Body Dissatisfaction (body + dissatisfaction)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Eating problems, body image disturbances, and academic achievement: Preliminary evaluation of the eating and body image disturbances academic interference scale

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS, Issue 2 2008
Tovah Yanover MA
Abstract Objective: To examine the relationships between a new scale, the Eating and Body Image Disturbances Academic Interference Scale (EBIDAIS), and measures of eating disturbance, body image, and academic achievement. Method: One thousand five hundred eighty-four college undergraduates completed the measures in an online survey and were awarded class credit for their participation. Measures included the Eating Disorder Inventory Bulimia, Drive for Thinness, Body Dissatisfaction, and Perfectionism subscales. Grade point average (GPA) was also reported. Results: Academic interference and GPA were significantly correlated, indicating that higher interference scores were related to lower GPA. EBIDAIS was also significantly correlated with drive for thinness, bulimia, and body dissatisfaction, but was not significantly associated with perfectionism. The correlation between interference and GPA was substantially higher for a subsample of individuals who scored in the elevated range on eating and body dissatisfaction. Conclusion: Academic interference may be a relatively unexamined, but potentially important, outcome for individuals who experience eating problems and body image disturbance. 2007 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2008 [source]


Body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness in young adult twins

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS, Issue 3 2005
Anna Keski-Rahkonen MD
Abstract Objective We explored correlates of the Eating Disorder Inventory subscales Body Dissatisfaction (BD) and Drive for Thinness (DT) and genetic and environmental influences on these traits. Method In a population-based sample of 4,667 Finnish twins aged 22,27 years, we conducted twin modeling to explore genetic and environmental contributions to body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness. Logistic regression was used for the correlational analysis. Results Various eating and body size-related factors and psychosomatic symptoms were significantly associated with high body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness in both genders. In women, early puberty onset, early initiation of sexual activity, and multiple sex partners were statistically significant risk factors of body dissatisfaction. In gender-specific univariate twin models, additive genes accounted for 59.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 53.2,64.7%) of the variance in body dissatisfaction and for 51.0% (95% CI = 43.7,57.5%) of the variance in drive for thinness among females, but for none of the variance among males. Discussion There are very distinct gender differences in the heritability patterns of body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness in young adults. 2005 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


The effect of attentional training on body dissatisfaction and dietary restriction

EUROPEAN EATING DISORDERS REVIEW, Issue 3 2009
Evelyn Smith
Abstract The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of attentional training towards shape, weight and food related information on body dissatisfaction and dietary restriction. A total of 98 female participants were trained to attend to negative shape/weight words, positive shape/weight words, negative (high calorie) food words, positive (low calorie) food words or neutral words. Subsequently, a body image challenge was presented and participants' body dissatisfaction and dietary restriction were measured. Results indicated that negative shape/weight attentional biases exacerbated body dissatisfaction and a bias towards negative food words intensified dietary restriction. The study provides evidence for specificity in the effects of attentional biases and supports the notion that attentional training may be a useful component in interventions to improve body image and reduce dieting. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]


Different changes of body-images in patients with anorexia or bulimia nervosa during inpatient psychosomatic treatment

EUROPEAN EATING DISORDERS REVIEW, Issue 2 2006
Dieter Benninghoven
Abstract Background Changes of perceptual body size distortion and body dissatisfaction during inpatient psychosomatic treatment were assessed. Differences between patients with anorexia and bulimia nervosa were compared. Methods Forty-one female patients with anorexia and 37 with bulimia nervosa were examined at beginning and end of an inpatient psychosomatic treatment. Body images were assessed by the somatomorph matrix and by the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-2). Results Both groups showed a distorted body size perception at the beginning of treatment. This decreased with the bulimia patients, with anorexia patients it largely remained in spite of a successful increase in weight. With bulimia patients body satisfaction improved, whereas it hardly changed with anorexia patients. Conclusion Bulimia patients were able to positively modify their body images. Treatment might have enabled patients with anorexia to maintain their level of body satisfaction and to tolerate a bigger perceived body image while they significantly gained weight. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]


