Body Type (body + type)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Fungal cannons: explosive spore discharge in the Ascomycota

FEMS MICROBIOLOGY LETTERS, Issue 1 2007
Frances Trail
Abstract The ascomycetous fungi produce prodigious amounts of spores through both asexual and sexual reproduction. Their sexual spores (ascospores) develop within tubular sacs called asci that act as small water cannons and expel the spores into the air. Dispersal of spores by forcible discharge is important for dissemination of many fungal plant diseases and for the dispersal of many saprophytic fungi. The mechanism has long been thought to be driven by turgor pressure within the extending ascus; however, relatively little genetic and physiological work has been carried out on the mechanism. Recent studies have measured the pressures within the ascus and quantified the components of the ascus epiplasmic fluid that contribute to the osmotic potential. Few species have been examined in detail, but the results indicate diversity in ascus function that reflects ascus size, fruiting body type, and the niche of the particular species. [source]


Classification of upper lateral body shapes for the apparel industry

HUMAN FACTORS AND ERGONOMICS IN MANUFACTURING & SERVICE INDUSTRIES, Issue 5 2010
Young Lim Choi
Abstract The lateral body shape is a critical determiner of the fit of garments. Either visual assessment or statistical analysis methods have been used to classify the lateral body types. These methods are limited to some extent since various anthropometric features inherently coexist and interact in a human body shape. This study aims to develop objective criteria for the classification of upper lateral body shapes integrating visual assessment and statistical analysis. The three-dimensional scan data of 246 women between 18 and 49 years old were visually classified into four lateral body shapes by an expert panel. In addition, the back space and lateral angles extracted from the scan data were employed for further statistical analyses. Multinomial logistic regressions were used to develop logit models for lateral body types. It was concluded that the resulting logit models could classify lateral body types and calculate the probability of a set of body scan data being classified as a certain lateral body type. It is expected that this probability might be a guideline to quantify the characteristics of the lateral body shape in the apparel industry. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


A11. The influence of the media on eating disorders

JOURNAL OF HUMAN NUTRITION & DIETETICS, Issue 5 2000
S. Almond
Background The cause of eating disorders is multifactorial. One of these is sociocultural factors which include family, peers and the media. It has been suggested that constant media pressures can lead to body dissatisfaction, which may result in distorted eating patterns. Aims To review the role of the media in relation to eating disorders Results There has been a shift in the media portrayal of the 'ideal' body size for women, from the voluptuous curved figure of Marilyn Monroe in the 1950s to a thinner 'waif-like' look of Kate Moss in the 1980s. In the mass media shape and weight define perfection. Women perceive themselves as being bigger than they actually are. Their figure deviates from the ideal thus resulting in self body dissatisfaction. 'All I see is these pretty models, I wish I could look like one of them.' ( Wertheim et al. 1997 ) The 'ideal' body image is far from the physiologic norm. Supermodels are born with a specific body type and what the public doesn't understand is that they cannot diet to achieve it. 'Women don't set out to be anorexic, they begin by thinking they're too fat because everywhere they go the media is telling them that they are right' ( Barrett, 1997) Products are often advertised displaying the ideal body shape in the hope that it will enhance the product and create body dissatisfaction. Purchasing the product is perceived as a positive step towards reaching the 'perfect' body image. Concern surrounds the appearance of such advertisements in magazines aimed at adolescent girls, as at this age they are particularly vulnerable to the influences of the media. Stice and Shaw (1994) stated that exposure to the thin 'idea' may have a negative effect on emotions leading to body dissatisfaction. Such emotions include depression, stress, guilt, shame, insecurity, unhappiness, and lower self-confidence. A study by Schotte et al. (1990) indicated that negative emotions can disrupt eating behaviour. Dieters watching a frightening film increased their food intake, whereas nondieters did not. Conclusion The media are not solely responsible for eating disorders but they do contribute by promoting the 'ideal' physique. There is some resistance to media messages, as the majority of people do not develop distorted eating patterns. [source]


Distinctiveness of macroinvertebrate communities in turloughs (temporary ponds) and their response to environmental variables

