Body Mass Index (body + mass_index)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Body Mass Index

  • elevated body mass index
  • high body mass index
  • increased body mass index
  • low body mass index
  • lower body mass index
  • maternal body mass index
  • mean body mass index
  • pre-pregnancy body mass index

  • Terms modified by Body Mass Index

  • body mass index standard deviation score
  • body mass index value

  • Selected Abstracts

    Impact of Body Mass Index on Markers of Left Ventricular Thickness and Mass Calculation: Results of a Pilot Analysis

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 3 2005
    Ranjini Krishnan M.D.
    Specific correlations between body mass index (BMI) and left ventricular (LV) thickness have been conflicting. Accordingly, we investigated if a particular correlation exists between BMI and echocardiographic markers of ventricular function. Methods: A total of 122 patients, referred for routine transthoracic echocardiography, were included in this prospective pilot study using a 3:1 randomization approach. Patient demographics were obtained using a questionnaire. Results: Group I consisted of 80 obese (BMI was >30 kg/m2), Group II of 16 overweight (BMI between 26 and 29 kg/m2), and Group III of 26 normal BMI (BMI < 25 kg/m2) individuals. No difference was found in left ventricular wall thickness, LV end-systolic cavity dimension, fractional shortening (FS), or pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) among the groups. However, mean LV end-diastolic cavity dimension was greater in Group I (5.0 ± 0.9 cm) than Group II (4.6 ± 0.8 cm) or Group III (4.4 ± 0.9 cm; P < 0.006). LV mass indexed to height2.7 was also significantly larger in Group I (61 ± 21) when compared to Group III (48 ± 19; P < 0.001). Finally, left atrial diameter (4.3 ± 0.7 cm) was also larger (3.8 ± 0.6 and 3.6 ± 0.7, respectively; P < 0.00001).Discussion: We found no correlation between BMI and LV wall thickness, FS, or PASP despite the high prevalence of diabetes and hypertension in obese individuals. However, obese individuals had an increased LV end-diastolic cavity dimension, LV mass/height2.7, and left atrial diameter. These findings could represent early markers in the sequence of cardiac events occurring with obesity. A larger prospective study is needed to further define the sequence of cardiac abnormalities occurring with increasing BMI. [source]

    How important are motivation and initial Body Mass Index for outcome in day therapy services for eating disorders?

    Alysun Jones
    Abstract This study was designed to investigate the impact of initial Body Mass Index (BMI) and motivation for recovery on a 12-week day therapy programme for Eating Disorders. Outcome was assessed by changes in eating disorder symptomology, mood and self-esteem. A battery of assessment questionnaires was given to 34 eating disorder clients on admission to and completion of the programme. This study found that BMI at admission did not affect treatment outcome directly. Only patient self-rated motivation directly affected treatment outcome with more highly motivated clients making more significant changes to their eating disorder symptomology across the programme. However, motivation, BMI and duration of illness influenced how likely a patient was to complete the 12 weeks and completion of the programme had a direct effect on eating disorder symptomology, mood and self-esteem. BMI and motivation can therefore be seen to indirectly effect the outcome of treatment via the ability to complete the programme. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]

    Abnormal vascular reactivity at rest and exercise in obese boys

    L. Karpoff
    Abstract Background, Obese children exhibit vascular disorders at rest depending on their pubertal status, degree of obesity, and level of insulin resistance. However, data regarding their vascular function during exercise remain scarce. The aims of the present study were to evaluate vascular morphology and function at rest, and lower limb blood flow during exercise, in prepubertal boys with mild-to-moderate obesity and in lean controls. Materials and methods, Twelve moderately obese prepubertal boys [Body Mass Index (BMI: 23·9 ± 2·6 kg m,2)] and thirteen controls (BMI:17·4 ± 1·8 kg m,2), matched for age (mean age: 11·6 ± 0·6 years) were recruited. We measured carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and wall compliance and incremental elastic modulus, resting brachial flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and nitrate-dependent dilation (NDD), lower limb blood flow during local knee-extensor incremental and maximal exercise, body fat content (DEXA), blood pressure, blood lipids, insulin and glucose. Results, Compared to lean controls, obese boys had greater IMT (0·47 ± 0·06 vs. 0·42 ± 0·03 mm, P < 0·05) but lower FMD (4·6 ± 2·8 vs. 8·8 ± 3·2%, P < 0·01) in spite of similar maximal shear rate, without NDD differences. Lower limb blood flow (mL min,1·100 g,1) increased significantly from rest to maximal exercise in both groups, although obese children reached lower values than lean counterparts whatever the exercise intensity. Conclusions, Mild-to-moderate obesity in prepubertal boys without insulin resistance is associated with impaired endothelial function and blunted muscle perfusion response to local dynamic exercise without alteration of vascular smooth muscle reactivity. [source]

