Body Fat (body + fat)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Body Fat

  • lower body fat
  • percent body fat
  • percentage body fat
  • total body fat

  • Terms modified by Body Fat

  • body fat content
  • body fat distribution
  • body fat mass
  • body fat percent
  • body fat percentage
  • body fat weight

  • Selected Abstracts


    Glucocorticoid Excess During Adolescence Leads to a Major Persistent Deficit in Bone Mass and an Increase in Central Body Fat

    JOURNAL OF BONE AND MINERAL RESEARCH, Issue 10 2001
    Veronica Abad
    Abstract Endogenous Cushing's syndrome (CS) in children causes growth retardation, decreased bone mass, and increased total body fat. No prospective controlled studies have been performed in children to determine the long-term sequelae of CS on peak bone mass and body composition. A 15-year-old girl with Cushing disease (CD), and her healthy identical co-twin, were followed for 6 years after the CD was cured. At the 6-year follow-up both twins had areal bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and three-dimensional quantitative computed tomography (3DQCT). Z scores for height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) were ,2.3, ,0.8 and 0.2, and 1.2, 0.2, and ,0.6, in the twin with CD and her co-twin, respectively. In the twin with CD, areal BMD and bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) at different sites varied from 0.7 to 3 SD below her co-twin. Volumetric lumbar spine bone density Z score was ,0.75 and 1.0, and total body, abdominal visceral, and subcutaneous fat (%) was 42, 10, and 41 versus 26, 4, and 17 in the twin with CD and her co-twin, respectively. The relationship between total body fat and L2-L4 BMAD was inverse in the twin with CD (p < 0.05), which by contrast in her co-twin was opposite and direct (p < 0.001). In the twin with CD, despite cure, there was a persistent deficit in bone mass and increase in total and visceral body fat. These observations suggest that hypercortisolism (exogenous or endogenous) during adolescence may have persistent adverse effects on bone and fat mass. [source]


    Lifestyle, participation, and health-related quality of life in adolescents and young adults with myelomeningocele

    DEVELOPMENTAL MEDICINE & CHILD NEUROLOGY, Issue 11 2009
    LAURIEN M BUFFART PHD
    This study aimed to describe participation and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adolescents and young adults with myelomeningocele and to explore their relationships with lifestyle-related factors. Fifty-one individuals with a mean age of 21 years 1 month (SD 4y 6mo) years participated (26 males, 25 females; 82% hydrocephalus, 55% wheelchair-dependent). Participation was assessed using the Life Habits Questionnaire, and HRQoL was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-form Health Survey. Physical activity was measured using an accelerometry-based activity monitor, fitness (peak oxygen uptake) was measured during a maximal exercise test, and the sum of four skin-folds was assessed to indicate body fat. Relationships were studied using logistic regression analyses. Of the participants, 63% had difficulties in daily activities and 59% in social roles. Participants perceived lower physical HRQoL than a Dutch reference population. Participants with higher levels of physical activity and fitness had fewer difficulties in participating in daily activities (odds ratio [OR]=8.8, p=0.02 and OR=29.7, p=0.02 respectively) and a higher physical HRQoL (OR=4.8, p=0.02 and OR=30.2, p=0.006 respectively), but not mental HRQoL. Body fat was not related to participation or HRQoL. In conclusion, a large proportion of individuals with myelomeningocele had difficulties in participation and perceived low physical HRQoL. Higher levels of physical activity and fitness were related to fewer difficulties in participation and higher physical HRQoL. [source]


    Impact of changing diet regimes on Steller sea lion body condition

    MARINE MAMMAL SCIENCE, Issue 2 2008
    Shannon Atkinson
    Abstract A leading theory for the cause of the decline of Steller sea lions is nutritional stress, which led to chronic high juvenile mortality and possibly episodic adult mortality. Nutritional stress may have resulted from either poor quality or low abundance of prey. The objective of this study was to determine whether we could predict shifts in body condition (i.e., body mass or body fat content) over different seasons associated with a change in diet (i.e., toward lower quality prey). Captive Steller sea lions (n= 3) were fed three different diet regimes, where Diet 1 approximated the diet in the Kodiak area in the 1970s prior to the documented decline in that area, Diet 2 approximated the species composition in the Kodiak area after the decline had begun, and Diet 3 approximated the diet in southeast Alaska where the Steller sea lion population has been increasing for over 25 yr. All the animals used in this study were still growing and gained mass regardless of diet. Body fat (%) varied between 13% and 28%, but was not consistently high or low for any diet regime or season. Mean intake (in kg) of Diet 2 was significantly greater for all sea lions during all seasons. All animals did, however, tend to gain less body mass on Diets 2 and 3, as well as during the breeding and postbreeding seasons. They also tended to gain more mass during the winter and on Diet 1, though these differences were not statistically significant. Thus, changing seasonal physiology of Steller sea lions appears to have more impact on body condition than quality of prey, provided sufficient quantity of prey is available. Steller sea lions are opportunistic predators and are evidently able to thrive on a variety of prey. Our results indicate that Steller sea lions are capable of compensating for prey of low quality. [source]


    Body composition in full-term healthy infants measured with air displacement plethysmography at 1 and 12 weeks of age

