Body Wall (body + wall)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences


Selected Abstracts


Embryo medley from the Woods Hole Embryology Course of 2008

GENESIS: THE JOURNAL OF GENETICS AND DEVELOPMENT, Issue 10 2008
Article first published online: 17 OCT 200
Top edge: Body wall of the annelid Pristina leidya (Jesse Meik and Ian Swinburne). Right edge: Embryo of the grasshopper, Schistocerca americana (R'ada Massarwa). Bottom edge: Drosophila melanogaster embryo (Courtney Karner). Bottom left corner: Mouse embryo (Marie-Therese Noedl). Left upper row: Adult annelid Pristina leidyi (Michelle Collins and Stephanie Lepage). Middle upper row: Embryo of the squid Loligo pealii (Andrew Chervenak). Right upper row: larva of the colonial ascidian, Botrylloides (Jessica Gray). Left lower row: Chick embryo (Benjamin Schlager). Middle lower row: Xenopus laevis (Brooke Armfield and Zacharias Kontarakis). Right lower row: Third instar CNS and disks of Drosophila melanogaster (Jenna Judge). For more information on the Woods Hole Embrylology Course, visit http://www.mbl.edu/education/courses/summer/course_embryo.html [source]


Development of the proepicardium in Xenopus laevis

DEVELOPMENTAL DYNAMICS, Issue 10 2008
Maike Jahr
Abstract The proepicardium (PE) is an embryonic progenitor cell population, which provides the epicardium, the majority of the cardiac interstitium, the coronary vasculature and possibly some cardiomyocytes. Recent studies have documented (1) the presence of bilaterally paired PE anlagen in several vertebrates, and (2) species-specific differences in the fate of the left and right PE anlagen. Here, we document PE development in Xenopus laevis (stages 37,46). The PE appears at stage 41 in the form of a cone-shaped accumulation of mesothelial cells covering the pericardial surface of the right horn of the sinus venosus. No such structure appears on the left sinus horn. At the end of stage 41, the tip of the PE establishes a firm contact with the developing ventricle. A secondary tissue bridge is established facilitating the transfer of PE cells to the heart. During stages 41,46, this tissue bridge is visible in vivo through the transparent body wall. Corresponding to the morphological data, the PE marker gene Tbx18 is expressed only on the right sinus horn suggesting a right-sided origin of the PE. Left,right lineage tracing has confirmed this idea. These results show that Xenopus PE development proceeds in a bilaterally asymmetric pattern as previously observed in chicks. We speculate that asymmetric PE development is controlled by signals from left,right signaling pathways and that the PE is an indicator for right-sidedness in Xenopus embryos. Xenopus might be a good model to uncover the role of left,right signaling pathways in the control of asymmetric PE development. Developmental Dynamics 237:3088,3096, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Blockade of the central generator of locomotor rhythm by noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonists in Drosophila larvae

DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROBIOLOGY, Issue 1 2001
Daniel Cattaert
Abstract The noncompetitive antagonists of the vertebrate N -methyl- D -aspartate (NMDA) receptor dizocilpine (MK 801) and phencyclidine (PCP), delivered in food, were found to induce a marked and reversible inhibition of locomotor activity in Drosophilamelanogaster larvae. To determine the site of action of these antagonists, we used an in vitro preparation of the Drosophila third-instar larva, preserving the central nervous system and segmental nerves with their connections to muscle fibers of the body wall. Intracellular recordings were made from ventral muscle fibers 6 and 7 in the abdominal segments. In most larvae, long-lasting (>1 h) spontaneous rhythmic motor activities were recorded in the absence of pharmacological activation. After sectioning of the connections between the brain and abdominal ganglia, the rhythm disappeared, but it could be partially restored by perfusing the muscarinic agonist oxotremorine, indicating that the activity was generated in the ventral nerve cord. MK 801 and PCP rapidly and efficiently inhibited the locomotor rhythm in a dose-dependent manner, the rhythm being totally blocked in 2 min with doses over 0.1 mg/mL. In contrast, more hydrophilic competitive NMDA antagonists had no effect on the motor rhythm in this preparation. MK 801 did not affect neuromuscular glutamatergic transmission at similar doses, as demonstrated by monitoring the responses elicited by electrical stimulation of the motor nerve or pressure applied glutamate. The presence of oxotremorine did not prevent the blocking effect of MK 801. These results show that MK 801 and PCP specifically inhibit centrally generated rhythmic activity in Drosophila, and suggest a possible role for NMDA-like receptors in locomotor rhythm control in the insect CNS. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Neurobiol 48: 58,73, 2001 [source]