    Helicobacter pylori Infection is Associated with Reduced Circulating Ghrelin Levels Independent of Body Mass Index

    HELICOBACTER, Issue 5 2005
    Akiko Shiotani
    ABSTRACT Background., Ghrelin stimulates growth hormone and has orexigenic and adipogenic effects. Plasma ghrelin levels are reduced in obesity and possibly in Helicobacter pylori infection. Aim., To investigate whether there was a relation between H. pylori infection, body mass index (BMI) and serum ghrelin or leptin levels. Methods., University students undergoing an annual health check-up were invited to participate. H. pylori status was based on the presence of specific IgG H. pylori antibodies in urine. Fasting serum ghrelin, leptin levels, and pepsinogen I and II levels were measured by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Results., Eight hundred and one students volunteered. There was no significant difference in the height and BMI between those with and without H. pylori infection. The population of ghrelin study consisted of 132 (66 H. pylori -positive and 66 H. pylori -negative) students matched for age, sex, and BMI. The ghrelin level in the H. pylori -positive group was significantly lower (median 55 pmol/l) compared to the H. pylori- negative group (103 pmol/l) (p < .00001). Leptin, triglyceride, total cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol were not different between the two groups, whereas LDL-cholesterol levels were significantly higher (106 versus 100 mg/dl) (p = .03) in the H. pylori -positive group. Leptin levels correlated with the BMI (r = 0.53) (p < .00001). Among H. pylori -positive subjects, ghrelin correlated only with pepsinogen I levels (r = 0.26, p = .04). Conclusions.,H. pylori infection was associated with a reduction in circulating ghrelin levels independent of sex and BMI. [source]

    Metabolic differences between Asian and Caucasian patients on clozapine treatment

    Mythily Subramaniam
    Abstract Objective To establish if there are ethnic differences in the various metabolic disturbances that are common with clozapine treatment. Method Forty subjects (20 Asians and 20 Caucasians) with a diagnosis of schizophrenia were recruited for the study. Clozapine blood levels as well as fasting blood glucose, lipid levels, and liver function tests were established. Other clinical parameters such as blood pressure and Body Mass Index (BMI) were recorded for each patient. Results The mean clozapine dose was significantly higher in the Caucasian subjects (432.5,±,194.7,mg) as compared to the Asian subjects (175.6,±,106.9,mg) (p,<,0.001) while the mean weight-corrected dose for Asian patients was lower (3.0,±,1.9 and 5.0,±,2.1,mg/kg, respectively, p,=,0.005). There were, however, no ethnic differences in the mean plasma clozapine concentration (415.3,±,185.8,ng/ml in Caucasians and 417.1,±,290.8,ng/ml in Asians). BMI were significantly higher in Caucasians, as were the number of subjects with hypertension; levels of hepatic enzymes were higher in the Asian group. Conclusions Not only are there pharmacokinetic differences between Asian and Caucasian patients receiving clozapine, but there may also be differential emergence of certain metabolic abnormalities like hypertension and weight gain in these two ethnic groups. However, the effects of life style including diet and exercise cannot be excluded. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Pregnancy in severe anorexia nervosa

    Emilia Manzato PhD
    Abstract Objective: Anorexia nervosa among Arabian girls seems to be rare and pregnancy in condition of extreme underweight seems to be rare as well. Method: We report the case of a 19-year-old Arabian girl living in Italy who referred to an Eating Disorder Unit for her anorexic condition. Results: She arrived for a consultation when she was at her 33rd week of pregnancy at a Body Mass Index lower than 14. Conclusion: The present case aims to underline the need of medical and psychological attention to pregnancy in anorexia nervosa cases. © 2008 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2009 [source]

    The Cross-Sectional Relationship Between Body Mass Index, Waist,Hip Ratio, and Cognitive Performance in Postmenopausal Women Enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative

    Diana R. Kerwin MD
    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether body mass index (BMI) is independently associated with cognitive function in postmenopausal women and the relationship between body fat distribution as estimated by waist-hip ratio (WHR). DESIGN: Cross-sectional data analysis. SETTING: Baseline data from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) hormone trials. PARTICIPANTS: Eight thousand seven hundred forty-five postmenopausal women aged 65 to 79 free of clinical evidence of dementia who completed the baseline evaluation in the WHI hormone trials. MEASUREMENTS: Participants completed a Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MSE), health and lifestyle questionnaires, and standardized measurements of height, weight, body circumference, and blood pressure. Statistical analysis was performed of associations between 3MSE score, BMI, and WHR after controlling for known confounders. RESULTS: With the exception of smoking and exercise, vascular disease risk factors, including hypertension, waist measurement, heart disease, and diabetes mellitus, were significantly associated with 3MSE score and were included as covariables in subsequent analyses. BMI was inversely related to 3MSE score; for every 1-unit increase in BMI, 3MSE score decreased 0.988 points (P<.001) after adjusting for age, education, and vascular disease risk factors. BMI had the most pronounced association with poorer cognitive functioning scores in women with smaller waist measurements. In women with the highest WHR, cognitive scores increased with BMI. CONCLUSION: Higher BMI was associated with poorer cognitive function in women with smaller WHR. Higher WHR, estimating central fat mass, was associated with higher cognitive function in this cross-sectional study. Further research is needed to clarify the mechanism for this association. [source]