AQUATIC CONSERVATION: MARINE AND FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS, Issue 4 2009
Gwendolin Porst
Abstract 1.Turloughs are a prime example of a water body type that interfaces with both the European Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC) and Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) (WFD), highlighting the need for an integrated strategy to protect and manage surface waters and groundwaters. To date, research on turloughs, including their invertebrate communities is limited. 2.Eight turloughs were sampled for their macroinvertebrate communities and water chemistry in April 2007. Faunal samples were collected by means of a simple box sampler. 3.Replicate samples within each turlough clustered together, indicating that a single sample can provide a meaningful description of the turlough invertebrate community. Variation of invertebrate communities within turloughs was nested among turloughs. 4.Hydroperiod influenced mean abundance and taxon richness of macroinvertebrates, but no correlation was found between nutrient status and either mean abundance or taxon richness. 5.Turloughs are priority habitats under the EC Habitats Directive, requiring maintenance of ,favourable conservation status', which needs to be assessed through monitoring, and effected through appropriate management plans. While the distinctiveness of macroinvertebrate communities across turloughs is conducive to simple and cost-effective monitoring, this also challenges the applicability of the concept of type-specific communities across these highly dynamic ecosystems. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. [source]


SOMATOTYPING, ANTIMODERNISM, AND THE PRODUCTION OF CRIMINOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE,

CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 4 2007
NICOLE RAFTER
This study analyzes the work of William H. Sheldon, the psychologist, physician, and advocate of the study of body types. It investigates how he arrived at his much-repeated finding that a correlation exists between mesomorphy (a stocky, muscular body build) and delinquency and how his ideas were validated and perpetuated. It reviews what Sheldon actually said about the causes of crime; identifies his goals in searching for a relationship between body shape and criminality; explains how he found audiences for his biological theory at a time when sociological approaches dominated criminology; and attempts to understand the current criminological ambivalence about the scientific status of Sheldon's work, despite its discreditation decades ago. I argue that the tripartite structure of Sheldon's thought attracted three different audiences,methodologists, social scientists, and supporters,and that it encouraged the supporters to fund his research without reference to the critiques of the social scientists. I also argue that somatotyping was part of a broader antimodernist reaction within international scientific communities against the dislocations of twentieth-century life. To understand the origins, acceptance, and maintenance of criminological ideas, we need a historical perspective on figures of the past. Positivism may inform us about what is true and false, but we also need to know how truth and falsity have been constructed over time and how the ideas of earlier criminologists were shaped by their personal and social contexts. [source]


Classification of upper lateral body shapes for the apparel industry

HUMAN FACTORS AND ERGONOMICS IN MANUFACTURING & SERVICE INDUSTRIES, Issue 5 2010
Young Lim Choi
Abstract The lateral body shape is a critical determiner of the fit of garments. Either visual assessment or statistical analysis methods have been used to classify the lateral body types. These methods are limited to some extent since various anthropometric features inherently coexist and interact in a human body shape. This study aims to develop objective criteria for the classification of upper lateral body shapes integrating visual assessment and statistical analysis. The three-dimensional scan data of 246 women between 18 and 49 years old were visually classified into four lateral body shapes by an expert panel. In addition, the back space and lateral angles extracted from the scan data were employed for further statistical analyses. Multinomial logistic regressions were used to develop logit models for lateral body types. It was concluded that the resulting logit models could classify lateral body types and calculate the probability of a set of body scan data being classified as a certain lateral body type. It is expected that this probability might be a guideline to quantify the characteristics of the lateral body shape in the apparel industry. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


Consumers' knowledge on sizing and fit issues: a solution to successful apparel selection in developing countries

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CONSUMER STUDIES, Issue 3 2008
Anne Mastamet Mason
Abstract A study was conducted in the Nairobi, Eldoret and Kisumu regions of Kenya with the objective to determine and describe the role that Kenyan female consumers' sizing and fit knowledge play in the problems that they experience when selecting apparel. The study was cross-sectional and 201 female teachers between the ages 25 and 55 years were involved. Participants completed a questionnaire and were measured wearing body suits. Results revealed that most Kenyan female consumers frequently experience problems in getting the right size apparel items, while more than 90% of the consumers are also unsatisfied with the fit of their clothes. It was clear that most Kenyan female consumers are familiar with the non-informative lettered and numbered size labels as well as with the size label terms that represent established body types. However, the consumers lack knowledge of the meanings of various size label descriptions used on labels of ready-made apparel and also lack knowledge of their own key body dimensions. They are also confused as to where the cause of their problems lies and therefore blame their bodies as well as the apparel industry for their problems. The importance of knowledge in consumers' selection of apparel that would fit their specific proportions should not be underestimated. Industry should take notice that it is of no use to present consumers with size label information that is not clear, informative and understandable, as currently the case with the use of non-informative lettered and numbered size codes. [source]