Gross anatomy of the musculature and a new description of the reproductive system of Tanaisia bragai and Tanaisia inopina (Trematoda: Eucotylidae) analysed by confocal laser scanning microscopy

ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 2 2010
Sthefane D'ávila
Abstract D'ávila, S., Manso, P. P. A., Bessa, E. C. A., Rodrigues, M. L. A. and Dias, R. J. P. 2010. Gross anatomy of the musculature and a new description of the reproductive system of Tanaisia bragai and Tanaisia inopina (Trematoda: Eucotylidae) analysed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. ,Acta Zoologica (Stockholm) 91: 139,149 Confocal scanning laser microscopy has become an important tool to clarify the organization of the musculature and innervation, as well as the morphology of the reproductive and alimentary tract of various helminth species. The goal of this work was to describe the morphology of the reproductive system and the gross anatomy of the musculature of adults of the species Tanaisia bragai and Tanaisia inopina by means of confocal scanning laser microscopy. The helminths were found parasitizing the kidney collection ducts of Columba livia, in the municipality of Juiz de Fora, Brazil. These helminths were stained with Mayer's carmalum, mounted on permanent slides and observed through a confocal scanning laser microscope. The tomographic images showed the morphology of the organs and glands of the reproductive system, along with the general morphology of the musculature of the body wall, oral sucker, acetabulum, pharynx, intestinal caeca, oesophagus and reproductive system ducts. The present work is the first re-characterization of the reproductive tract of T. bragai and T. inopina. We also present the first description of the general morphology of the gametes and cells of the glands associated with the reproductive apparatus of these species. [source]


Novel natural parabens produced by a Microbulbifer bacterium in its calcareous sponge host Leuconia nivea

ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, Issue 6 2009
Elodie Quévrain
Summary A broad variety of natural parabens, including four novel structures and known ethyl and butyl parabens, were obtained from culture of a Microbulbifer sp. bacterial strain isolated from the temperate calcareous marine sponge Leuconia nivea (Grant 1826). Their structures were elucidated from spectral analysis, including mass spectrometry and 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance. Their antimicrobial activity evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus was characterized by much higher in vitro activity of these natural paraben compounds 3,9 than commercial synthetic methyl and propyl parabens, usually used as antimicrobial preservatives. Compounds 4 and 9 revealed a bacteriostatic effect and compounds 6 and 7 appeared as bactericidal compounds. Major paraben compound 6 was also active against Gram positive Bacillus sp. and Planococcus sp. sponge isolates and was detected in whole sponge extracts during all seasons, showing its persistent in situ production within the sponge. Moreover, Microbulbifer sp. bacteria were visualized in the sponge body wall using fluorescence in situ hybridization with a probe specific to L4-n2 phylotypes. Co-detection in the sponge host of both paraben metabolites and Microbulbifer sp. L4-n2 indicates, for the first time, production of natural parabens in a sponge host, which may have an ecological role as chemical mediators. [source]


Field contamination of the starfish Asterias rubens by metals.

ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY & CHEMISTRY, Issue 9 2003
Part 1: Short-, long-term accumulation along a pollution gradient
Abstract The accumulation of Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu in the starfish Asterias rubens was studied in a Norwegian fjord characterized by a gradient of metal pollution in the sediments, ranging from very high metal concentrations at its head to much lower levels at its opening. The concentrations of metals in starfish from natural populations along the gradient (long-term accumulation) and in starfish that were transferred up the gradient (short-term accumulation) were compared. At long-term, Cd and Pb accumulations by starfish living at normal salinity (30,) were related to the level of contamination of of the environment while Cu and, to a lesser extent, Zn accumulations appeared strictly controlled. At short-term, Pb was accumulated steadily, Cd and Zn were accumulated transiently in the pyloric caeca (fast compartment), and Cu was not accumulated at all. Depuration experiments (transfer down the gradient) showed that Cd and Pb were efficiently eliminated from the pyloric caeca but not from the body wall (slow compartment). It is concluded that Pb is chronically accumulated, without apparent control, Cd is subjected to a regulating mechanism in the pyloric caeca which is overwhelmed over the long-term; Zn is tightly controlled in the pyloric caeca and Cu in both pyloric caeca and body wall. A distinct color variety of starfish is restricted to the low salinity (22-26,) superficial water layer. This variety showed a different pattern of metal accumulation over the long-term. This pattern is attributed to the particular hydrological conditions prevailing in this upper layer. [source]


Mesh hernioplasty for repair of incisional hernias of the ventral body wall in large horses

EQUINE VETERINARY EDUCATION, Issue 5 2005
Y. A. Elce
First page of article [source]


Anatomy and ultrastructure of the reproductive organs in Dactylopodola typhle (Gastrotricha: Macrodasyida) and their possible functions in sperm transfer

INVERTEBRATE BIOLOGY, Issue 1 2008
Alexander Kieneke
Abstract. The reproductive anatomy of gastrotrichs is well known for several species, especially for the marine taxon Macrodasyida. However, there is little information on the reproductive organs and the modes of mating and sperm transfer in putative basal taxa, which is necessary for accurate reconstruction of the ground pattern of the Gastrotricha. We present the first detailed morphological investigation of the reproductive system of a putative basal gastrotrich, Dactylopodola typhle, using transmission and scanning electron microscopy, histology, and microscopic observations of living specimens. Dactylopodola typhle is a hermaphrodite that possesses paired female and male gonads, an unpaired uterus with an outlet channel that we call the cervix, and an additional accessory reproductive organ, the so-called caudal organ. We hypothesize that the hollow, secretory caudal organ serves for picking up autospermatozoa (self-sperm), for spermatophore formation, and finally for transferring the autospermatophore to a mating partner. The allospermatophore (foreign spermatophore) is stored within the uterus where fertilization occurs. We think that the mature and fertilized egg is released through the cervix and the dorsolateral female gonopore, and not by rupture of the body wall. Based on the morphology, we provide a plausible hypothesis for spermatophore formation and transfer in D. typhle. Preliminary phylogenetic considerations indicate that the stem species of Macrodasyida, perhaps that of all Gastrotricha, had paired ovaries and paired testes, an unpaired uterus, and only one accessory reproductive organ. [source]


Musculature of Notholca acuminata (Rotifera: Ploima: Brachionidae) revealed by confocal scanning laser microscopy

INVERTEBRATE BIOLOGY, Issue 3 2003
Martin V. Sřrensen
Abstract. The body-wall and visceral musculature of Notholca acuminata was visualized using phalloidin-linked fluorescent dye under confocal laser scanning microscopy. The body-wall musculature includes dorsal, lateral, and ventral pairs of longitudinally oriented body retractor muscles, two pairs of head retractors, three pairs of incomplete circular muscles, which are modified into dorso-ventral muscles, and a single pair of dorsolateral muscles. The visceral musculature consists of a complex of thick muscles associated with the mastax, as well as several sets of delicate fibers associated with the corona, stomach, gut, and cloaca, including thin longitudinal gut fibers and viscero-cloacal fibers, never before reported in other species of rotifers. The dorsal, lateral, and ventral retractor muscles and the incomplete circular muscles associated with the body wall appear to be apomorphies for the Rotifera. Muscle-revealing staining shows promise for providing additional information on previously unrecognized complexity in rotifer musculature that will be useful in functional morphology and phylogenetic analyses. [source]