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 4 2010
    Britt Eriksson
    Abstract Aim:, To use Pea Pod, a device based on air displacement plethysmography, to study body composition of healthy, full-term infants born to well-nourished women with a western life-style. Methods:, Body composition was assessed in 53 girls and 55 boys at 1 week (before 10 days of age) and at 12 weeks (between 77 and 91 days of age). Results:, At 1 week girls contained 13.4 ± 3.7% body fat and boys 12.5 ± 4.0%. At 12 weeks, these figures were 26.3 ± 4.2% (girls) and 26.4 ± 5.1% (boys). Body fat (%) did not differ significantly between the genders. Body fat (%) at the two measurements was not correlated. At 1 week, the weight (r = 0.20, p = 0.044) and BMI (r = 0.26, p = 0.007) of the infants, but not their body fat (g, %) or fat free mass (g), correlated with BMI before pregnancy in their mothers. Conclusions:, Pea Pod has potential for use in studies investigating the effect of external (i.e. nutritional status) and internal (i.e. age, gender, gestational age at birth) factors on infant body composition. This may be of value when studying relationships between the nutritional situation during early life and adult health. [source]


    Assessment of endothelial function and blood metabolite status following acute ingestion of a fructose-containing beverage

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 1 2010
    A. J. Bidwell
    Abstract Aim:, Fructose intake has increased concurrent with sugar intake and this increase has been implicated in contributing to the development of metabolic syndrome risk factors. Recent evidence suggests a role for uric acid (UA) as a potential mediator via suppression of nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. The aim of this study was to explore this hypothesis by measuring changes in UA concentration and systemic NO bioavailability as well as endothelial function in response to acute ingestion of a glucose-fructose beverage. Methods:, Ten young (26.80 ± 4.80 years), non-obese (body mass index: 25.1 ± 2.55 kg m,2; percent body fat: 13.5 ± 6.9%) male subjects ingested either a glucose (100 g dextrose in 300 mL) or isocaloric glucose-fructose (glucose : fructose; 45 : 55 g in 300 mL) beverage. Blood was sampled pre- and every 15-min post-ingestion per 90 min and assayed for glucose, lactate, fructose, total nitrate/nitrate, UA and blood lipids. Forearm blood flow and pulse-wave velocity were recorded prior to and at 30 and 45 min time intervals post-ingestion, respectively, while heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were recorded every 15 min. Results:, The glucose-fructose ingestion was associated with a significant (P < 0.05) increase in plasma lactate concentration and altered free fatty acid levels when compared with glucose-only ingestion. However, UA was not significantly different (P = 0.08) between conditions (AUC: ,1018 ± 1675 vs. 2171 ± 1270 ,mol L,1 per 90 min for glucose and glucose-fructose conditions respectively). Consequently, no significant (P < 0.05) difference in endothelial function or systemic NO bioavailability was observed. Conclusion:, Acute consumption of a fructose-containing beverage was not associated with significantly altered UA concentration, endothelial function or systemic NO bioavailability. [source]


    Lifestyle, participation, and health-related quality of life in adolescents and young adults with myelomeningocele

    DEVELOPMENTAL MEDICINE & CHILD NEUROLOGY, Issue 11 2009
    LAURIEN M BUFFART PHD
    This study aimed to describe participation and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adolescents and young adults with myelomeningocele and to explore their relationships with lifestyle-related factors. Fifty-one individuals with a mean age of 21 years 1 month (SD 4y 6mo) years participated (26 males, 25 females; 82% hydrocephalus, 55% wheelchair-dependent). Participation was assessed using the Life Habits Questionnaire, and HRQoL was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-form Health Survey. Physical activity was measured using an accelerometry-based activity monitor, fitness (peak oxygen uptake) was measured during a maximal exercise test, and the sum of four skin-folds was assessed to indicate body fat. Relationships were studied using logistic regression analyses. Of the participants, 63% had difficulties in daily activities and 59% in social roles. Participants perceived lower physical HRQoL than a Dutch reference population. Participants with higher levels of physical activity and fitness had fewer difficulties in participating in daily activities (odds ratio [OR]=8.8, p=0.02 and OR=29.7, p=0.02 respectively) and a higher physical HRQoL (OR=4.8, p=0.02 and OR=30.2, p=0.006 respectively), but not mental HRQoL. Body fat was not related to participation or HRQoL. In conclusion, a large proportion of individuals with myelomeningocele had difficulties in participation and perceived low physical HRQoL. Higher levels of physical activity and fitness were related to fewer difficulties in participation and higher physical HRQoL. [source]


    Changes in serum leptin concentrations in overweight Japanese men after exercise

    DIABETES OBESITY & METABOLISM, Issue 5 2004
    N. Miyatake
    Aim:, To investigate the link between serum leptin concentrations and exercise. Design:, Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of an exercise intervention. Subjects:, 110 Japanese overweight men aged 32,59 years were recruited. At baseline, the average body mass index (BMI) was 28.5 ± 2.5 kg/m2. From this group, we used data of 36 overweight men (BMI, 28.9 ± 2.3) for a 1-year exercise programme. Measurements:, Leptin was measured at baseline and after 1 year. Fat distribution was evaluated by visceral fat (V) and subcutaneous fat (S) areas measured with computed tomography (CT) scanning at umbilical levels. Anthropometric parameters, aerobic exercise level, muscle strength and flexibility were also investigated at baseline and after 1 year. Results:, In the first analysis, using cross-sectional data, leptin was significantly correlated with total body fat (r = 0.760, p < 0.01), V (r = 0.383, p < 0.01) and S (r = 0.617, p < 0.01) areas. In the second analysis, using longitudinal data, leptin was significantly reduced after 1 year (pre 6.7 ± 4.0 ng/ml vs. post 5.1 ± 3.1 ng/ml, p < 0.01). Results showed that steps per day were increased, and aerobic exercise level, weight-bearing index (WBI) and insulin resistance were significantly improved. Although, there was a positive correlation between , leptin(positive changes in leptin after 1 year) and anthropometric measurements such as , body weight, , BMI and , body fat, leptin/body weight, leptin/BMI and leptin/body fat ratios were significantly reduced during exercise intervention. Conclusion:, The present study indicated exercise significantly lowers serum leptin concentrations, and thus it may improve the leptin resistance observed in overweight Japanese men. [source]