Lack of seasonal variation in eating attitudes and behaviours among female college students

EUROPEAN EATING DISORDERS REVIEW, Issue 2 2005
Melissa A. Munn
Abstract Objective Previous studies have found a season of birth effect for women with eating disorders. However, findings regarding the two types of season of birth (i.e. month of birth and temperature at conception) have been conflicting, and few studies have examined relationships between season of birth and general disordered eating in non-clinical populations. The present study sought to examine this relationship more closely by investigating both month of birth and temperature at conception in undergraduate women. Method Subjects included 427 undergraduate females from a large university in the United States. Disordered eating in the areas of body dissatisfaction, compensatory behaviour, binge eating and weight preoccupation was assessed with the Minnesota Eating Behaviors Survey (MEBS). Results No significant mean differences in MEBS scores were found between those individuals born in the first versus second half of the year. Furthermore, no significant associations were found between disordered eating and temperature at conception. Discussion Our findings suggest that disordered eating symptoms do not show a season of birth effect. Discrepancies between these findings and those for clinical samples suggest the possible presence of different aetiological mechanisms for general eating symptoms versus clinical eating disorders. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]


Longer-term implications of responsiveness to ,thin-ideal' television: support for a cumulative hypothesis of body image disturbance?

EUROPEAN EATING DISORDERS REVIEW, Issue 6 2003
Duane Hargreaves
Brief exposure to thin-ideal media images has been shown to have a small but consistent negative impact on women and girls' body dissatisfaction. The present study aimed to examine the consequence of these small changes in body dissatisfaction for the development of body image over time. A sample of 80 adolescents (mean age,=,17.2 years) completed measures of body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, and drive for muscularity. Two years earlier they had viewed either 20 appearance-related television commercials (containing female thin ideals) or 20 non-appearance commercials as part of an experimental study. For girls, initial body dissatisfaction change in response to viewing appearance commercials at time 1 predicted subsequent body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness 2 years later, above and beyond the variance predicted by initial body dissatisfaction. Similar results were observed for boys' drive for thinness but not for body dissatisfaction. Overall, these results are consistent with a cumulative hypothesis of media exposure and body image development. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]


Cognitive and behavioural characteristics are associated with personality dimensions in patients with eating disorders

EUROPEAN EATING DISORDERS REVIEW, Issue 5 2003
M. Vervaet
DSM-IV categorizes eating disorders according to behavioural and cognitive characteristics. Based on personality-related and biological research, hypotheses have been formulated to explain differences in the symptomatology between the various types of eating disorders. Therefore, the study of the association between personality-related characteristics and behavioural and cognitive characteristics may contribute to our understanding of the causes and course of eating disorders. This study aimed, first, at describing personality characteristics (using Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory) in a group of eating disordered patients (n,=,272) according to the type of eating disorder. Three groups were compared: restricting anorexics (n,=,71), purging anorexics (n,=,84) and bulimics (n,=,118). Secondly, the association between personality characteristics and cognitive and behavioural aspects, using the Eating Disorders Inventory and the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire, was measured. In bulimics, positive correlations were found between novelty seeking on the one hand and external and emotional eating and bulimia on the other. Contrary to expectation, there was no significant correlation between novelty seeking and body dissatisfaction in bulimics. The significant difference between the restricting and purging type of anorexics regarding self-directedness, and restrained and emotional eating and drive for thinness corresponded with the significant negative correlation between these characteristics. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]


Dieting and desire for weight loss among adolescents in Denmark: a questionnaire survey

EUROPEAN EATING DISORDERS REVIEW, Issue 5 2002
Mette Waaddegaard
Abstract Objective: To report on the first study in Denmark of the prevalence of dieting and other weight-loss behaviours among adolescents. Method: A cross-sectional study of 2094 pupils from grade 8,12, aged 14,21 years, throughout Denmark. The pupils responded to a self-administered 49-item questionnaire, which was constructed by an Expert Committee in the Danish National Board of Health. Results: The prevalence of dieting and other weight-loss behaviours were comparable to results from other countries, particularly from the Nordic countries. Dieting was dependent on BMI and sex and did not increase with age. However, the desire for weight loss increased with age for both sexes and body dissatisfaction became more extreme with age. Many boys desired a weight gain instead of a weight loss. Discussion: Dieting and other weight control behaviours increased with increasing BMI. However, most dieting and wish for weight loss was not justified by obesity but seemed to depend on a perception of being overweight. The need for identifying adolescents with at-risk behaviour related to eating disorders is emphasized. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]