    Bone Mineral Response to a 7-Month Randomized Controlled, School-Based Jumping Intervention in 121 Prepubertal Boys: Associations With Ethnicity and Body Mass Index,

    K. J. Mackelvie
    Abstract We examined the effects of a 7-month jumping intervention (10 minutes, 3 times per week) on bone mineral gain in prepubertal Asian and white boys (10.3 ± 0.6 years, 36.0 ± 9.2 kg) at 14 schools randomized to control (n = 60) and intervention (n = 61) groups. Intervention and control groups had similar mean baseline and change in height, weight, lean mass and fat mass, baseline areal bone mineral density (aBMD; g/cm2), bone mineral content (BMC; g; dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry [DXA], QDR 4500W), and similar average physical activity and calcium intakes. Over 7 months, the intervention group gained more total body (TB) BMC (1.6%, p < 0.01) and proximal femur (PF) aBMD (1%, p < 0.05) than the control group after adjusting for age, baseline weight, change in height, and loaded physical activity. We also investigated the 41 Asian and 50 white boys (10.2 ± 0.6 years and 31.9 ± 4.4 kg) who were below the 75th percentile (19.4 kg/m2) of the cohort mean for baseline body mass index (BMI). Boys in the intervention group gained significantly more TB and lumbar spine (LS) BMC, PF aBMD, and trochanteric (TR) aBMD (+ ,2%) than boys in the control group (adjusted for baseline weight, final Tanner stage, change in height, and loaded physical activity). Bone changes were similar between Asians and whites. Finally, we compared the boys in the control group (n = 16) and the boys in the intervention group (n = 14) whose baseline BMI fell in the highest quartile (10.5 ± 0.6 years and 49.1 ± 8.2 kg). Seven-month bone changes (adjusted as aforementioned) were similar in the control and intervention groups. In summary, jumping exercise augmented bone mineral accrual at several regions equally in prepubertal Asian and white boys of average or low BMI, and intervention effects on bone mineral were undetectable in high BMI prepubertal boys. [source]

    Underestimation and overestimation of personal weight status: associations with socio-demographic characteristics and weight maintenance intentions

    J. Brug
    Abstract Objective, Unwarranted underestimation and overestimation of personal weight status may prevent weight maintenance behaviour. The present study reports on correlates of under- and overestimation of personal weight status and the association with weight maintenance intentions and self-reported action. Design, Comparison of three cross-sectional surveys, representing different population groups. Subjects, Survey 1: 1694 adolescents 13,19 years of age; survey 2: 979 nonobese adults 25,35 years of age; survey 3: 617 adults 21,62 years of age. Measurements, Self-administered written questionnaires (surveys 1 and 3) and telephone-administered questionnaires (survey 2); self-reported BMI, self-rated weight status, intentions and self-reported actions to avoid weight gain or to lose weight, sex, age, education and ethnic background. Respondents were classified as people who are realistic about personal body weight status or people who under- and overestimate their body weight status, based on BMI and self-rated weight status. Results, Most respondents in the three survey populations were realistic about their weight status. Overestimation of weight status was consistently more likely among women, whereas underestimation was more likely among men, older respondents and respondents from ethnic minorities. Self-rated weight status was a stronger correlate of intentions and self-report actions to avoid weight gain than weight status based on Body Mass Index. Conclusions, Relevant proportions of the study populations underestimated or overestimated their bodyweight status. Overestimation of personal weight status may lead to unwarranted weight maintenance actions, whereas underestimation may result in lack of motivation to avoid further weight gain. [source]

    Investigation into the nutritional status, dietary intake and smoking habits of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    W. J. Cochrane
    Abstract Background and aims Weight loss and reduced fat-free mass are prevalent amongst patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the causes of this weight loss are not clear. The aims of this study are to investigate the factors affecting body weight and dietary intake in a group of outpatients with COPD, and to investigate any differences between adequately nourished and malnourished patients. Methods In 103 stable outpatients, nutritional status was assessed using Body Mass Index (BMI) and upper arm anthropometry. Lung function, smoking status, exercise tolerance, dietary intake, dietary problems and health-related quality of life were assessed. Patients were classed as either adequately nourished or malnourished. Results Twenty-three per cent of subjects were classed as malnourished. The malnourished subjects had lower lung function measurements, suffered more dietary problems and had lower nutritional intake compared with the adequately nourished subjects. They also had poorer fatigue scores. In linear regression analysis, the factors that had the most effect on BMI were a low transfer factor, presence of early satiety, and being a current smoker. Conclusion Important differences were found between adequately nourished and malnourished subjects. These differences move us closer to understanding how best to screen and treat this group of patients. [source]