    Age-related anthropometric remodelling resulting in increased and redistributed adiposity is associated with increases in the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese subjects

    DIABETES/METABOLISM: RESEARCH AND REVIEWS, Issue 1 2006
    G. Neil Thomas
    Abstract Background Ageing promotes increases in the prevalence of components of the metabolic syndrome, which obesity often underlies. Methods We report the relationship between ageing, obesity and other cardiovascular risk factors in 694 community-based Chinese subjects in gender-specific groups of three age ranges: 20.0,39.9 (young), 40.0,59.9 (middle-aged) and 60.0,79.9 (old-aged) years. Results Body mass index (BMI) values were similar in males in each age group, but waist and percentage body fat increased (6.6, and 39.5%, both p < 0.001, respectively), from young to old-age groups, as did blood pressure and glycated haemoglobin levels (all p < 0.001). In the females, increases (all p < 0.001) in percentage body fat (29.3%) were accompanied by greater increases in BMI (10.3%) and waist (19.2%) than the males. Blood pressure, glycated haemoglobin, total and LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels increased linearly with age (all p < 0.001). Conclusion Age-related increases in central adiposity and percentage body fat were associated with increasingly adverse cardiovascular risk factor profiles. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Following in mother's footsteps?

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 3 2010
    Mother, cardiovascular disease 15 years after gestational diabetes, daughter risks for insulin resistance
    Diabet. Med. 27, 257,265 (2010) Abstract Aims, To determine effects on mothers and daughters of gestational diabetes mellitus/gestational impaired glucose tolerance (GDM/GIGT) on their future metabolic and cardiovascular risks. Methods, Case mothers who had GDM/GIGT in pregnancy (cases; n = 90) and normoglycaemic control women (n = 99) and their daughters underwent lifestyle assessment and metabolic tests 15-years post-partum. Results, Prevalence of glucose intolerance (GI) in daughters was 1.1%. Maternal prevalence was 44.4% in cases compared to 13.1% in controls, with conversion best predicted by weight gain. Case daughters had higher insulin resistance (IR) and greater waist circumference (WC) (51.2%) relative to control daughters (36.4%, p < 0.05) made worse if case mothers became GI at follow-up (65%) (relative risk =1.8; 95% confidence interval 1.2,2.9). In multivariable linear regression analyses adjusting for daughters' birthweight, maternal obesity (> 30.0 kg/m2) at 15years and mothers' case-control status were strong predictors of daughters' WC (p < 0.01; P < 0.01, respectively). For daughters' body mass index (BMI) percentile and percentage of body fat, maternal obesity was a stronger predictor (p < 0.01; p < 0.001)) than mothers' case-control status (p < 0.01; P = 0.09). Conclusions, GDM/GIGT pregnancies led to increased conversion to GI in mothers, minimal in daughters. Case daughters have increased risk of central adiposity and insulin resistance, whereas maternal obesity strongly predicted daughters' BMI percentile and per cent of body fat. Controlling hyperglycaemia in pregnancy and family weight management may provide the key to preventing offspring obesity and glucose intolerance post GDM/GIGT. [source]


    Targeting of the central histaminergic system for treatment of obesity and associated metabolic disorders

    DRUG DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH, Issue 8 2006
    Kjell Malmlöf
    Abstract There is currently a need for effective pharmacological therapies for treatment of obesity. In this communication, the involvement of the neurotransmitter histamine in the regulation of food intake is reviewed, together with results obtained in animals with pharmacologically increased brain histamine levels. A survey of the literature reveals that histaminergic circuits, arising from nerve cell bodies in the tuberomammillary nucleus and projecting into the paraventricular nucleus, the arcuate nucleus, and the ventromedial hypothalamus, are strongly involved in regulation of food intake and possibly also energy expenditure. Current literature also suggests the histaminergic circuits connect to other neuronal pathways involved in the regulation of energy balance and body weight. Studies performed in rodents demonstrate that H3 receptor antagonists increase hypothalamic histamine and decrease food intake, which result in decreased body weight. Lipid oxidation is increased and, at higher doses, body fat is also decreased. These changes are associated with lower circulating levels of insulin during an oral glucose challenge suggesting an increase in insulin sensitivity. The effects on food intake have also been confirmed in pigs and rhesus monkeys. It can thus be concluded that results obtained with H3 antagonist in animals warrant future clinical studies to evaluate whether this principle is effective in the treatment of human obesity. Drug Dev. Res. 67:651,665, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Anabolic,androgenic steroid dependence: an emerging disorder