The changing profile of eating disorders at a tertiary psychiatric clinic in Hong Kong (1987,2007)

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS, Issue 4 2010
Sing Lee MBBS
Abstract Objective: To examine the clinical profile of Chinese eating disorder patients at a tertiary psychiatric clinic in Hong Kong from 1987 to 2007. Method: Data on 195 consecutive patients were retrieved from a standardized intake interview by an eating disorder specialist. Patients seen between 1987,1997 (n = 67) and 1998,2007 (n = 128) and fat-phobic (n = 76) and nonfat-phobic (n = 39) anorexic patients were compared. Results: Patients were predominantly single (91.8%), female (99.0%), in their early-20s and suffered from anorexia (n = 115; 59.0%) or bulimia (n = 78; 40.0%) nervosa. The number of patients increased twofold across the two periods. Bulimia nervosa became more common while anorexia nervosa exhibited an increasingly fat-phobic pattern. Nonfat-phobic anorexic patients exhibited significantly lower premorbid body weight, less body dissatisfaction, less weight control behavior, and lower EAT-26 scores than fat-phobic anorexic patients. Discussion: The clinical profile of eating disorders in Hong Kong has increasingly conformed to that of Western countries. 2009 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2010 [source]


Characteristics of black treatment seekers for eating disorders

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS, Issue 3 2010
Nisha H. Fernandes BA
Abstract Objective: This study sought to investigate differences in eating psychopathology between black and white treatment seekers at a specialty eating disorders (EDs) center. Method: Participants were drawn from 1680 individuals (n = 32 blacks; n = 1648 whites) who received treatment for an ED at a specialized center between 1979 and 1995, and had completed the EDs Questionnaire. The 32 black participants were matched to 153 white participants for ED diagnosis, year of presentation, and gender. Results: The majority of the participants were diagnosed with eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS). No black participants met criteria for anorexia nervosa (AN). Black participants reported more body dissatisfaction and a higher percentage fulfilled the obesity criterion compared to white participants. There were few differences in reported history of previous treatment. Discussion: Black and white participants with EDs appeared similar in most respects, but AN was notably absent among black participants. In contrast to previous research, body dissatisfaction was surprisingly higher in black than in white participants. 2009 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2010 [source]


Eating problems, body image disturbances, and academic achievement: Preliminary evaluation of the eating and body image disturbances academic interference scale

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS, Issue 2 2008
Tovah Yanover MA
Abstract Objective: To examine the relationships between a new scale, the Eating and Body Image Disturbances Academic Interference Scale (EBIDAIS), and measures of eating disturbance, body image, and academic achievement. Method: One thousand five hundred eighty-four college undergraduates completed the measures in an online survey and were awarded class credit for their participation. Measures included the Eating Disorder Inventory Bulimia, Drive for Thinness, Body Dissatisfaction, and Perfectionism subscales. Grade point average (GPA) was also reported. Results: Academic interference and GPA were significantly correlated, indicating that higher interference scores were related to lower GPA. EBIDAIS was also significantly correlated with drive for thinness, bulimia, and body dissatisfaction, but was not significantly associated with perfectionism. The correlation between interference and GPA was substantially higher for a subsample of individuals who scored in the elevated range on eating and body dissatisfaction. Conclusion: Academic interference may be a relatively unexamined, but potentially important, outcome for individuals who experience eating problems and body image disturbance. 2007 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2008 [source]