A scaleworm's setal snorkel

INVERTEBRATE BIOLOGY, Issue 2 2000
Bruno Pernet
Abstract. Setae of the first segment of the marine annelid Sthenelais berkeleyi (family Sigalionidae) are arranged in the shape of an antero-dorsally directed tube. When the worm is in resting position buried in sediment, this setal tube projects slightly from the sediment surface. A current of water is drawn into it by cilia on the parapodia of the first segment. The water is then diverted to a pair of lateral spaces between the body wall and elytra, moved posteriorly in these spaces along the length of the body by segmental cilia, and eventually exits posteriorly or ventrally. This flow permits the worm to respire while remaining buried and immobile for long periods of time, waiting for prey to move over the sediment near it. Setae of the first segment are probably used as snorkels in some other infaunal sigalionids as well. [source]


Addition of nimesulide to small intestinal submucosa biomaterial inhibits postsurgical adhesiogenesis in rats

JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL MATERIALS RESEARCH, Issue 1 2010
Mark A. Suckow
Abstract Adhesion formation is a common complication in abdominal surgery with incidence as high as 93% and small bowel obstruction a common complication. Because the extracellular matrix material, small intestinal submucosa (SIS), is commonly used in various surgical procedures, methods to inhibit adhesiogenesis are of great interest. This study was undertaken to determine if incorporation of nimesulide (NM), a selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor, could reduce the extent and tenacity of intraabdominal adhesion formation associated with SIS implantation. Female Sprague,Dawley rats underwent a cecal abrasion surgical procedure to induce adhesiogenesis. Rats were either left untreated or treated by direct application over the injured cecum with polypropylene mesh (PPM); SIS; SIS containing a low dose of NM; or SIS containing a high dose of NM. Rats were euthanized 21 days later, and adhesion extent and tenacity were evaluated using standard scales (0 = minimal adhesiogenesis; 4 = severe adhesiogenesis). Addition of NM to SIS resulted in a significant (p < 0.05) reduction in adhesion extent and in a similar reduction in adhesion tenacity for SIS containing a low dose of NM. Adhesions typically extended from the abraded cecal surface to the body wall and were characterized histologically by fibrous tissue adherent to the cecal wall. In conclusion, addition of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory, COX-2 selective drug, NM, to SIS attenuates adhesion extent and tenacity when compared with surgical placement of SIS or PPM alone. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2010 [source]


Gut-associated cells of derocheilocaris remanei (crustacea, mystacocarida)

JOURNAL OF MORPHOLOGY, Issue 3 2002
Isabel Fernández
Abstract The gut-associated cells (GA-cells) of the mystacocarid Derocheilocaris remanei were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. These cells are characterized by a dense cytoplasm, the presence of clear vesicles adjacent to the gut epithelium, glycogen, and lipid droplets. GA-cells envelop the midgut and hindgut and send blunt cytoplasmic extensions to the gut epithelium through its basal lamina. The GA-cells also extend dorsolateral projections to the body wall by means of intermediate cells. In addition to a mechanical function of suspending and stabilizing the gut, these cells may affect the flow of the hemocoelic fluid and may be implicated in the processes of transport, assimilation, and storage of nutrients. J. Morphol. 251:276,283, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


The Caenorhabditis elegans lev-8 gene encodes a novel type of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor , subunit

JOURNAL OF NEUROCHEMISTRY, Issue 1 2005
Paula R. Towers
Abstract We have cloned Caenorhabditis elegans lev-8 and demonstrated that it encodes a novel nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunit (previously designated ACR-13), which has functional roles in body wall and uterine muscles as part of a levamisole-sensitive receptor. LEV-8 is an ,,subunit and is the first to be described from the ACR-8-like group, a new class of nAChR with atypical acetylcholine-binding site (loop C) and channel-lining motifs. A single base pair change in the first intron of lev-8 in lev-8(x15) mutants leads to alternative splicing and the introduction of a premature stop codon. lev-8(x15) worms are partially resistant to levamisole-induced egg laying and paralysis, phenotypes rescued by expression of the wild-type gene. lev-8(x15) worms also show reduced rates of pharyngeal pumping. Electrophysiological recordings from body wall muscle show that currents recorded in response to levamisole have reduced amplitude in lev-8(x15) compared with wild-type animals. Consistent with these phenotypic observations, green fluorescent protein fused to LEV-8 is expressed in body wall and uterine muscle, motor neurons and epithelial-derived socket cells. Thus, LEV-8 is a levamisole receptor subunit and exhibits the most diverse expression pattern of any invertebrate nAChR subunit studied to date. [source]