    ADDICTION, Issue 12 2009
    Gen Kanayama
    ABSTRACT Aims Anabolic,androgenic steroids (AAS) are widely used illicitly to gain muscle and lose body fat. Here we review the accumulating human and animal evidence showing that AAS may cause a distinct dependence syndrome, often associated with adverse psychiatric and medical effects. Method We present an illustrative case of AAS dependence, followed by a summary of the human and animal literature on this topic, based on publications known to us or obtained by searching the PubMed database. Results About 30% of AAS users appear to develop a dependence syndrome, characterized by chronic AAS use despite adverse effects on physical, psychosocial or occupational functioning. AAS dependence shares many features with classical drug dependence. For example, hamsters will self-administer AAS, even to the point of death, and both humans and animals exhibit a well-documented AAS withdrawal syndrome, mediated by neuroendocrine and cortical neurotransmitter systems. AAS dependence may particularly involve opioidergic mechanisms. However, AAS differ from classical drugs in that they produce little immediate reward of acute intoxication, but instead a delayed effect of muscle gains. Thus standard diagnostic criteria for substance dependence, usually crafted for acutely intoxicating drugs, must be adapted slightly for cumulatively acting drugs such as AAS. Conclusions AAS dependence is a valid diagnostic entity, and probably a growing public health problem. AAS dependence may share brain mechanisms with other forms of substance dependence, especially opioid dependence. Future studies are needed to characterize AAS dependence more clearly, identify risk factors for this syndrome and develop treatment strategies. [source]


    Leptin receptor 170 kDa (OB-R170) protein expression is reduced in obese human skeletal muscle: a potential mechanism of leptin resistance

    EXPERIMENTAL PHYSIOLOGY, Issue 1 2010
    T. Fuentes
    To examine whether obesity-associated leptin resistance could be due to down-regulation of leptin receptors (OB-Rs) and/or up-regulation of suppressor of cytokine signalling 3 (SOCS3) and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) in skeletal muscle, which blunt janus kinase 2-dependent leptin signalling and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation and reduce AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) phosphorylation. Deltoid and vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were obtained from 20 men: 10 non-obese control subjects (mean ±s.d. age, 31 ± 5 years; height, 184 ± 9 cm; weight, 91 ± 13 kg; and percentage body fat, 24.8 ± 5.8%) and 10 obese (age, 30 ± 7 years; height, 184 ± 8 cm; weight, 115 ± 8 kg; and percentage body fat, 34.9 ± 5.1%). Skeletal muscle OB-R170 (OB-R long isoform) protein expression was 28 and 25% lower (both P < 0.05) in arm and leg muscles, respectively, of obese men compared with control subjects. In normal-weight subjects, SOCS3 protein expression, and STAT3, AMPK, and ACC, phosphorylation, were similar in the deltoid and vastus lateralis muscles. In obese subjects, the deltoid muscle had a greater amount of leptin receptors than the vastus lateralis, whilst SOCS3 protein expression was increased and basal STAT3, AMPK, and ACC, phosphorylation levels were reduced in the vastus lateralis compared with the deltoid muscle (all P < 0.05). In summary, skeletal muscle leptin receptors and leptin signalling are reduced in obesity, particularly in the leg muscles. [source]


    Thiazolidinedione derivatives in diabetes and cardiovascular disease: an update

    FUNDAMENTAL & CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Issue 3 2008
    Pantelis A. Sarafidis
    Abstract As the incidence and the public health impact of type 2 diabetes are constantly rising, treatment of hyperglycemia, prevention of diabetes-related complications are currently top medical priorities. Within the last decade several new classes of oral hypoglycemic agents were added to our armamentarium against diabetes. Among these new classes, the group of thiazolidinediones, which act through reduction of insulin resistance is perhaps the most widely used. For about 20 years, numerous background and clinical studies have evaluated the beneficial and adverse effects of these compounds. Current knowledge suggests that thiazolidinediones are as effective as metformin or sulfonylurea derivatives in improving glycemic control and exert several other beneficial metabolic and vascular effects, such as improvement in lipid profile, blood pressure lowering, redistribution of body fat away from the central compartment, microalbuminuria regression, reduction in subclinical vascular inflammation and others. On the other hand, currently used thiazolidinediones have well-established side effects, most important of which are fluid retention leading to weight gain and heart failure deterioration. Further, in the expectance of proper outcome studies to clarify the effects of these agents in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, data from recent meta-analyses suggest that rosiglitazone may increase the risk for some cardiovascular outcomes. This article will discuss all the above issues attempting to provide an updated overview of this expanding field. [source]


    The prevalence of lipodystrophy in an ambulant HIV-infected population: it all depends on the definition