Mirror exposure for the treatment of body image disturbance

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS, Issue 2 2006
Sherrie Selwyn Delinsky PhD
Abstract Objective Body image disturbance is a risk factor for the development and persistence of eating disorders. Limitations of current treatments for body image disturbance prompted the development of a mirror exposure (ME) treatment. Method ME involves deliberate, planned, and systematic exposure to body image. The approach is nonjudgmental, holistic in focus, and mindful of present emotional experience. Complementary behavioral assignments aim to reduce avoidance and excessive checking. The current study evaluated the effectiveness of ME therapy (in a three-session format) compared with a nondirective (ND) therapy for 45 women with extreme weight and shape concerns. Results ME resulted in significant improvements at termination and follow-up in body checking and avoidance, weight and shape concerns, body dissatisfaction, dieting, depression, and self-esteem. As hypothesized, ME was significantly better than ND on many of the outcome measures. Conclusion ME is an effective treatment for body image disturbance and should be evaluated in the context of treatments for eating disorders. 2005 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


Body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness in young adult twins

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS, Issue 3 2005
Anna Keski-Rahkonen MD
Abstract Objective We explored correlates of the Eating Disorder Inventory subscales Body Dissatisfaction (BD) and Drive for Thinness (DT) and genetic and environmental influences on these traits. Method In a population-based sample of 4,667 Finnish twins aged 22,27 years, we conducted twin modeling to explore genetic and environmental contributions to body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness. Logistic regression was used for the correlational analysis. Results Various eating and body size-related factors and psychosomatic symptoms were significantly associated with high body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness in both genders. In women, early puberty onset, early initiation of sexual activity, and multiple sex partners were statistically significant risk factors of body dissatisfaction. In gender-specific univariate twin models, additive genes accounted for 59.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 53.2,64.7%) of the variance in body dissatisfaction and for 51.0% (95% CI = 43.7,57.5%) of the variance in drive for thinness among females, but for none of the variance among males. Discussion There are very distinct gender differences in the heritability patterns of body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness in young adults. 2005 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


Risk factors for body dissatisfaction in adolescent boys and girls: A prospective study

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS, Issue 4 2004
Katherine Presnell
Objective Despite evidence that body dissatisfaction predicts the onset of eating pathology and depression, few prospective studies have investigated predictors of body dissatisfaction. Method We examined risk factors for body dissatisfaction using prospective data from 531 adolescent boys and girls. Results Elevations in body mass, negative affect, and perceived pressure to be thin from peers, but not thin-ideal internalization, social support deficits, or perceived pressure to be thin from family, dating partners, or media, predicted increases in body dissatisfaction. Gender moderated the effect of body mass on body dissatisfaction and revealed a significant quadratic component for boys, but not girls. Gender also moderated negative affect. Discussion Results support the assertion that certain sociocultural, biologic, and interpersonal factors increase the risk for body dissatisfaction, but differ for boys and girls. Results provided little support for other accepted risk factors for body dissatisfaction. 2004 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 36: 389,401, 2004. [source]


A longitudinal examination of patterns in girls' weight concerns and body dissatisfaction from ages 5 to 9 years

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS, Issue 3 2003
Kirsten Krahnstoever Davison
Abstract Objective To examine the development of girls' weight concerns and body dissatisfaction from ages 5 to 9 years and how change and continuity in these constructs from age 5 to 7 years is associated with girls' eating attitudes, dietary restraint, and dieting status at age 9. Methods Weight concerns, body dissatisfaction, and weight status were assessed for 182 girls when they were 5, 7, and 9 years old, and their eating attitudes, dietary restraint, and dieting status were assessed when they were 9. Results Girls tended to maintain their rank in weight concerns and body dissatisfaction across ages 5 to 9 years, and associations among girls' weight concerns, body dissatisfaction, and weight status increased with age. In addition, positive associations were found between changes in girls' weight concerns, body dissatisfaction, and weight status across ages 7 to 9. Finally, girls' who reported high weight concerns or high body dissatisfaction across ages 5 to 7 reported higher dietary restraint, more maladaptive eating attitudes, and a greater likelihood of dieting at age 9, independent of their weight status. Conclusion Girls' reported weight concerns and body dissatisfaction across middle childhood showed consistency over time, were systematically related to their weight status, and predicted their dietary restraint, eating attitudes, and the likelihood of dieting at age 9. These results reflect patterns identified among adolescent girls and women. 2003 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 33: 320,332, 2003. [source]