Abdominal hernias in pregnancy

JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNAECOLOGY RESEARCH (ELECTRONIC), Issue 2 2009
Goran Augustin
Abstract A hernia is an area of weakness or complete disruption of the fibromuscular tissues of the body wall. In addition to the body wall, hernias can occur in the diaphragm, pelvic wall, perineum, pelvic floor, and internal abdominal viscera (hernias through omental or mesenteric defects, ligaments and folds). Surgical repair of different types of hernia is the most common general surgical procedure with more than 20 million hernioplasties performed each year. Abdominal wall hernias are not common during pregnancy. Hernias can be symptomless or have minimal symptoms, including slight discomfort or pain. Such hernias are not life-threatening and should be controlled on regular basis. After spontaneous delivery and uterine involution, they should be repaired on an elective basis. It is of utmost importance for a clinician to diagnose emergent situations, which include incarceration, strangulation and perforation caused by hernia because consultation with a surgeon and emergency operation are mandatory. There is still no consensus for irreducible hernia during pregnancy, but complications during pregnancy outweigh elective operation. Therefore, hernioplasty is recommended during pregnancy, especially in early gestation. [source]


Origin of the Vertebrate Visual Cycle: III.

PHOTOCHEMISTRY & PHOTOBIOLOGY, Issue 6 2006
-Monooxygenase Homologues in Ciona intestinalis, -carotene 1, Distinct Distribution of RPE6
We previously identified three genes that encode putative visual cycle proteins that are homologues of retinal G-protein coupled receptor (Ci-opsin3), cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein (Ci-CRALBP) and ,-carotene 15,15,-monooxygenase (Ci-BCO) in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. Ci-opsin3 and Ci-CRALBP are localized in both ocellus photoreceptor cells and surrounding non-photoreceptor cells in the brain vesicle of the larva. In the present study, we investigated the possible role and evolutionary origin of the BCO/RPE65 family in the visual cycle by analyzing Ci-BCO localization by immunohistochemistry and by identifying a novel gene that encodes a homologue of retinal pigment epithelium,specific 65 kDa protein (Ci-RPE65) in C. intestinalis. In situ hybridization and expressed sequence tag (EST) profiles consistently suggest that Ci-RPE65 is not significantly expressed in the ocellus and brain vesicle of the larva. Ci-RPE65 is expressed in the neural complex, a photoreceptor organ of the adult ascidian, at a level comparable to that of Ci-opsin3 and Ci-CRALBP. Ci-RPE65 is also expressed in various adult tissues, including the gill, body wall and intestine, suggesting that Ci-RPE65 plays a role in addition to that in the visual cycle. In contrast, Ci-BCO is predominantly localized in ocellus photoreceptor cells of the larva. The larval visual cycle seems to use Ci-opsin3 as a photoisomerase. Our results also suggest that the RPE65-dependent visual cycle is used in the adult photoreceptors of a primitive chordate. [source]


Dynamic expression of Krüppel-like factor 4 (Klf4), a target of transcription factor AP-2, during murine mid-embryogenesis