    Perception of body image as indicator of weight status in the European Union

    A. Sánchez-Villegas
    Objective To identify the factors associated with an adequate perception of body image in relation to body weight. Material and methods An observational, cross-sectional study was conducted in a representative sample of the European Union (7155 men and 8077 women). Body Mass Index (BMI) was grouped into four categories, perceived body image was assessed using the nine silhouettes drawing scheme. A multivariable logistic regression model for each sex was used to adjust for potentially confounding variables. Results Underweight men and women classified themselves better than other groups (92.9% of correct answers among men and 79.3% among women). Overall, women classified themselves better than men (57.6% vs. 32.7%). Discussion Perceived body image as a method of assessment for body weight has different validity depending on sociodemographic or attitudinal categories. Perceived body image as an estimate of the nutritional status has a limited individualized application. Thus, perhaps it could be applied as a proxy measure of adiposity among slim males and among slim and overweight females, but not among the other groups. [source]

    Body Mass Index and Effectiveness of Reperfusion Strategies: Implications for the Management of Patients with ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    Background:Fibrinolytic therapy has maximum dose limit in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Consequently, obese patients receive lower dose of fibrinolytic per kg body weight compared to lower weight patients. Whether the relatively lower dose results in lower effectiveness of fibrinolytic agents versus primary percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) in patients with higher body mass index (BMI) is not known. Methods:We analyzed 7,630 STEMI patients receiving primary PCI (46%) or fibrinolysis (54%) <24 hours of symptom onset from the MITRA PLUS registry. The relative effectiveness of the 2 reperfusion strategies on in-hospital death (adjusted with propensity scores) and bleeding were studied in 3 BMI groups: I-BMI 20,24.9 kg/m2 (n = 2,277), II-BMI 25,29.9 kg/m2 (n = 3,763), and III-BMI ,30 kg/m2 (n = 1,590). Results:BMI was inversely related to death, shock, stroke, and bleeding in patients treated with either reperfusion strategy. However, compared with primary PCI, fibrinolysis was associated with higher adjusted death with similar relative adjusted difference in all 3 groups (group I OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.19,2.44; group II OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.39,2.56; group III OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.08,3.22). Conclusions:Compared with primary PCI, fibrinolysis was associated with relatively similar higher risk of death in all 3 BMI groups. Whether the differences in death between fibrinolysis and primary PCI in the high-BMI categories can be reduced by higher fibrinolytic doses without increasing bleeding risks needs evaluation in future studies. [source]

    Pilot Study Examining the Utility of Microarray Data to Identify Genes Associated with Weight in Transplant Recipients

    Ann Cashion
    Purpose/Methods:, Obesity, a complex, polygenic disorder and a growing epidemic in transplant recipients, is a risk factor for chronic diseases. This secondary data analysis identified if microarray technologies and bioinformatics could find differences in gene expression profiles between liver transplant recipients with low Body Mass Index (BMI < 29; n = 5) vs. high (BMI > 29; n = 7). Blood was hybridized on Human U133 Plus 2 GeneChip (Affymetrix) and analyzed using GeneSpring Software. Results:, Groups were similar in age and race, but not gender. Expression levels of 852 genes were different between the low and high BMI groups (P < 0.05). The majority (562) of the changes associated with high BMI were decreases in transcript levels. Among the 852 genes associated with BMI, 263 and 14 genes were affected greater than 2- or 5-fold, respectively. Following functionally classification using Gene Ontology (GO), we found that 19 genes (P < 0.00008) belonged to defense response and 15 genes (P < 0.00006) belonged to immune response. Conclusion:, These data could point the way toward therapeutic interventions and identify those at-risk. These results demonstrate that we can (1) extract high quality RNA from immunosuppressed patients; (2) manage large datasets and perform statistical and functional analysis. [source]

    Longitudinal changes in lung function and somatic growth in children with sickle cell disease,

    Anastassios C. Koumbourlis MD
    Abstract Background We studied the changes in the patterns of lung function and somatic growth over time in children and adolescents (10.6,±,3.5 years at first test) with hemoglobin SS (Hb-SS) sickle cell disease (SCD). Methods Lung function and somatic growth were measured twice with an interval of 42.3,±,23.3 months in 45 children (25 females and 20 males) with Hb-SS SCD. Results The lung volumes slightly decreased but remained borderline normal in both tests. All spirometric indices were within the normal range but significantly decreased (P,<,0.001) at the time of the second test indicating development of lower airway obstruction (forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1): 87,±,21 vs. 80,±,15; FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC): 89,±,7 vs. 85,±,6; FEF25,75: 89,±,32 vs. 76,±,24). "Normal" pattern of lung function was initially found in 56% of the patients, but in only 29% in the second test. In contrast, those with "obstructive" pattern increased from 22 to 44%, and those with "restrictive" pattern from 22 to 27%. There was no association between history of asthma and pattern of lung function. "Normal" Body Mass Index (BMI) was found in 64% of the patients, whereas 13% had "High" BMI and 22% "Low" BMI. The two latter patterns were associated with abnormal lung function but only patients with normal BMI showed actual decline overtime. Conclusion SCD is characterized by a predominantly obstructive pattern of lung function that increases in prevalence over time. There was no apparent causal relationship between the pattern of somatic growth and the pattern of lung function. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2007; 42:483,488. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Body fat ratios in urban Chinese children