The nature of body image disturbance in patients with binge eating disorder

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS, Issue 3 2003
Robin M. Masheb
Abstract Objective This study examined the distinction between body dissatisfaction and self-evaluation unduly influenced by body shape and weight, and their longitudinal relationships to depressive symptomatology and self-esteem in patients with binge eating disorder (BED). Method Ninety-seven patients with BED completed measures tapping these constructs at baseline and again 4 weeks later. Results Change in body dissatisfaction was significantly correlated with both change in depressive symptomatology and change in self-esteem over time, whereas change in self-evaluation was significantly correlated only with change in self-esteem. In addition, change in shape concern, but not change in weight concern, was significantly correlated with change in self-esteem only. Discussion These findings suggest that self-evaluation unduly influenced by body shape is a more useful indicator for BED than body dissatisfaction or self-evaluation unduly influenced by weight. 2003 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 33: 333,341, 2003. [source]


Healthy weight control and dissonance-based eating disorder prevention programs: Results from a controlled trial

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS, Issue 1 2003
Eric Stice
Abstract Objective Because universal psychoeducational eating disorder prevention programs have had little success, we developed and evaluated two interventions for high-risk populations: a healthy weight control intervention and a dissonance-based intervention. Method Adolescent girls (N = 148) with body image concerns were randomized to one of these interventions or to a waitlist control group. Participants completed baseline, termination, and 1, 3, and 6-month follow-up surveys. Results Participants in both interventions reported decreased thin-ideal internalization, negative affect, and bulimic symptoms at termination and follow-up relative to controls. However, no effects were observed for body dissatisfaction or dieting and effects diminished over time. Discussion Results provide evidence that both interventions effectively reduce bulimic pathology and risk factors for eating disturbances. 2002 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 33: 10,21, 2003. [source]


Body image treatment for a community sample of obligatory and nonobligatory exercisers

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS, Issue 4 2001
Jane Ellen Smith
Abstract Objective Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) was used to treat body dissatisfaction in obligatory and nonobligatory exercisers within a community sample of normal weight women. Method Ninety-four women (36% obligatory exercisers, 64% nonobligatory exercisers) were assigned randomly to CBT or the waiting-list (WL) control group. Results The hypotheses that obligatory exercisers would show poorer pretreatment body image and greater compulsivity than nonobligatory exercisers were supported partially. The prediction that obligatory exercisers would respond less favorably to treatment was not supported. Overall, CBT participants evidenced significantly better body image outcomes than the WL at posttreatment, but many effects were lost by the follow-up. Discussion Treatment response is considered in light of the unique characteristics of this ethnically diverse, older community sample when compared with the young students in earlier body image intervention studies. The high rate of physical activity among even the nonobligatory exercisers is highlighted for its mood-regulation properties and its treatment implications. 2001 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 30: 375,388, 2001. [source]


Interpretation of teasing during early adolescence

JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 1 2007
Allison Kanter Agliata
Research has suggested that teasing, especially about physical appearance, is a common experience with negative consequences for adolescents. This study aimed to examine the cognitive processes of adolescents exposed to teasing. Students from two middle schools were assigned randomly to view videotaped vignettes of appearance-related teasing, competency teasing, or a control situation and completed questionnaires to assess their cognitive reactions and memories of the teasing. Results indicated that adolescent girls recalled appearance-related teasing more readily than competency teasing, adolescent girls with high body dissatisfaction recalled fewer positive appearance words, and participants exposed to competency teasing were more likely to recall competency words. The findings indicated that cognitive processes may be important in the study of adolescents' interpretation of teasing and for clinical treatment of adolescents who are teased. 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol 63: 23,30, 2007. [source]


