted to exhibit smaller decreases in leptin with weight loss. Similar results were obtained for body weight and body weight change, but the associations with body fat were stronger. Breast cancer survivors with initially higher leptin levels may differ with regard to regulation of change in leptin during weight loss resulting in relatively smaller changes in leptin with equivalent amounts of weight loss. [source]


Developmental toxicity evaluation of inhaled tertiary amyl methyl ether in mice and rats

JOURNAL OF APPLIED TOXICOLOGY, Issue 6 2003
Frank Welsch
Abstract This evaluation was part of a much more comprehensive testing program to characterize the mammalian toxicity potential of the gasoline oxygenator additive tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME), and was initiated upon a regulatory agency mandate. A developmental toxicity hazard identi,cation study was conducted by TAME vapor inhalation exposure in two pregnant rodent species. Timed-pregnant CD(Sprague-Dawley) rats and CD-1 mice, 25 animals per group, inhaled TAME vapors containing 0, 250, 1500 or 3500 ppm for 6 h a day on gestational days 6,16 (mice) or 6,19 (rats). The developmental toxicity hazard potential was evaluated following the study design draft guidelines and end points proposed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Based on maternal body weight changes during pregnancy, the no-observable-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) was 250 ppm for maternal toxicity in rats and 1500 ppm for developmental toxicity in rats using the criterion of near-term fetal body weights. In mice, more profound developmental toxicity was present than in rats, at both 1500 and 3500 ppm. At the highest concentration, mouse litters revealed more late fetal deaths, signi,cantly reduced fetal body weights per litter and increased incidences of cleft palate (classi,ed as an external malformation), as well as enlarged lateral ventricles of the cerebrum (a visceral variation). At 1500 ppm, mouse fetuses also exhibited an increased incidence of cleft palate and the dam body weights were reduced. Therefore, the NOAEL for the mouse maternal and developmental toxicity was 250 ppm under the conditions of this study. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Pulmonary responses and recovery following single and repeated inhalation exposure of rats to polymeric methylene diphenyl diisocyanate aerosols

JOURNAL OF APPLIED TOXICOLOGY, Issue 6 2002
Joanne D. Kilgour
Abstract Acute and repeated inhalation exposures (for 28 days) to polymeric methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (PMDI) were performed in rats. Investigations were made at the end of exposures and after 3, 10 and 30 days of recovery following single acute exposures and after 30 days of recovery following 28 days of exposure. Acute exposures to 10, 30 or 100 mg m,3 PMDI produced clinical signs in all animals that were consistent with exposure to irritant aerosols. An exposure concentration-related body weight loss and increase in lung weight were seen post-exposure, with complete recovery by day 8. The time course of changes in the lung over the initial days following exposure consisted of a pattern of initial toxicity, rapid and heavy influx of inflammatory cells and soluble markers of inflammation and cell damage, increased lung surfactant, a subsequent recovery and epithelial proliferative phase and, finally, a return to the normal status quo of the lung. During these stages there was evidence for perturbation of lung surfactant homeostasis, demonstrated by increased amounts of crystalline surfactant and increased number and size of lamellar bodies within type II alveolar cells. Repeated exposure over 28 days to the less toxic concentrations of 1, 4 or 10 mg m,3 PMDI produced no clinical signs or body weight changes, but an increase in lung weight was seen in animals exposed to 10 mg m,3, which resolved following the 30-day recovery period. Other effects seen were again consistent with exposure to irritant aerosols, but were less severe than those seen in the acute study. Analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid revealed similar changes to those seen in the acute study. At both 10 and 4 mg m,3 PMDI increased numbers of ,foamy' macrophages in lung lavage cell pellet correlated with the increased phospholipid content of the pellet. Changes in lung lavage parameters and electron microscopic evidence again suggested perturbations in surfactant homeostasis. Histologically, bronchiolitis and thickening of the central acinar regions was seen at 10 and 4 mg m,3, reflecting changes in cell proliferation in the terminal bronchioles and centro-acinar regions. Almost all effects seen had recovered by day 30 post-exposure. Both acute and subacute studies demonstrate rapid recovery of effects in the lung following exposure to PMDI, with no progression of these effects even at concentrations higher than those shown to produce tumours in a chronic study. These findings add weight to the hypothesis that pulmonary tumours seen following chronic exposure to PMDI are most likely due to a combination of the chronic irritant effects of repeated exposure, coupled with the presence of insoluble polyureas formed by polymerization of PMDI (found in studies reported here and previous chronic studies), and therefore acute or short-term exposures to PMDI are likely to be of little concern for long-term pulmonary health. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


A Mediterranean diet rich in virgin olive oil may reverse the effects of the -174G/C IL6 gene variant on 3-year body weight change

MOLECULAR NUTRITION & FOOD RESEARCH (FORMERLY NAHRUNG/FOOD), Issue S1 2010
Cristina Razquin
Abstract Only a few studies have analyzed the effects of the potential interaction between the -174G/C polymorphism of IL6 gene and the adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) on adiposity indexes. Our aim was to investigate the interplay between the -174G/C polymorphism of the IL6 gene and a Mediterranean-style diet on body weight changes after 3 years of nutritional intervention in a high cardiovascular risk population. A total of 737 participants, aged 55,80 years were assigned to a low-fat diet or to a Mediterranean-style diet group with high intake of virgin olive oil (VOO) or nuts. Anthropometric measurements were taken at baseline and after 3-year follow-up. The -174G/C polymorphism of the IL6 gene was genotyped. Minor allele frequency (C) was 0.39. At baseline, the CC genotype was associated with higher measures of adiposity. After 3 years, a significant interaction (p=0.028) was found between the polymorphism (GG+GC versus CC) and the nutritional intervention: CC subjects following the MD+VOO had the lowest body weight gain. In conclusion, at baseline, CC subjects for the -174G/C polymorphism of IL6 had the highest body weight and BMI. However, after 3 years of nutritional intervention with MD+VOO, these subjects were predicted to have the greatest reduction in body weight. [source]


Dietary Fiber and Weight Regulation

NUTRITION REVIEWS, Issue 5 2001
Nancy C. Howarth M.Sc
The influence of dietary fiber on energy regulation remains controversial. This review summarizes published studies on the effects of dietary fiber on hunger, satiety, energy intake, and body composition in healthy individuals. Under conditions of fixed energy intake, the majority of studies indicate that an increase in either soluble or insoluble fiber intake increases postmeal satiety and decreases subsequent hunger. When energy intake is ad libitum, mean values for published studies indicate that consumption of an additional 14 g/day fiber for >2 days is associated with a 10% decrease in energy intake and body weight loss of 1.9 kg over 3.8 months. Furthermore, obese individuals may exhibit a greater suppression of energy intake and body weight loss (mean energy intake in all studies was reduced to 82% by higher fiber intake in overweight/obese people versus 94% in lean people; body weight loss was 2.4 kg versus 0.8 kg). These amounts are very similar to the mean changes in energy intake and body weight changes observed when dietary fat content is lowered from 38% to 24% of energy intake in controlled studies of nonobese and obese subjects. The observed changes in energy intake and body weight occur both when the fiber is from naturally high-fiber foods and when it is from a fiber supplement. In view of the fact that mean dietary fiber intake in the United States is currently only 15 g/day (i.e., approximately half the American Heart Association recommendation of 25,30 g/day), efforts to increase dietary fiber in individuals consuming >25 g/day may help to decrease the currently high national prevalence of obesity. [source]