    Fujihiko Iwata
    AbstractObjective: As obesity has been increasing in China, the present study examined the body composition of children to assess their fatness. Study design: A total of 532 healthy schoolchildren who lived in central Beijing were examined. Skinfold thicknesses, hip and waist circumferences, and body fat percentage were measured, as well as height and weight. Results: The prevalence of overweight (Body Mass Index (BMI) , 95% for age and sex of Chinese children) was 27.7% in boys and 14.2% in girls (chi-squared; P = 0.0001). The percentages of body fat (BF%), waist/hip ratios and skinfold thicknesses ratios (subscapular/triceps) in overweight children were significantly higher than those in non-overweight children (Mann,Whitney U -test). The BF% of non-overweight boys was significantly higher than that of non-overweight girls. Conclusion: Urban Chinese overweight children have high BF% with adverse fat distribution. They may have high risk of atherogeniety. Boys in the non-overweight category may have higher fat accumulation than predicted by BMI. The establishment of an intervention program for childhood obesity is strongly recommended. [source]

    Analysis of Lipoproteins and Body Mass Index in Professional Football Players

    Joseph P. Garry MD
    Exercise is known to improve lipoprotein levels, whereas an elevated body mass index (BMI) is associated with less favorable lipoprotein levels. To date, there have been no reports of lipid analyses in elite athletes who also have BMIs in ranges considered unhealthful. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the lipid-lipoprotein profiles in a group of professional football players and to determine what association exists between these profiles and the players' BMIs. An observational study was conducted of 70 professional football players from one National Football League team. Measurements included BMI (kg·m,2), and fasting serum lipid analysis. BMI and position played were found to correlate (p<0.001), with linemen having the highest mean BMI, 38.1 kg·m,2. Comparing mean lipid values among BMI categories demonstrated lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (p<0.01), higher triglycerides (p<0.05), and higher total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratios (p<0.001) with an increasing BMI. Among the professional football players studied, a lower BMI was associated with a more favorable lipid-lipoprotein profile. Among the elite athletes in this study with the highest BMIs, exercise may not confer the same protective benefits on cardiovascular risk as it does in those athletes with normal BMIs. [source]

    Maternal Prepregnancy Body Mass Index and Delivery of a Preterm Infant in Missouri 1998,2000

    Teresa S. Johnson
    ABSTRACT Objective: To determine risk of delivering a preterm infant (<37 weeks) in overweight/obese women. Design: Descriptive. Sample: Population-based sample of 169,881 singleton Missouri birth certificate records for 1998,2000. Measures: Prepregnancy body mass index (BMI): underweight BMI<19.8; normal BMI=19.8,24.9; overweight BMI=25,29.9; and obese BMI,30; and preterm birth (<37 completed weeks' gestation). Results: In each BMI category, the percent of women who delivered a preterm infant is: underweight 11.5%, normal 8.3%, overweight 8.2%, and obese 8.5%. For women with a BMI of overweight (odds ratio [OR] 0.9, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.8,0.9) and obese (OR 0.8, 95% CI=0.8,0.9), the risk of delivering a preterm infant decreased when compared with women with a BMI<19.8. Black (OR=2.5, 95% CI 2.4,2.6) and Hispanic (OR=1.4, 95% CI 1.2,1.5) women had a higher risk of preterm birth than White women when obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and prenatal care were controlled. Women with diabetes (OR=1.4, 95% CI=1.2,1.5), hypertension (OR=3.2, 95% CI=3.1,3.4), and those who smoked (OR=1.6, 95% CI=1.6,1.7) were at increased risk for a preterm birth. Conclusions: Findings suggest that preconception and prenatal care focus on identification and management of risks associated with premature births and maternal risk factors such as diabetes, hypertension, and smoking. [source]

    Predictors of Increased Body Mass Index Following Cessation of Smoking

    John John PhD
    The objective of this study was to explore nicotine withdrawal symptoms as predictors of increased body mass index (BMI) after an attempt to quit or reduce tobacco smoking. The authors used a survey study, with a probability sample of 4,075 18,64-year-old residents. The participation rate was 70.2%, which included 1,545 current daily smokers. Follow-ups were carried out for current smokers after thirty and 36 months. The authors found that smokers who experienced increased appetite or weight gain (IAW) as a nicotine withdrawal symptom had a higher BMI than smokers without IAW. They concluded that IAW after quitting might be a specific determinant of the BMI increase following smoking cessation in a subgroup of smokers [source]