A11. The influence of the media on eating disorders

JOURNAL OF HUMAN NUTRITION & DIETETICS, Issue 5 2000
S. Almond
Background The cause of eating disorders is multifactorial. One of these is sociocultural factors which include family, peers and the media. It has been suggested that constant media pressures can lead to body dissatisfaction, which may result in distorted eating patterns. Aims To review the role of the media in relation to eating disorders Results There has been a shift in the media portrayal of the 'ideal' body size for women, from the voluptuous curved figure of Marilyn Monroe in the 1950s to a thinner 'waif-like' look of Kate Moss in the 1980s. In the mass media shape and weight define perfection. Women perceive themselves as being bigger than they actually are. Their figure deviates from the ideal thus resulting in self body dissatisfaction. 'All I see is these pretty models, I wish I could look like one of them.' ( Wertheim et al. 1997 ) The 'ideal' body image is far from the physiologic norm. Supermodels are born with a specific body type and what the public doesn't understand is that they cannot diet to achieve it. 'Women don't set out to be anorexic, they begin by thinking they're too fat because everywhere they go the media is telling them that they are right' ( Barrett, 1997) Products are often advertised displaying the ideal body shape in the hope that it will enhance the product and create body dissatisfaction. Purchasing the product is perceived as a positive step towards reaching the 'perfect' body image. Concern surrounds the appearance of such advertisements in magazines aimed at adolescent girls, as at this age they are particularly vulnerable to the influences of the media. Stice and Shaw (1994) stated that exposure to the thin 'idea' may have a negative effect on emotions leading to body dissatisfaction. Such emotions include depression, stress, guilt, shame, insecurity, unhappiness, and lower self-confidence. A study by Schotte et al. (1990) indicated that negative emotions can disrupt eating behaviour. Dieters watching a frightening film increased their food intake, whereas nondieters did not. Conclusion The media are not solely responsible for eating disorders but they do contribute by promoting the 'ideal' physique. There is some resistance to media messages, as the majority of people do not develop distorted eating patterns. [source]


Non-Suicidal Self-Injury and Eating Pathology in High School Students

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ORTHOPSYCHIATRY, Issue 1 2009
Shana Ross PhD
Although past research has explored self-injurious behaviors and disordered eating among adults in clinical settings, little research has been conducted examining nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and eating pathology in community samples of adolescents. Four hundred and 40 students were screened for the presence of NSSI; a prevalence rate of 13.9% was found. Those who indicated that they engaged in NSSI (n = 59) and a comparison group of non-self-injurers (n = 57) completed the Eating Disorders Inventory. Results indicate that students who engage in NSSI display significantly more eating pathology than their non-NSSI peers, including poor interoceptive awareness; difficulties with impulse regulation; an increased sense of ineffectiveness, distrust, and social insecurity; and increased bulimic tendencies and body dissatisfaction. Relationships were found between increased lifetime frequency of NSSI behaviors and poor impulse control and deficits in affective regulation. In addition, adolescents who had stopped self-injuring reported comparable rates of eating pathology as did adolescents who continued to self-injure. The theoretical connection between NSSI and eating pathology are discussed with reference to enhancing knowledge regarding the characteristics of NSSI. [source]


Japanese version of the Body Attitude Test: Its reliability and validity

PSYCHIATRY AND CLINICAL NEUROSCIENCES, Issue 5 2003
Akiko Kashima
Abstract The Body Attitude Test (BAT) was developed by Probst et al. (1995) for female patients with eating disorders (ED). This test measures the subjective body experience and attitudes toward one's body. The present authors have developed the Japanese version of the BAT and the purpose of the present paper was to investigate its reliability and validity in control (CON, n = 599) and ED patients (n = 46). The ED patients consisted of 21 anorexia nervosa, restricting type (AN-R) patients and 25 bulimia nervosa (BN) patients. Internal consistency was determined with Cronbach's , coefficient in CON. Factor analysis was conducted on BAT ratings given by CON. Factor analysis indicated that BAT was composed of two factors. These were body dissatisfaction (factor 1) and lack of familiarity with one's body (factor 2). A comparison was made among AN-R, BN, and CON. Bulimia nervosa had a significantly higher score than the other two groups. The BAT scores of ED patients correlated significantly with the Self -rating Depression Scale, and State,Trait Anxiety Inventory. These results show that ED patients have negative feelings toward their own body, similar to the findings in the original report. On factor analysis, however, it was not possible to distinguish between negative appreciation of body size and general body dissatisfaction as described in the original report. The authors also examine influences on this difference from a cross-cultural view point. [source]