THE ANATOMICAL RECORD : ADVANCES IN INTEGRATIVE ANATOMY AND EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY, Issue 2 2003
Julia Ehlermann
Abstract Krüppel-like factor 4 (Klf4) belongs to the family of transcription factors that are thought to be involved in the regulation of epithelial and germ cell differentiation, based on their expression in postproliferative cells of the skin, gut, and testes. Gene ablation experiments suggest that Klf4 plays a role in keratinocyte differentiation, since mice lacking Klf4 fail to establish proper barrier function and, as a consequence, die postnatally due to dehydration. Recent studies have shown that Klf4 is also expressed in postnatal male mice, in postmeiotic sperm cells undergoing terminal differentiation into sperm cells. However, prior to the current study, the expression pattern of Klf4 during early and mid-embryogenesis had not been examined. Here we demonstrate that Klf4 transcripts can be detected from embryonic day 4.5 (E4.5) on in the developing conceptus, and that Klf4 expression before E10 is restricted to extraembryonic tissues. The embryo proper displays a highly dynamic and changing Klf4 signal from E10 of murine development on. In addition to being expressed in a stripe of mesenchymal cells extending from the forelimb bud rostrally over the branchial arches to the developing eye, Klf4 is also expressed in the mesenchyme surrounding the nasal pit at day E11.5. In addition, Klf4 has been detected in the apical ectodermal ridge and adjacent mesenchymal cells in the limb buds, and in mesenchymal cells of the developing body wall in trunk areas. These findings suggest that Klf4 plays an important role in regulating cellular proliferation, which underlies the morphogenetic changes that shape the developing embryo. Anat Rec Part A 273A:677,680, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Identification of novel neuropeptides in the ventral nerve cord ganglia and their targets in an annelid worm, Eisenia fetida

THE JOURNAL OF COMPARATIVE NEUROLOGY, Issue 6 2009
Zsófia Herbert
Abstract Periviscerokinins (PVKs) and pyrokinins (PKs) are neuropeptides known in several arthropod species. Sequence homology of these peptides with the molluscan small cardioactive peptides reveals that the occurrence of PVKs and PKs is not restricted to arthropods. Our study focuses on the biochemical and immunocytochemical identification of neuropeptides with sequence homology to PVKs and PKs in the central and peripheral nervous system of the earthworm Eisenia fetida. By means of affinity chromatography, nanoflow liquid chromatography, and high accuracy mass spectrometry, six peptides, SPFPR(L/I)amide, APFPR( L/I)amide, SPLPR( L/I)amide, SFVR( L/I)amide, AFVR( L/I)amide, and SPAFVR( L/I)amide, were identified in the central nervous system with the common-XR( L/I)amide C-terminal sequence. The exact anatomical position of 13 labeled XR( I/L)amide expressing neuron groups and numerous peptide-containing fibers were determined by means of immunocytochemistry and confocal laser scanning microscopy in whole-mount preparations of ventral nerve cord ganglia. The majority of the stained neurons were interneurons with processes joining the distinct fine-fibered polysegmental tracts in the central neuropil. Some stained fibers were seen running in each segmental nerve that innervated metanephridia and body wall. Distinct groups of neurosecretory cells characterized by small round soma and short processes were also identified. Based on immunoelectron microscopy six different types of labeled cells were described showing morphological heterogeneity of earthworm peptides containing elements. Our findings confirm that the sequence of the identified earthworm neuropeptides homologous to the insect PVKs and PKs suggesting that these peptides are phylogenetically conservative molecules and are expressed in sister-groups of animals such as annelids, mollusks, and insects. J. Comp. Neurol. 514:415,432, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Identification of novel neuropeptides in the ventral nerve cord ganglia and their targets in an annelid worm, Eisenia fetida