    New Powerful Approaches for Family-based Association Tests with Longitudinal Measurements

    Xiao Ding
    Summary We discuss several new powerful family-based approaches for testing genetic association when the traits are obtained from longitudinal or repeated measurement studies. The popular approach FBAT-PC is based on a linear combination of the individual traits. We propose a one-sided modification, FBAT-PCM, which has a closed-form expression and is always more powerful. We also present two approaches FBAT-LC and FBAT-LCC based on linear combination of the univariate test statistics. Furthermore, all three approaches are shown to be unified to a general form. Through simulation studies, we compare the power of these tests under different models of genetic effect sizes. Compared to original FBAT-PC, our modification achieves a power gain of up to 50%. In addition, all three new approaches gain substantial power compared to the ordinary approach of Bonferroni correction, with the relative performance depending upon the underlying model. Application of these approaches for testing an association between Body Mass Index and a previously reported candidate SNP confirms our results. [source]

    Regression-based Multivariate Linkage Analysis with an Application to Blood Pressure and Body Mass Index

    T. Wang
    Summary Multivariate linkage analysis has been suggested for the analysis of correlated traits, such as blood pressure (BP) and body mass index (BMI), because it may offer greater power and provide clearer results than univariate analyses. Currently, the most commonly used multivariate linkage methods are extensions of the univariate variance component model. One concern about those methods is their inherent sensitivity to the assumption of multivariate normality which cannot be easily guaranteed in practice. Another problem possibly related to all multivariate linkage analysis methods is the difficulty in interpreting nominal p-values, because the asymptotic distribution of the test statistic has not been well characterized. Here we propose a regression-based multivariate linkage method in which a robust score statistic is used to detect linkage. The p-value of the statistic is evaluated by a simple and rapid simulation procedure. Theoretically, this method can be used for any number and type of traits and for general pedigree data. We apply this approach to a genome linkage analysis of blood pressure and body mass index data from the Beaver Dam Eye Study. [source]

    Loci Contributing to Adult Height and Body Mass Index in African American Families Ascertained for Type 2 Diabetes

    M.M. Sale
    Summary Height and body mass index (BMI) have high heritability in most studies. High BMI and reduced height are well-recognized as important risk factors for a number of cardiovascular diseases. We investigated these phenotypes in African American families originally ascertained for studies of linkage with type 2 diabetes using self-reported height and weight. We conducted a genome wide scan in 221 families containing 580 individuals and 672 relative pairs of African American descent. Estimates of heritability and support for linkage were assessed by genetic variance component analyses using SOLAR software. The estimated heritabilities for height and BMI were 0.43 and 0.64, respectively. We have identified major loci contributing to variation in height on chromosomes 15 (LOD = 2.61 at 35 cM, p = 0.0004), 3 (LOD = 1.82 at 84 cM, p = 0.0029), 8 (LOD = 1.92 at 135 cM, p = 0.0024) and 17 (LOD = 1.70 at 110 cM, p = 0.0044). A broad region on chromosome 4 supported evidence of linkage to variation in BMI, with the highest LOD = 2.66 at 168 cM (p = 0.0005). Two height loci and two BMI loci appear to confirm the existence of quantitative trait loci previously identified by other studies, providing important replicative data to allow further resolution of linkage regions suitable for positional cloning of these cardiovascular disease risk loci. [source]

    Correlation Relationship Assessment between Left Ventricular Hypertrophy Voltage Criteria and Body Mass Index in 41,806 Swiss Conscripts

    Roger Abächerli Ph.D.
    Introduction: Electrocardiographic criteria for left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) have been limited by low sensitivity at acceptable levels of specificity. A number of studies have demonstrated that body mass index (BMI) is associated with decreased sensitivity of ECG LVH classification in hypertensive patients. The objective of this study is to investigate the correlation relationship between LVH voltage criteria and BMI in Swiss conscripts. Methods: A database of 41,806 young Swiss people, who underwent compulsory conscription for the Swiss Army, was compiled. Along with other medical data, an ECG was taken. Statistical analyses, such as linear regression and calculation of correlation coefficient, were carried out between LVH voltage criteria and BMI. Results: The mean age in the studied population was 19.2 ± 1.1 years with a median age of 19 years (range from 17 to 38 years). We found an overweight prevalence of 25.1%. The results showed that body habitus had significant association with Sokolow-Lyon voltages. A mean decrease of 13%, 5%, 19%, 14%, and 12% for the five studied Sokolow-Lyon indexes were found between normal range subjects (18.5 , BMI < 25) and obese subjects (25, BMI). Conclusions: Our study confirms the hypothesis that people with higher BMI, a growing section of the population, have lower ECG amplitudes. Therefore, the Sokolow-Lyon voltage criteria may underestimate the presence of LVH for subjects with higher BMI, which is not the case for the Cornell voltage. Our analysis suggests that computerized electrocardiography for the diagnosis of left ventricular hypertrophy based on Sokolow-Lyon voltages should incorporate the BMI factor. [source]