    HIV MEDICINE, Issue 3 2001
    VM Carter
    Objectives This study's objective was to determine the prevalence of body shape changes and metabolic abnormalities in an ambulant population with HIV infection. Three different definitions of lipodystrophy were used to assess these changes. Patients' anthropometric measures and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans were compared in order to estimate fat distribution in this population. We sought to evaluate potential predictors for lipodystrophy according to each of the three definitions. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study in the outpatient clinic of a tertiary referral hospital in Melbourne, Australia. We enrolled a total of 167 HIV-infected ambulatory patients over 3 months in mid-1998. Data on 159 males, 149 of whom were receiving triple combination antiretroviral therapy, were evaluated. Anthropometric measures, clinical examination, self-report of body shape changes, biochemical measures and DEXA scan were used to assess lipodystrophy and risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Patients described body shape changes in the face, trunk, arms and legs. Laboratory parameters measured included fasting triglyceride (TG), cholesterol, high-density lipoproteins (HDL), glucose, insulin, CD4 cell count and plasma HIV RNA. Current and past antiretroviral therapies were ascertained. Results According to one proposed Australian national definition of lipodystrophy (LDNC), the prevalence of lipodystrophy in this population was 65%. This definition included an objective assessment with major and minor criteria. Patient-defined lipodystrophy (LDP), which involved a subjective assessment of thinning arms and legs and central adiposity, occurred in 19%. Patient-defined lipoatrophy (LAP), which involved a subjective assessment of thinning arms and legs without central adiposity, occurred in 21.3%. No change in body habitus was noted by 37% of the cohort. Hypercholesterolaemia was recorded in 44%, hypertriglyceridaemia in 52% and elevated insulin levels in 23%. Anthropometry was predictive of the per cent total body fat recorded by DEXA scan, but produced consistently lower values. In multivariate analysis, LDP and LAP were significantly associated with stavudine (d4T) use, while LAP was also associated with zidovudine (ZDV) treatment. There were no treatment associations with LDNC. Protease inhibitor (PI) exposure was associated with metabolic changes but not patient perceived body shape changes, while d4T and ZDV exposure was associated with increased triglycerides and reduced peripheral fat stores. Conclusions The prevalence of body shape changes in a single population varied depending on the definition applied. The LDNC definition overestimated body shape abnormalities in comparison with patient perception. LAP was associated with significantly lower fat stores measured by anthropometry and DEXA scan than those identified under the LDNC definition. In contrast to LDNC, LAP was associated with d4T exposure, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) and ZDV duration of use, but not PI use. Until a consensus definition for lipodystrophy is developed, including agreement on objective measurement and thresholds for abnormality, careful description of the individual components of the syndrome is required to enable cohort comparisons so that predictors of the syndrome can be assessed more accurately and outcome studies made feasible. [source]


    L -Carnitine in the treatment of HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome

    HIV MEDICINE, Issue 1 2001
    S Mauss
    Summary The objective of this pilot study was to assess the effect of L -carnitine on the course of the HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome. Twelve patients presenting with combined atrophic and hypertrophic changes of body fat were treated with L -carnitine 1000 mg bid for 3 months. No marked improvement of the body changes was observed. However a reduction in serum cholesterol levels, but not triglycerides, was noted. These preliminary data do not support the use of L -carnitine for the rapid reversal of advanced fat tissue alterations due to HIV-associated lipodystrophy. [source]


    Obesity: the science behind the management

    INTERNAL MEDICINE JOURNAL, Issue 5-6 2002
    K. Steinbeck
    Abstract The prevalence of obesity is increasing in Western and Westernizing countries. The changing environment plays a major role in this increase, particularly the reduction in physical activity. There is also a strong genetic contribution to the development of obesity, although single-gene defect obesity is rare. Neither the environment nor genes is simple to modify. Obesity is an energy-balance disorder, and the human body has evolved to resist any loss of body fat. This biological drive to maintain weight is coordinated through central pathways, with the involvement of many neuropeptides. Thus, dietary restriction will induce changes designed to counter weight loss, including a fall in resting metabolic rate. The management of obesity demands reasonable goals, which focus on metabolic, rather than cosmetic, improvement. As obesity is a complex condition, multiple therapeutic strategies are required. Dietary modification, an increase in physical activity, a reduction in sedentary activity and behaviour modification all form the basis of obesity therapy. Drug therapy options at present are limited and may have a stronger role in weight maintenance. Currently, surgical management of obesity has the best long-term outcomes. Long-term maintenance of weight loss is achieved by few individuals. Those individuals who are successful are able to maintain long-term restrictive eating habits and high levels of physical activity. (Intern Med J 2002; 32: 237,241) [source]


    Respiratory complications of obesity

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PRACTICE, Issue 6 2004
    A.S. Jubber
    Summary Obesity is known to be a major risk factor of a whole range of cardiovascular, metabolic and respiratory disorders. It has been recognised that the pattern of regional fat distribution plays an important role in the pre-disposition of obese subjects to certain obesity-related complications. Derangement of parameters of lung function is determined to a large extent by the quantity and distribution of excess body fat with its potential to interfere with the mechanics of pulmonary physiology. Clinical, laboratory and epidemiological observations have established links between obesity and several breathing problems including obstructive sleep apnoea, obesity hypoventilation syndrome and asthma. However, in many respects, the pathophysiology of these links is not fully explored. In this article, the impact of obesity on pulmonary physiology and its association with the above-mentioned clinical conditions is discussed. [source]


    Body composition and heat expenditure in broiler chickens fed diets with or without trans fatty acids

    JOURNAL OF ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY AND NUTRITION, Issue 1 2008
    M. Javadi
    Summary The effect of a diet containing trans fatty acids (TFA) on the fatty acid composition and fat accumulation was investigated in broiler chickens. Female broilers were fed a control or a TFA-containing diet. The difference between the diets was that a part of cis 18:1 in the control diet was replaced by the TFA. Body composition, energy balance and the fatty acid composition were examined. Over the time-period studied (15 days), the body fat content and the protein content did not differ significantly between the TFA-fed group and the control. In energy balance studies, total energy intake, energy loss in excreta, energy expenditure and energy storage did not differ between the treatments. Compared to the control diet, the TFA diet resulted in significantly higher amounts of 14:0 and 18:1n-7 and lower amounts of 18:1n-9 and 20:4n-6 in the body. In conclusion, the data suggest that feeding TFA for 15 days to female broilers had no effect on energy retention, energy expenditure and energy loss in excreta or in body composition in terms of fat and protein. Only the fatty acid composition in the body was affected by the treatment with TFA. In addition, 50% of ingested TFA was incorporated into the body fat. This may have a negative effect on the diethetic value of chicken meat. [source]


