Body Conformation (body + conformation)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Lateralised motor behaviour leads to increased unevenness in front feet and asymmetry in athletic performance in young mature Warmblood horses

M. C. V. Van HEEL
Summary Reason for performing study: Foot stance in grazing significantly influences hoof conformation and development from foal to yearling age. Objectives: To conduct a longitudinal study to establish if the relationship between motor laterality and uneven front feet persisted in 3-year-old horses at the time of studbook selection and to investigate if such laterality and unevenness might influence the horses' ability to perform symmetrically while trotting, cantering and free jumping. Methods: Seventeen clinically sound but untrained (with only minimal experience of handling) and sound Warmblood horses that had participated in a previous study were assessed as per the protocol reported. Laterality was tested in a preference test (PT) and z -values were calculated for analysis purposes. Laterality and hoof unevenness were related to both relative limb length and relative head size, while the ability to perform symmetrically was tested in free trot-canter transitions and free jumping exercises. Differences in performance between horses with and without a limb preference in the PT and those with ,uneven' and ,even' feet were tested for differences in performance metrics using Students' t test, while linearity was tested using a regression analysis (P<0.05). Results: Significant laterality was still present in 24% of the 3-year-old horses and the relationship between laterality and uneven feet pairs was stronger than at foal and yearling stages. Horses with significant motor laterality had almost 4 times more unevenness, a smaller head and longer limbs and the relationship between body conformation and laterality was still present. There was a strong linear relation between unevenness, laterality and a bias or side preference for trot-canter transitions. However, this relationship was not significant during the free jumping exercise. Conclusion: Motor laterality and uneven feet pairs were still present and significantly related in the 3-year-old horses and both variables were also strongly related to sidedness in trot-canter transitions. Potential relevance: Warmblood studbooks should include quantitative data on laterality at the time of studbook admission as part of the selection criteria. [source]

Estimates of genetic parameters for conformation measures and scores in Finnhorse and Standardbred foals

E. Schroderus
Summary The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for conformation measures and scores in the Finnhorse and the Standardbred foals presented in foal shows. Studied traits included height at withers and at croup, six subjectively evaluated conformation traits and overall grade. Data were from 10-year period (1995,2004) and consisted of 5821 Finnhorse foals (1,3 years old) with 7644 records and 2570 Standardbred foals (1,2 years old) with 2864 records. Variance components were estimated with REML , animal model using VCE4 program. The model included age class, year of judging, sex and region as fixed effects, and additive genetic, permanent environmental and residual as random effects. Estimates of heritability for measured traits were very high in both breeds (0.88,0.90). Estimates of heritability for conformation traits varied from 0.13 to 0.32 in the Finnhorse and from 0.06 to 0.47 in the Standardbred. In both breeds, estimates of heritability were lowest for hooves and movements at walk, and highest for type and body conformation among scored traits. Estimate of heritability for overall grade was in the Finnhorse 0.32 and in the Standardbred 0.34. Genetic correlations between overall grade and different conformation traits were 0.35,0.84 in the Finnhorse and 0.31,0.88 in the Standardbred. Thus, selection based on the overall grade would improve all studied characteristics. [source]

Genome-wide linkage and QTL mapping in porcine F2 families generated from Pietrain, Meishan and Wild Boar crosses