Japanese version of Cutaneous Body Image Scale: Translation and validation

THE JOURNAL OF DERMATOLOGY, Issue 9 2009
Yuko HIGAKI
Abstract Cutaneous body image, defined as the individual's mental perception of the appearance of their skin, hair and nails, is an important psychodermatological element in skin diseases. To measure individuals' cutaneous body image, a practical and accurate instrument is necessary. In this study, we translated the Cutaneous Body Image Scale (CBIS), a 7-item instrument originally created by Gupta et al. in 2004, into Japanese using a forward- and back-translation method and evaluated the reliability and validity of the instrument by psychometric tests. A total of 298 healthy adults (64 men and 234 women, aged 28.9 9.9 years) and 165 dermatology patients (56.7% eczema/dermatitis, 9.8% acne, 7.5% alopecia, 6.9% psoriasis, 19.1% skin tumor/fleck/other) (30 men and 135 women, aged 37.9 15.2 years) responded to the Japanese version of the CBIS. The internal-consistency reliability of the instrument was high (Cronbach's ,, healthy adults 0.88, patients 0.84). The CBIS measure demonstrates good test,retest reliability (healthy adults , = 0.92, P < 0.0001; patients , = 0.79, P < 0.001). Compared to the healthy adults (4.11 1.80), the CBIS scores among dermatology patients (3.18 1.69, P = 0.000) were significantly low. The CBIS scores showed moderate correlation with the "emotions" and "global" scores of Skindex-16 in healthy adults (, = ,0.397 and ,0.373, respectively) and in patients (, = ,0.431 and ,0.38, respectively). A stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that an emotional aspect of skin-condition related quality of life was the best predictor of cutaneous body image in both healthy adults and patients (, = ,0.31 and ,0.41, respectively) followed by "body dissatisfaction" (, = ,0.17, and ,0.23, respectively). Adjusted R2 was 0.246 in healthy adults and 0.264 in patients. These were consistent with the results from the original the CBIS. These results suggest that the Japanese version of the CBIS is a reliable and valid instrument to measure the cutaneous body image of Japanese adults and also dermatology patients. [source]


Effects of skin care and makeup under instructions from dermatologists on the quality of life of female patients with acne vulgaris

THE JOURNAL OF DERMATOLOGY, Issue 11 2006
Yoshie MATSUOKA
ABSTRACT Acne vulgaris significantly affects patients' quality of life (QOL) and their lives in various ways, including social behavior and body dissatisfaction. This may be heightened by acne's typical involvement of the face. We investigated whether the use of skin care and makeup could influence the QOL of affected patients without deteriorating conventional acne treatments. Fifty female patients with acne were recruited for our study. Twenty-five patients were instructed how to use skin care and cosmetics, while 25 patients received no specific instructions from dermatologists. Both groups received conventional topical and/or oral medication for acne during the study period for 4 weeks. Both groups did not show any significant difference in clinical improvement of acne severity. Two validated QOL questionnaires, World Health Organization (WHO)QOL26 and the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) were administered to all patients at first visit and 4 weeks later. The mean scores of psychological and overall domains in WHOQOL26 for patients with instructions were improved significantly, while only the overall score was significantly improved for patients without instructions. The total mean scores and all domains except work/school in DLQI for patients with instructions were improved significantly, while the total scores and all domains except discomfort for treatment in DLQI were significantly improved for patients without instructions. Thus, instructions on the use of skin care and cosmetics for female acne patients did not deteriorate acne treatment and influenced patients' QOL effectively. We therefore suggest that instructions for using skin care and cosmetics complement conventional medical treatments for acne. [source]