THE JOURNAL OF COMPARATIVE NEUROLOGY, Issue 5 2009
Zsófia Herbert
Abstract Periviscerokinins (PVKs) and pyrokinins (PKs) are neuropeptides known in several arthropod species. Sequence homology of these peptides with the molluscan small cardioactive peptides reveals that the occurrence of PVKs and PKs is not restricted to arthropods. Our study focuses on the biochemical and immunocytochemical identification of neuropeptides with sequence homology to PVKs and PKs in the central and peripheral nervous system of the earthworm Eisenia fetida. By means of affinity chromatography, nanoflow liquid chromatography, and high accuracy mass spectrometry, six peptides, SPFPR(L/I)amide, APFPR(L/I)amide, SPLPR(L/I)amide, SFVR(L/I)amide, AFVR(L/I)amide, and SPAFVR(L/I)amide, were identified in the central nervous system with the common ,XR(L/I)amide C-terminal sequence. The exact anatomical position of 13 labeled XR(I/L)amide expressing neuron groups and numerous peptide-containing fibers were determined by means of immunocytochemistry and confocal laser scanning microscopy in whole-mount preparations of ventral nerve cord ganglia. The majority of the stained neurons were interneurons with processes joining the distinct fine-fibered polysegmental tracts in the central neuropil. Some stained fibers were seen running in each segmental nerve that innervated metanephridia and body wall. Distinct groups of neurosecretory cells characterized by small round soma and short processes were also identified. Based on immunoelectron microscopy six different types of labeled cells were described showing morphological heterogeneity of earthworm peptides containing elements. Our findings confirm that the sequence of the identified earthworm neuropeptides homologous to the insect PVKs and PKs suggesting that these peptides are phylogenetically conservative molecules and are expressed in sister-groups of animals such as annelids, mollusks, and insects. J. Comp. Neurol. 514:415,432, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Identification of novel neuropeptides in the ventral nerve cord ganglia and their targets in an annelid worm, Eisenia fetida

THE JOURNAL OF COMPARATIVE NEUROLOGY, Issue 5 2009
Zsófia Herbert
Abstract Periviscerokinins (PVKs) and pyrokinins (PKs) are neuropeptides known in several arthropod species. Sequence homology of these peptides with the molluscan small cardioactive peptides reveals that the occurrence of PVKs and PKs is not restricted to arthropods. Our study focuses on the biochemical and immunocytochemical identification of neuropeptides with sequence homology to PVKs and PKs in the central and peripheral nervous system of the earthworm Eisenia fetida. By means of affinity chromatography, nanoflow liquid chromatography, and high accuracy mass spectrometry, six peptides, SPFPR(L/I)amide, APFPR(L/I)amide, SPLPR(L/I)amide, SFVR(L/I)amide, AFVR(L/I)amide, and SPAFVR(L/I)amide, were identified in the central nervous system with the common ,XR(L/I)amide C-terminal sequence. The exact anatomical position of 13 labeled XR(I/L)amide expressing neuron groups and numerous peptide-containing fibers were determined by means of immunocytochemistry and confocal laser scanning microscopy in whole-mount preparations of ventral nerve cord ganglia. The majority of the stained neurons were interneurons with processes joining the distinct fine-fibered polysegmental tracts in the central neuropil. Some stained fibers were seen running in each segmental nerve that innervated metanephridia and body wall. Distinct groups of neurosecretory cells characterized by small round soma and short processes were also identified. Based on immunoelectron microscopy six different types of labeled cells were described showing morphological heterogeneity of earthworm peptides containing elements. Our findings confirm that the sequence of the identified earthworm neuropeptides homologous to the insect PVKs and PKs suggesting that these peptides are phylogenetically conservative molecules and are expressed in sister-groups of animals such as annelids, mollusks, and insects. J. Comp. Neurol. 514:415,432, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Molecular characterization, immunohistochemical localization and expression of a ribosomal protein L17 gene from Apis cerana cerana

ARCHIVES OF INSECT BIOCHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY (ELECTRONIC), Issue 2 2010
Fei Meng
Abstract Ribosomal protein L17 (RPL17) is a core protein of the large (60S) ribosomal subunit and plays an important role in protein synthesis. In this report, a RPL17 gene was isolated from Apis cerana cerana, designated as AccRPL17. Alignment analysis showed that AccRPL17 exhibits high homology to other known RPL17s. Moreover, genomic sequence analysis revealed that five exons are splitted by four introns, and the position of the first intron is comparatively conservative, being localized in the 5, untranslated region. Partial putative cis -acting elements related to development were also examined. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that the highest mRNA level was detected in larvae on the fifth day. Simultaneously, immunohistochemical localization showed that AccRPL17 is primarily concentrated in muscular tissues, stigma, body wall, and the surrounding of the eye in the fifth-instar larvae. Further studies suggested that AccRPL17 might be involved in responses to abiotic stresses. This is a report attempting to analyze the expression and distribution of RPL17 in A. cerana cerana. These results indicated that AccRPL17 might play an important role in insect development, and the importance of AccRPL17 in participating in abiotic stresses is discussed. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


