Borehole Data (borehole + data)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Non-uniqueness with refraction inversion , the Mt Bulga shear zone

Derecke Palmer
ABSTRACT The tau-p inversion algorithm is widely employed to generate starting models with many computer programs that implement refraction tomography. However, this algorithm can frequently fail to detect even major lateral variations in seismic velocities, such as a 50 m wide shear zone, which is the subject of this study. By contrast, the shear zone is successfully defined with the inversion algorithms of the generalized reciprocal method. The shear zone is confirmed with a 2D analysis of the head wave amplitudes, a spectral analysis of the refraction convolution section and with numerous closely spaced orthogonal seismic profiles recorded for a later 3D refraction investigation. Further improvements in resolution, which facilitate the recognition of additional zones with moderate reductions in seismic velocity, are achieved with a novel application of the Hilbert transform to the refractor velocity analysis algorithm. However, the improved resolution also requires the use of a lower average vertical seismic velocity, which accommodates a velocity reversal in the weathering. The lower seismic velocity is derived with the generalized reciprocal method, whereas most refraction tomography programs assume vertical velocity gradients as the default. Although all of the tomograms are consistent with the traveltime data, the resolution of each tomogram is comparable only with that of the starting model. Therefore, it is essential to employ inversion algorithms that can generate detailed starting models, where detailed lateral resolution is the objective. Non-uniqueness can often be readily resolved with head wave amplitudes, attribute processing of the refraction convolution section and additional seismic traverses, prior to the acquisition of any borehole data. It is concluded that, unless specific measures are taken to address non-uniqueness, the production of a single refraction tomogram that fits the traveltime data to sufficient accuracy does not necessarily demonstrate that the result is either correct, or even the most probable. [source]

Interpretation of regional aeromagnetic data by the scaling function method: the case of Southern Apennines (Italy)

G. Florio
ABSTRACT A complex aeromagnetic anomaly in Southern Apennines (Italy) is analysed and interpreted by a multiscale method based on the scaling function. We use multiscale methods allowing analysis of a potential field along ridges, which are lines defined by the position of the extrema of the field at the considered scales. The method developed and applied in this paper is based on the study of the scaling function of the total magnetic field. It allows recovering of source parameters such as depth and structural index. The studied area includes a Pleistocene volcanic structure (Mt. Vulture) whose intense dipolar anomaly is superimposed on a longer wavelength regional anomaly. The interpretation of ridges of the modulus of the analytic signal at different altitude ranges allows recognition of at least three distinct sources between about 5 km and 20 km depth. Their interpretation is discussed in light of borehole data and other geophysical constraints. A reasonable geological model for these sources indicates the presence of intrusions, probably linked to the past activity of Mt. Vulture. [source]

Magnetic Resonance Sounding: New Method for Ground Water Assessment

GROUND WATER, Issue 2 2004
M. Lubczynski
The advantage of magnetic resonance sounding (MRS) as compared to other classical geophysical methods is in its water selective approach and reduced ambiguity in determination of subsurface free water content and hydraulic properties of the media due to the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) principle applied. Two case examples are used to explain how hydrogeological parameters are obtained from an MRS survey. The first case example in Delft (the Netherlands) is a multiaquifer system characterized by large signal to noise ratio (S/N = 73), with a 24 m thick, shallow sand aquifer, confined by a 15 m thick clay layer. For the shallow aquifer, a very good match between MRS and borehole data was obtained with regard to effective porosity nc,28% and specific drainage Sd,20%. The MRS interpretation at the level deeper than 39 m was disturbed by signal attenuation in the low resistivity (,10 ,m) media. The second case of Serowe (Botswana) shows a fractured sandstone aquifer where hydrogeological parameters are well defined at depth >74 m below ground surface despite quite a low S/N = 0.9 ratio, thanks to the negligible signal attenuation in the resistive environment. Finally, capabilities and limitations of the MRS technology are reviewed and discussed. MRS can contribute to subsurface hydrostratigraphy description, hydrogeological system parameterization, and improvement of well siting. The main limitations are survey dependence upon the value of the S/N ratio, signal attenuation in electrically conductive environments, nonuniformity of magnetic field, and some instrumental limitations. At locations sufficiently resistive to disregard the signal attenuation problems, the MRS S/N ratio determines how successfully MRS data can be acquired. Both signal and noise vary spatially; therefore, world scale maps providing guidelines on spatial variability of signal and noise are presented and their importance with respect to the MRS survey results is discussed. The noise varies also temporally; therefore, its diurnal and seasonal variability impact upon the MRS survey is covered as well. [source]


A. Billi
The deformation associated with a number of kilometre-scale strike-slip fault zones which cut through outcropping carbonate rocks in the Southern Apennines was investigated at regional and outcrop scales. These faults trend roughly east-west and were studied at the Gargano Promontory on the Adriatic Coast (in the Apulian foreland) and in the Matese Mountains, about 120 km to the west (within the Apenninic fold-and-thrust belt). The fault zones are 200,300 m wide and typically comprise a core surrounded by a damage zone. Within fault cores, fault rocks (gouges and cataclasites) typically occur along master slip planes; in damage zones, secondary slip planes and solution cleavage are the most important planar discontinuities. The protolith carbonates surrounding the fault zone at Gargano show little deformation, but they are fractured in the Matese Mountains as a result of an earlier thrust phase. Cleavage surfaces in the damage zone of the studied faults are interpreted to be fault-propagation structures. Our field data indicate that cleavage-fault intersection lines are parallel to the normals of fault slip-vectors. The angle between a fault plane and the associated cleavage was found to be fairly constant (c. 40") at different scales of observation. Finally, the spacing of the solution cleavage surfaces appeared in general to be regular (with a mean of about 22 mm), although it was found to decrease slightly near a fault plane. These results are intended to provide a basis for predicting the architecture of fault zones in buried carbonate reservoirs using seismic reflection and borehole data. [source]

Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic sea-level estimates: backstripping analysis of borehole data, onshore New Jersey

BASIN RESEARCH, Issue 4 2004
William A. Van Sickel
Backstripping analysis of the Bass River and Ancora boreholes from the New Jersey coastal plain (Ocean Drilling Project Leg 174AX) provides new Late Cretaceous sea-level estimates and corroborates previously published Cenozoic sea-level estimates. Compaction histories of all coastal plain boreholes were updated using porosity,depth relationships estimated from New Jersey coastal plain electric logs. The new porosity estimates are considerably lower than those previously calculated at the offshore Cost B-2 well. Amplitudes and durations of sea-level variations are comparable in sequences that are represented at multiple boreholes, suggesting that the resultant curves are an approximation of regional sea level. Both the amplitudes and durations of third-order (0.5,5 Myr) cycles tend to decrease from the Late Cretaceous to the late Miocene. Third-order sea-level amplitudes in excess of 60 m are not observed. Long-term (108,107 years) sea level was approximately constant at 30,80 m in the Late Cretaceous, rose to a maximum early Eocene value of approximately 100,140 m, and then fell through the Eocene and Oligocene. [source]