    Measuring Fatness, Governing Bodies: The Spatialities of the Body Mass Index (BMI) in Anti-Obesity Politics

    ANTIPODE, Issue 5 2009
    Bethan Evans
    Abstract:, The Body Mass Index (BMI) is the dominant means of defining and diagnosing obesity in national and international public health policy. This paper draws on geographical engagements with Foucault's work on biopower and governmentality to question the power afforded the BMI in obesity policy. With reference to a UK public health intervention involving the measurement of children's bodies within schools, the paper questions the multiple materialities and spatialities of the BMI with reference to both its role in the construction of geographies of obesity and its (in)ability to capture the fleshy, material, and experiential bodies of those individuals involved in the process of measurement. The paper contributes to poststructuralist health geographies through writing fleshy, active bodies into a Foucauldian reading of health and illness, thus questioning the justifications and implications of an obesity politics focussed on the BMI. [source]

    Physical activity, Body Mass Index and health care costs in mid-age Australian women

    Wendy J. Brown
    Abstract Objective: This study examined the relationships between combined categories of physical activity (PA) and Body Mass Index (BMI) with health care costs in women and assessed the potential cost savings of improving PA and BMI in sedentary mid-age women. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of 2001 survey data linked to health service use data for the same year from 7,004 mid-age women (50-55 years) participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. Results: The mean (median; interquartile range) annual cost of Medicare-subsidised services was $542 (355; 156-693) per woman. Costs were 17% higher in obese than in healthy-weight women and 26% higher in sedentary than in moderately active women. For sedentary obese women, mean costs were 43% higher than in healthy weight, moderately active women. After adjustment for potential confounders, the relative risk of ,high' claims (,15 claims per year) for overweight women who reported ,moderate' or ,high' PA were lower than for women with healthy BMI who reported no PA. Conclusions and Implications: Lower PA and higher BMI are both associated with higher health care costs, but costs are lower for overweight active women than for healthy-weight sedentary women. At the population level these data suggest that there would be significant cost savings if all sedentary mid-age women could achieve at least ,low' levels of PA (60-150 minutes a week). [source]

    Spatial Cluster Detection for Weighted Outcomes Using Cumulative Geographic Residuals

    BIOMETRICS, Issue 3 2010
    Andrea J. Cook
    Summary Spatial cluster detection is an important methodology for identifying regions with excessive numbers of adverse health events without making strong model assumptions on the underlying spatial dependence structure. Previous work has focused on point or individual-level outcome data and few advances have been made when the outcome data are reported at an aggregated level, for example, at the county- or census-tract level. This article proposes a new class of spatial cluster detection methods for point or aggregate data, comprising of continuous, binary, and count data. Compared with the existing spatial cluster detection methods it has the following advantages. First, it readily incorporates region-specific weights, for example, based on a region's population or a region's outcome variance, which is the key for aggregate data. Second, the established general framework allows for area-level and individual-level covariate adjustment. A simulation study is conducted to evaluate the performance of the method. The proposed method is then applied to assess spatial clustering of high Body Mass Index in a health maintenance organization population in the Seattle, Washington, USA area. [source]

    Life Style and Urinary 8-Hydroxydeoxyguanosine, a Marker of Oxidative DNA Damage: Effects of Exercise, Working Conditions, Meat Intake, Body Mass Index, and Smoking

    CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 1 2001
    Hiroshi Kasai
    The urinary levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG), a marker of oxidative DNA damage, of 318 healthy men aged 18-58 were measured with high resolution by a newly developed automated high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) system coupled to an electrochemical detector (ECD). The mean 8-OH-dG level (,Mg/g creatinine) was 4.12±1.73 (SD). An eleven-fold inter-individual variation was observed. The accuracy of the measurement estimated from the recovery of an added 8-OH-dG standard was 90-98%. By univariate analysis, it was found that moderate physical exercise (P=0.0023) and high body mass index (BMI) (P=0.0032) reduced the 8-OH-dG level, while physical labor (P=0.0097), smoking (P=0.032), and low meat intake (less than once/ week) (P=0.041) increased its level. Based on a multi-regression analysis of the log-transformed values, moderate physical exercise (P=0.0039), high BMI (P=0.0099), and age (P=0.021) showed significant reducing effects on the 8-OH-dG level, while low meat intake (P=0.010), smoking (P=0.013), and day-night shift work (P=0.044) increased its level. These results suggest that many types of life-style factors that either generate or scavenge oxygen radicals may affect the level of oxidative DNA damage of each individual. [source]