The evolution of arthropod limbs

BIOLOGICAL REVIEWS, Issue 2 2004
Geoff A. Boxshall
ABSTRACT Limb morphology across the arthropods is reviewed using external morphological and internal anatomical data from both recent and fossil arthropods. Evolutionary trends in limb structure are identified primarily by reference to the more rigorous of the many existing phylogenetic schemes, but no major new phylogenetic inferences are presented. Tagmosis patterns are not considered, although the origins and patterns of heteronomy within the postantennulary limb series are analysed. The phenomenon of annulation is examined and two basic types of annuli are recognised: terminal and intercalary. The annulation of the apical segment of a limb results in the formation of terminal flagella, and is typical of primarily sensory appendages such as insect and malacostracan antennules and maxillary palps of some hexapods. Intercalary annulation, arising by subdivision of existing subterminal segments, is common, particularly in the tarsal region of arthropodan walking limbs. Differentiating between segments and annuli is discussed and is recognised as a limiting factor in the interpretation of fossils, which usually lack information on intrinsic musculature, and in the construction of groundplans. Rare examples of secondary segmentation, where the criteria for distinguishing between segments and annuli fail, are also highlighted. The basic crown-group arthropodan limb is identified as tripartite, comprising protopodite, telopodite and exopodite, and the basic segmentation patterns of each of these parts are hypothesised. Possible criteria are discussed that can be used for establishing the boundary between protopodite and telopodite in limbs that are uniramous through loss of the exopodite. The subdivision of the protopodite, which is typical of the postantennulary limbs of mandibulates, is examined. The difficulties resulting from the partial or complete failure of expression of articulations within the mandibulate protopodite and subsequent incorporation of partial proto-podal segments into the body wall, are also discussed. The development and homology between the various exites, including gills, on the postantennulary limbs of arthropods are considered in some detail, and the question of the possible homology between crustacean gills and insect wings is critically addressed. The hypothesis that there are only two basic limb types in arthropods, antennules and postantennulary limbs, is proposed and its apparent contradiction by the transformation of antennules into walking limbs by homeotic mutation is discussed with respect to the appropriate level of serial homology between these limbs. [source]


Effects of cadmium on formation of the ventral body wall in chick embryos and their prevention by zinc pretreatment

BIRTH DEFECTS RESEARCH, Issue 2 2001
Jennifer Thompson
Background Cadmium (Cd) is an established experimental teratogen whose effects can be reversed by pretreatment with zinc. Mesodermal development is a frequently reported target for Cd teratogenicity. The aim of this study was to examine the mechanisms of Cd induced body wall defects in chick embryos. Methods Chick embryos in shell-less culture were treated with 50 ,l of cadmium acetate (8.9 × 10,5 M Cd2+) at 60-hr incubation (H.-H. stages 16,17). Controls received equimolar sodium acetate. Other embryos were treated with various concentrations of zinc acetate and then with Cd or NaAc 1 hrs later. Development was evaluated 48 hrs later. Resin-embedded 1-,m sections were examined at earlier stages. Results Cd caused embryolethality (35%), ventral body wall defect with malpositioned lower limbs (40%), and weight reduction in survivors. After 4-hr treatment with Cd, breakdown of junctions between peridermal cells with rounding up and desquamation occurred. Shape changes were also seen in the basal layer of the ectoderm. At 4 hr, cell death was evident in lateral plate mesoderm, somites, and neuroepithelium; the lateral plate mesoderm began to grow dorsally, carrying the attached limb buds with it. Zn pretreatment protected against the lethal, teratogenic, and growth-retarding effects of Cd, as well as ectodermal changes and cell death. Conclusions Cd disrupts peridermal cell adhesion and induces cell death in the mesoderm. This may result in abnormal growth of lateral plate mesoderm and in a body wall defect. Zn pretreatment prevents both the gross teratogenic effects and the cellular changes, most likely by competition with Cd. Teratology 64:87,97, 2001. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]