    The influence of dietary linoleic and , -linolenic acid on body composition and the activities of key enzymes of hepatic lipogenesis and fatty acid oxidation in mice,

    JOURNAL OF ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY AND NUTRITION, Issue 1-2 2007
    M. Javadi
    Summary We have recently suggested that feeding the C18 polyunsaturated fatty acid, , -linolenic acid (ALA), instead of linoleic acid (LA) reduced body fat in mice. However, the difference in body fat did not reach statistical significance, which prompted us to carry out this study using more animals and diets with higher contents of ALA and LA so that the contrast would be greater. The diets contained either 12% (w/w) LA and 3% ALA or 12% ALA and 4% LA. A low-fat diet was used as control. The diets were fed for 35 days. The proportion of body fat was not influenced by the type of dietary fatty acid. Plasma total cholesterol and phospholipids were significantly lower in ALA-fed mice than in mice fed LA. Activities of enzymes in the fatty acid oxidation pathway were significantly raised by these two diets when compared with the control diet. , -Linolenic acid vs. LA did not affect fatty acid oxidation enzymes. In mice fed the diet with LA activities of enzymes of de novo fatty acid synthesis were significantly decreased when compared with mice fed the control diet. , -Linolenic acid vs. LA feeding did not influence lipogenic enzymes. It is concluded that feeding mice for 35 days with diets either rich in LA or ALA did not significantly influence body composition. [source]


    Effect of ovariectomy and ad libitum feeding on body composition, thyroid status, ghrelin and leptin plasma concentrations in female dogs,

    JOURNAL OF ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY AND NUTRITION, Issue 1-2 2006
    I. Jeusette
    Summary The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of ovariectomy (i) and ad libitum feeding (ii) on energy intake, body weight (BW), body composition, thyroid status, leptin and ghrelin plasma concentrations. Four young adult female Beagle dogs were fed a maintenance diet for 6 weeks prior to ovariectomy, then 6 months after. Food allowance was adjusted in order to maintain optimal BW. Then, a diet slightly higher in energy concentration was fed ad libitum for 4 months. The maintenance diet was then fed ad libitum for one additional month. The maintenance of optimal BW after ovariectomy required a significant decrease in energy allowance. No increase in fat mass was observed. Ghrelin concentration remained unchanged. During the first month of ad libitum feeding, plasma ghrelin concentration and energy intake increased, then they decreased. Mean BW, plasma leptin, thyrotropin (TSH), total triiodothyronine (TT3) and total thyroxine (TT4) concentrations significantly increased over the study. The BW increase was exclusively due to an increase in body fat. In conclusion, energy allowance should be strictly controlled in spayed female dogs. The results suggest that in dogs, thyroid hormones, leptin and ghrelin concentrations change in response to a positive energy balance in an attempt to limit weight gain. However, the significant weight gain shows that this goal was not achieved. [source]


    Estimation of the proportion of body fat in mice from the proportion of body water

    JOURNAL OF ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY AND NUTRITION, Issue 5-6 2003
    A. H. M. Terpstra
    Summary We compared the proportion of body fat in mice as measured by chemical analysis with that estimated from the proportion of body water. First, we measured the proportion of fat by chemical analysis in 78 mice that had a proportion of body fat in the range from approximately 5 to 20%. Then, we constructed a regression line that described the relationship between the proportion of body water and the proportion of body fat by using data from several other published studies in mice (% body fat = ,1.20 × % body water + 88.07, r = 0.9597, sy.x = 2.75, p < 0.001). With this regression line, we estimated the proportion of body fat from the proportion of body water that was measured by drying the carcasses at 60 °C for 3 days. Body fat data obtained from this regression line were similar to those obtained by chemical analysis. Thus, these results suggest that reliable values for the proportion of body fat can be derived from the proportion of body water and this method provides a tool to rapidly measure the proportion of body fat in mice. [source]


    Avian forensics: predicting body fat and body mass from wing remains

    JOURNAL OF AVIAN BIOLOGY, Issue 2 2001
    Christopher G. Guglielmo
    We describe the development of a method to predict percent body fat of killed birds from the percent fat in the most distal wing tissue, which is often left uneaten by aerial predators. When combined with a measure of body structural size, such as tarsus, culmen or keel length, percent wing fat can be used to predict fresh body mass at the time of death. These techniques may prove useful in field studies of mass-dependent predation risk. [source]


    Glucocorticoid Excess During Adolescence Leads to a Major Persistent Deficit in Bone Mass and an Increase in Central Body Fat

    JOURNAL OF BONE AND MINERAL RESEARCH, Issue 10 2001
    Veronica Abad
    Abstract Endogenous Cushing's syndrome (CS) in children causes growth retardation, decreased bone mass, and increased total body fat. No prospective controlled studies have been performed in children to determine the long-term sequelae of CS on peak bone mass and body composition. A 15-year-old girl with Cushing disease (CD), and her healthy identical co-twin, were followed for 6 years after the CD was cured. At the 6-year follow-up both twins had areal bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and three-dimensional quantitative computed tomography (3DQCT). Z scores for height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) were ,2.3, ,0.8 and 0.2, and 1.2, 0.2, and ,0.6, in the twin with CD and her co-twin, respectively. In the twin with CD, areal BMD and bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) at different sites varied from 0.7 to 3 SD below her co-twin. Volumetric lumbar spine bone density Z score was ,0.75 and 1.0, and total body, abdominal visceral, and subcutaneous fat (%) was 42, 10, and 41 versus 26, 4, and 17 in the twin with CD and her co-twin, respectively. The relationship between total body fat and L2-L4 BMAD was inverse in the twin with CD (p < 0.05), which by contrast in her co-twin was opposite and direct (p < 0.001). In the twin with CD, despite cure, there was a persistent deficit in bone mass and increase in total and visceral body fat. These observations suggest that hypercortisolism (exogenous or endogenous) during adolescence may have persistent adverse effects on bone and fat mass. [source]