H. Geldermann
Summary Three informative pig F2 families based on European Wild Boar (W), Meishan (M) and Pietrain (P) crosses have been used for genome-wide linkage and quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis. Altogether 129 microsatellites, 56 type I loci and 46 trait definitions (specific to growth, fattening, fat deposition, muscling, meat quality, stress resistance and body conformation) were included in the study. In the linkage maps of M × P, W × P and W × M families, average spacing of markers were 18.4, 19.7 and 18.8 cM, the numbers of informative meioses were 582, 534 and 625, and the total lengths of autosomes measured were 27.3, 26.0 and 26.2 Morgan units, respectively. Maternal maps were on average 1.3 times longer than paternal maps. QTLs contributing more than 3% of F2 phenotypic variance could be identified at p < 0.05 chromosome-wide level. Differences in the numbers and positions of QTLs were observed between families. Genome-wide significant QTL effects were mapped for growth and fattening traits on eight chromosomes (1, 2, 4, 13, 14, 17, 18 and X), for fat deposition traits on seven chromosomes (1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7 and X), for muscling traits on 11 chromosomes (1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 12, 14, 15 and X), for meat quality and stress resistance traits on seven chromosomes (2, 3, 6, 13, 16, 18 and X), and QTLs for body-conformation traits were detected on 14 chromosomes. Closely correlated traits showed similar QTL profiles within families. Major QTL effects for meat quality and stress resistance traits were found on SSC6 in the interval RYR1-A1BG in the W × P and M × P families, and could be attributed to segregation of the RYR1 allele T derived from Pietrain, whereas no effect in the corresponding SSC6 interval was found in family W × M, where Wild Boar and Meishan both contributed the RYR1 allele C. QTL positions were mostly similar in two of the three families for body conformation traits and for growth, fattening, fat deposition and muscling traits, especially on SSC4 (interval SW1073-NGFB). QTLs with large effects were also mapped on SSC7 in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) (interval CYP21A2-S0102) and affected body length, weight of head and many other traits. The identification of DNA variants in genes causative for the QTLs requires further fine mapping of QTL intervals and a positional cloning. However, for these subsequent steps, the genome-wide QTL mapping in F2 families represents an essential starting point and is therefore significant for animal breeding. Zusammenfassung Drei informative F2 -Familien, die aus Kreuzungen von Europäischem Wildschwein (W), Meishan (M) und Pietrain (P) erstellt worden waren, wurden für eine genomweite Kopplungs- und QTL-Analyse benutzt. Insgesamt wurden 129 Mikrosatellitenloci, 56 Type-I-Loci und 46 Merkmalsdefinitionen (für Wachstum, Mastleistung, Fettansatz, Bemuskelung, Fleischqualität, Stressresistenz und Körperform) in die Untersuchungen einbezogen. In den Kopplungskarten der Familien M × P, W × P und W × M wurden durchschnittliche Markerabstände von 18.4, 19.7 bzw. 18.8 cM erreicht und 582, 534 bzw. 625 informative Meiosen beobachtet. Für die Gesamtlängen der Autosomen wurden in den drei Familien 27.3, 26.0 bzw. 26.2 Morgan-Einheiten gemessen. Die maternalen Kopplungskarten waren durchschnittlich 1.3-fach länger als die paternalen. QTLs, die mehr als 3% der phänotypischen Varianz in der F2 -Generation erklärten, konnten mit p < 0.05 chromosomenweitem Signifikanzniveau nachgewiesen werden. Zwischen den Familien wurden Differenzen in den Anzahlen und Positionen der QTLs beobachtet. Genomweit signifikante QTL-Effekte wurden für Wachstum und Fettansatz auf acht Chromosomen (1, 2, 4, 13, 14, 17, 18 und X) kartiert, für Fettansatz auf sieben Chromosomen (1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7 und X), für Bemuskelung auf elf Chromosomen (1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 12, 14, 15 und X), für Fleischqualität/Stressresistenz auf sieben Chromosomen (2, 3, 6, 13, 16, 18 und X), und QTLs für die Körperform wurden auf 14 Chromosomen kartiert. Eng korrelierte Merkmale zeigten ähnliche QTL-Profile innerhalb Familien. Die bedeutsamsten QTL-Effekte wurden für Fleischqualitäts- und Stressresistenzmerkmale auf Chromosom 6, Intervall RYR1-A1BG, in den Familien W × P und M × P gefunden, während in diesem Chromosomenintervall in der Familie W × M, in der der RYR1 -Locus keine segregierenden Exon-Allele aufwies, kein QTL zu erkennen war. Mehrere der QTL-Positionen waren für die Körperform wie auch für Wachstum, Mastleistung, Fettansatz und Bemuskelung in zwei von drei Familien ähnlich. Dies galt besonders für Chromosom 4 (Intervall SW1073-NGFB). QTLs mit großen Effekten wurden auf Chromosom 7 im MHC (Intervall CYP21A2-S0102) kartiert; sie beeinflussten Körperlänge, Kopfgewicht, aber auch viele weitere Merkmale. Zur Identifizierung der DNA-Varianten, die einem QTL zugrunde liegen, ist eine Feinkartierung von QTLs und positionale Klonierung erforderlich. Für diese nachfolgenden Untersuchungsmethoden ist jedoch die genomweite QTL-Kartierung in F2 -Familien ein entscheidender Ausgangspunkt; sie ist deshalb bedeutungsvoll für die Tierzüchtung. [source]

Linkage and QTL mapping for Sus scrofa chromosome 1

P. Beeckmann
Summary Linkage maps of Sus scrofa chromosome 1 (SSC1) have been produced using 10 markers in three different F2 families based on crosses of Meishan (M), Pietrain (P) and Wild Boar (W). The maps were similar for the different families and show higher paternal recombination, especially in the interval SW2130,SW803. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting body conformation, carcass composition, fat deposition and numbers of teats were identified in all three families. Major QTLs were mapped in chromosomal intervals centred at approximately 60, 120 and 170 cM. The QTLs explain up to 8.4% of phenotypic variance in the F2 generation. Pietrain QTL alleles were superior in comparison with Wild Boar and Meishan alleles for most of the trait values. Meishan alleles were associated with highest fat deposition. Additive gene effects were generally larger than dominance effects. QTL profiles on SSC1 differed between families, with the W × P family being most distinct. Zusammenfassung Kopplungskarten für Chromosom 1 (SSC1), die durch die Analyse von 10 Markern erstellt wurden, stimmten in drei untersuchten F2 -Familien (basierend auf Kreuzungen mit Meishan (M), Pietrain (P) und Wildschwein (W)) wie auch mit den bisher publizierten Karten überein. Die geschlechtsspezifischen Karten zeigten eine höhere Frequenz der Rekombinationen in der paternalen Meiose als in der maternalen, besonders im Intervall SW2130 bis SW803. Auf SSC1 konnten bedeutsame QTL-Effekte mit Wirkung auf Wachstum, Schlachtkörperzusammensetzung und Fettansatz sowie die Zitzenzahl in allen drei Familien kartiert werden, insbesondere in den Regionen um 60, 120 und 170 cM. Sie erklärten bis zu 8,4% der phänotypischen Varianz in der F2 -Generation. Pietrain-Allele zeigten positive Auswirkungen auf die meisten Fleischleistungsmerkmale. Meishan-Allele waren mit einer stärkeren Verfettung assoziiert. Es wurden Unterschiede zwischen den QTL-Profilen in den Familien beobachtet, wobei die Familie W × P besonders stark von den QTL-Profilen in den beiden anderen Familien abwich. [source]