    Metabolic differences between male and female adolescents with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, as detected by ultrasound

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 8 2010
    MTB Fernandes
    Abstract Background:, Age, developmental stage and gender are risk factors for paediatric non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Aims:, The aim of this study was to identify differences in clinical or laboratory variables between sexes in adolescents with NAFLD. Methodology:, Ninety obese adolescents including 36 males and 54 females were evaluated. Inclusion criteria for this study were a Body Mass Index above the 95th percentile, as set forth by the National Center for Health Statistics, and an age of 10,19 years. A clinical and laboratory evaluation was conducted for all adolescents. Results:, The variables that were found to be predictive of NAFLD in adolescence were visceral fat, Aminotransferase, Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase, triglyderides, cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol. We also observed that cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol variables were influenced by gender, i.e. there was a significant statistical difference in the values of these variables between male and female adolescents. With regard to cholesterol serum concentrations, the risk was 6.99 times greater for females, compared with 1.2 times for males; and for LDL-cholesterol serum concentrations the risk was 8.15 times greater for females, compared with and 1.26 times for males. Conclusion:, Female adolescents with NAFLD showed a significantly different metabolic behaviour than males. [source]

    Validity of BMI based on self-reported weight and height in adolescents

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 1 2010
    H Fonseca
    Abstract Aim:, To assess in a subset of a nationally representative sample of Portuguese adolescents, the validity of Body Mass Index (BMI) based on self-reported weight and height. Methods:, This study included 462 students in grades 6, 8 and 10 (mean age 14.0 ± 1.9 years) from 12 public schools randomly selected from the list of schools which took part in the 2006 Health Behaviour in School Aged Children Portuguese survey, corresponding to approximately 10% of the sample. Self-reported weight and height were recorded and then measured. Results:, Prevalence of normal weight, overweight and obesity based on self-report compared with that of measured values was not significantly different for boys and girls, and among age groups. BMI based on measured weight and height was underestimated compared with BMI based on self-reported data, both among girls and boys. Larger limits of agreement were found for boys, indicating a higher variability of self-reported BMI in estimating measured BMI, specifically below the age of 14 years. Conclusion:, These data suggest that BMI based on self-reported weight and height is not accurate for BMI prediction at an individual level. However, self-reported BMI may be used as a simple and valid tool for BMI estimates of overweight and obesity in epidemiological studies. [source]

    Posttraumatic stress disorder as a risk factor for obesity among male military veterans

    W. V. R. Vieweg
    Objective:, Obesity is a significant public health problem in the United States, particularly among military veterans with multiple risk factors. Heretofore, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has not clearly been identified as a risk factor for this condition. Method:, We accessed both a national and local database of PTSD veterans. Results:, Body mass index (BMI) was greater (P < 0.0001) among male military veterans (n = 1819) with PTSD (29.28 ± 6.09 kg/m2) than those veterans (n = 44 959) without PTSD (27.61 ± 5.99 kg/m2) in a sample of randomly selected veterans from the national database. In the local database of male military veterans with PTSD, mean BMI was in the obese range (30.00 ± 5.65) and did not vary by decade of life (P = 0.242). Conclusion:, Posttraumatic stress disorder may be a risk factor for overweight and obesity among male military veterans. [source]

    The impact of diabetes and obesity on liver histology in patients with hepatitis C

    F. Friedenberg
    Aim:, An association between diabetes mellitus and HCV has been recognized previously. No study has examined whether there is an independent association between the degree of hepatic fibrosis and the incidence of diabetes in HCV patients when controlling for other risk factors. Methods:, We reviewed the charts of 264 consecutive patients with chronic HCV infection at a referral liver centre from January 1991 to December 1999. Demographic background, medical history, laboratory and liver biopsy results were retrieved. Results:, The prevalence of diabetes was 16.3%. Gender, intravenous drug use, steatosis scores, aminotransferase levels and iron studies were similarly distributed in patients with and without diabetes (all p > 0.05). In contrast, mean age was greater in the diabetic group (49.8 vs. 44.3, p = 0.003). The prevalence of diabetes was substantially higher in African-Americans (p = 0.001) and those with BMI > 30 (p = 0.015). Although the fibrosis score was higher in diabetics (, = 0.14, p = 0.03), that association did not remain significant when controlling for diabetes risk factors (p > 0.3). The degree of steatosis and fibrosis both tended to increase with increasing BMI (, = 0.47, p < 0.001 and , = 0.13, p = 0.03, respectively). Even after controlling for diabetes, age, gender, race, and current alcohol use, those associations remained (both p < 0.001). Conclusions:, The prevalence of diabetes in our group of HCV patients was high, consistent with other studies. Diabetes is not an independent predictor of degree of fibrosis. Body mass index is an independent predictor of both fibrosis and steatosis in HCV patients. [source]