    Jumping Improves Hip and Lumbar Spine Bone Mass in Prepubescent Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    JOURNAL OF BONE AND MINERAL RESEARCH, Issue 1 2001
    Robyn K. Fuchs
    Abstract Physical activity during childhood is advocated as one strategy for enhancing peak bone mass (bone mineral content [BMC]) as a means to reduce osteoporosis-related fractures. Thus, we investigated the effects of high-intensity jumping on hip and lumbar spine bone mass in children. Eighty-nine prepubescent children between the ages of 5.9 and 9.8 years were randomized into a jumping (n = 25 boys and n = 20 girls) or control group (n = 26 boys and n = 18 girls). Both groups participated in the 7-month exercise intervention during the school day three times per week. The jumping group performed 100, two-footed jumps off 61-cm boxes each session, while the control group performed nonimpact stretching exercises. BMC (g), bone area (BA; cm2), and bone mineral density (BMD; g/cm2) of the left proximal femoral neck and lumbar spine (L1-L4) were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA; Hologic QDR/4500-A). Peak ground reaction forces were calculated across 100, two-footed jumps from a 61-cm box. In addition, anthropometric characteristics (height, weight, and body fat), physical activity, and dietary calcium intake were assessed. At baseline there were no differences between groups for anthropometric characteristics, dietary calcium intake, or bone variables. After 7 months, jumpers and controls had similar increases in height, weight, and body fat. Using repeated measures analysis of covariance (ANCOVA; covariates, initial age and bone values, and changes in height and weight) for BMC, the primary outcome variable, jumpers had significantly greater 7-month changes at the femoral neck and lumbar spine than controls (4.5% and 3.1%, respectively). In repeated measures ANCOVA of secondary outcomes (BMD and BA), BMD at the lumbar spine was significantly greater in jumpers than in controls (2.0%) and approached statistical significance at the femoral neck (1.4%; p = 0.085). For BA, jumpers had significantly greater increases at the femoral neck area than controls (2.9%) but were not different at the spine. Our data indicate that jumping at ground reaction forces of eight times body weight is a safe, effective, and simple method of improving bone mass at the hip and spine in children. This program could be easily incorporated into physical education classes. [source]


    Sonographic assessment of changes in thickness of different abdominal fat layers in response to diet in obese women

    JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ULTRASOUND, Issue 1 2003
    Nuran Sabir MD
    Abstract Purpose We evaluated the potential application of sonography to monitor alterations in abdominal fat thickness in obese women before and after dieting. Methods This study included 40 obese women (mean age, 42.2 ± 9.4 years; mean body mass index [BMI], 36.0 ± 5.9 kg/m2) who underwent a 3-month low-calorie diet. Height, weight, waist circumference (WC), and hip circumference (HC) were measured. BMI and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were calculated. Abdominal subcutaneous (S) and intra-abdominal preperitoneal (P) fat were measured at their maximum (max) and minimum (min) thickness sites using a 7.5-MHz linear-array probe. Intra-abdominal visceral (V) fat was measured using a 3.5-MHz convex-array probe. Measurements were taken before and after caloric restriction. Results The mean weight was reduced from 88.6 ± 17.1 kg to 83.0 ± 15.9 kg (p < 0.0001). The mean changes in Smin (r = 0.376, p = 0.017), Smax (r = 0.508, (p = 0.001), Pmin (r = 0.439, p = 0.005), and V (r = 0.365, p = 0.022) fat thicknesses were positively correlated with change in weight; the change in Pmax fat thickness showed the best and most significant correlation (r = 0.591, p < 0.0001). BMI (r = 0.969, p < 0.0001), WC (r = 0.510, p = 0.001), and HC (r = 0.422, p = 0.007) changes were also positively correlated with weight change, but the WHR change (r = 0.019, p > 0.05) was not. Conclusions All the abdominal fat layers, particularly the intra-abdominal P fat, will decrease in response to loss of body fat by dieting. Sonography seems to be useful in monitoring small variations in the thicknesses of abdominal S and intra-abdominal P and V fat. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 31:26,30, 2003 [source]


    Modulation of white adipose tissue proteome by aging and calorie restriction

    AGING CELL, Issue 5 2010
    Adamo Valle
    Summary Aging is associated with an accrual of body fat, progressive development of insulin resistance and other obesity comorbidities that contribute to decrease life span. Caloric restriction (CR), which primarily affects energy stores in adipose tissue, is known to extend life span and retard the aging process in animal models. In this study, a proteomic approach combining 2-DE and MS was used to identify proteins modulated by aging and CR in rat white adipose tissue proteome. Proteomic analysis revealed 133 differentially expressed spots, 57 of which were unambiguously identified by MS. Although CR opposed part of the age-associated protein expression patterns, many effects of CR were on proteins unaltered by age, suggesting that the effects of CR on adipose tissue are only weakly related to those of aging. Particularly, CR and aging altered glucose, intermediate and lipid metabolism, with CR enhancing the expression of enzymes involved in oxalacetate and NADPH production, lipid biosynthesis and lipolysis. Consistently, insulin-, and ,3-adrenergic receptors were also increased by CR, which denotes improved sensitivity to lipogenic/lipolytic stimuli. Other beneficial outcomes of CR were an improvement in oxidative stress, preventing the age-associated decrease in several antioxidant enzymes. Proteins involved in cytoskeleton, iron storage, energy metabolism and several proteins with novel or unknown functions in adipose tissue were also modulated by age and/or CR. Such orchestrated changes in expression of multiple proteins provide insights into the mechanism underlying CR effects, ultimately allowing the discovery of new markers of aging and targets for the development of CR-mimetics. [source]


    Long-term effects of calorie restriction on serum sex-hormone concentrations in men

    AGING CELL, Issue 2 2010
    Roberto Cangemi
    Summary Calorie restriction (CR) slows aging and consistently reduces circulating sex hormones in laboratory animals. However, nothing is known regarding the long-term effects of CR with adequate nutrition on serum sex-hormone concentration in lean healthy humans. In this study, we measured body composition, and serum total testosterone, total 17-,-estradiol, sex hormone,binding globulin (SHBG), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) concentrations in 24 men (mean age 51.5 ± 13 years), who had been practicing CR with adequate nutrition for an average of 7.4 ± 4.5 years, in 24 age- and body fat,matched endurance runners (EX), and 24 age-matched sedentary controls eating Western diets (WD). We found that both the CR and EX volunteers had significantly lower body fat than the WD volunteers (total body fat, 8.7 ± 4.2%; 10.5 ± 4.4%; 23.2 ± 6.1%, respectively; P = 0.0001). Serum total testosterone and the free androgen index were significantly lower, and SHBG was higher in the CR group than in the EX and WD groups (P , 0.001). Serum 17,-estradiol and the estradiol:SHBG ratio were both significantly lower in the CR and EX groups than in the WD group (P , 0.005). Serum DHEA-S concentrations were not different between the three groups. These findings demonstrate that, as in long-lived CR rodents, long-term severe CR reduces serum total and free testosterone and increases SHBG concentrations in humans, independently of adiposity. More studies are needed to understand the role of this CR-mediated reduction in sex hormones in modulating the pathogenesis of age-associated chronic diseases such as cancer and the aging process itself. [source]


    The Beneficial Effect of Propolis on Fat Accumulation and Lipid Metabolism in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 5 2009
    I. Ichi
    ABSTRACT:, This study examined whether propolis, which had many biological activities, affected body fat and lipid metabolism. Four-week-old Wistar rats were fed a control or propolis diet for 8 wk. The control group was fed a high-fat diet, the low and the high group were fed a high-fat diet supplemented with 0.5% (w/w) and 0.05% (w/w) propolis, respectively. The weight of total white adipose tissue of the high group was lower than that of the control group. The level of PPAR, protein in the adipose tissues of the high group was significantly lower than that of the control group. In plasma and the liver, the high group showed a significantly reduced level of cholesterol and triglyceride compared to the control group. The liver PPAR, protein level of the high group was significantly higher than that of the control group. The liver HMG-CoA reductase protein in the high group was also significantly lower than that in the control group. Results from rats on an olive oil loading test were used to investigate whether propolis inhibited triglyceride absorption. The serum triglyceride level of the group, which received propolis corresponding to the daily dose of the high group, was significantly lower than that of the control group. It is possible that the administration of propolis improves the accumulation of body fat and dyslipidemia via the change of the expression of proteins involved in adipose depot and lipid metabolism. [source]


    The Effect of Honey Compared to Sucrose, Mixed Sugars, and a Sugar-Free Diet on Weight Gain in Young Rats

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 3 2007
    L.M. Chepulis
    ABSTRACT:, To determine whether honey, sucrose, and mixed sugars as in honey have different effects on weight gain, 40 6-wk-old Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a powdered diet that was either sugar free or contained 8% sucrose, 8% mixed sugars as in honey, or 10% honey freely for 6 wk. Weight gain and food intake were assessed weekly, and at completion of the study blood samples were removed for measurement of blood sugar (HbA1c) and a fasting lipid profile. The animals were then minced and total percentage body fat and protein measured. Overall percentage weight gain was significantly lower in honey-fed rats than those fed sucrose or mixed sugars, despite a similar food intake. Weight gains were comparable for rats fed honey and a sugar free diet although food intake was significantly higher in honey-fed rats. HbA1c and triglyceride levels were significantly higher in all sugar treatments compared with rats fed a sugar free diet, but no other differences in lipid profiles were reported. No differences in percentage body fat or protein levels were reported. [source]


    Characterization of the Triacylglycerol Crystal Formation in Adipose Tissue During a Vehicle Collision

    JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES, Issue 4 2007
    Barbara H. Stuart Ph.D.
    Abstract:, The unusual appearance of crystalline fat structures was observed during the postmortem examination of a motor vehicle accident victim. The crystal structures were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and x-ray diffractometry. The structures were found to be made of triacylglycerols, a dominant lipid structure found in human adipose tissue, capable of forming various polymorphic structures. The morphology of the crystalline material was found using both techniques to be predominantly the ,, form of triacylglycerols. The accelerated growth of such triacylglycerol morphology has been observed as a result of shear stresses in other studies involving edible fats. As a result of the findings of this study, it is proposed that increased shear forces may be responsible for the formation of the unusual fat structure found in the victim. An understanding of the effect of forces on the structure of body fat in high-impact collisions can potentially assist in verifying a high-velocity impact. [source]