Blue Solution (blue + solution)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Blue Solution

  • methylene blue solution

  • Selected Abstracts

    Photocatalytic reduction of carbonates and formation of some energy rich systems in the presence of Toluidine Blue

    Sarita Jain
    Abstract Aqueous sodium and potassium carbonates have been photoreduced in the presence of Toluidine Blue solution (which is also the photocatalyst). The photocatalytic formation of formic acid and formaldehyde was measured spectrophotometrically using Nash reagent. The effect of variation of various parameters like pH, amount of photocatalyst (Toluidine Blue concentration), concentration of Na2CO3 and K2CO3, light intensity, etc., on the yield of photoproducts was also investigated. A tentative mechanism for this reduction has been proposed. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    New Methylene Blue (NMB) Encapsulated in Mesoporous AlMCM-41 Material and Its Application for Amperometric Determination of Ascorbic Acid in Real Samples

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 15 2007
    Shabnam Sohrabnezhad
    Abstract New methylene blue (NMB) dye incorporated into AlMCM-41 surfactant-free and hybrid surfactant-AlMCM-41 mesophase. UV-vis evidence shows that new methylene blue dye protonated in both cases of zeolites. New methylene blue is electroactive in zeolites and their electrochemical activity has been studied by cyclic voltammetry and compared to that of NMB in aqueous solutions. New methylene blue molecules are not released to the solution during CV measurements and are accessible to H3O+ ions. The presence of surfactant affects the kinetics of the redox process through proton ions diffusion. The midpoint potentials (Em) values show that new methylene blue dye incorporated into AlMCM-41 can be reduced easily with respect to solution new methylene blue. New methylene blue interacting with surfactant polar heads and residual Br, ions as a results, it shows a couple of peaks in high potential with respect to new methylene blue solution. The electrode made with methylene blue-AlMCM-41 without surfactant was used for the mediated oxidation of ascorbic acid. The anodic peak current observed in cyclic voltammetry was linearly dependent on the ascorbic acid concentration. The calibration plot was linear over the ascorbic acid concentration range 1.0×10,5 to 5.0×10,4 M. The detection limit of the method is 1.0×10,5 M, low enough for trace ascorbic acid determination in various real samples. [source]

    Periapical biomechanics and the role of cyclic biting force in apical retrograde fluid movement

    A. Kishen
    Abstract Aim, To investigate the stress distribution pattern in the periapical region caused by biting forces and to study the role of cyclic biting loads on periapical fluid movement. Methodology, In the first part, a digital photoelastic experiment was conducted to study stress distribution in the periapical region. In the second, 20 maxillary central incisors were selected and divided into three main groups: normal intact teeth (group 1), tooth specimens in which the root canal was enlarged and maintained wet (group 2), and tooth specimens in which the root canal was enlarged and maintained dry (group 3). The tooth specimens were placed in a polycarbonate support with a cavity filled with a sponge soaked in methylene blue solution to simulate a periapical defect with exudate. During testing, the specimens were placed in a water bath at 37 °C, and were loaded cyclically with a load of 20 N, at a rate of 72 cycles min,1, to a maximum of 20 000 cycles. The specimens were then sectioned and evaluated for retrograde fluid movement using light microscopy. The data were analysed using one-way anova (post hoc tests). Results, Digital photoelastic experiments showed that the compression of teeth produced bending stresses in the periapical region. Testing with cyclic loads demonstrated retrograde fluid movement into the apical portion of the root canal and extraradicular region in all groups. There was a significant difference amongst the apical retrograde fluid movement displayed by different groups (<0.01). Group 2, in which the root canal was enlarged and maintained wet showed maximum retrograde fluid movement, whilst group 3, in which the root canal was enlarged and maintained dry showed the least retrograde fluid movement. Conclusions, Biting forces would cause bending of the periapical bone and cyclic biting forces would contribute to retrograde fluid movement into the root canal space and extraradicular region. [source]

    Hierarchical Porous, Self-Supporting La- and F-Codoped TiO2 with High Durability for Continuous-Flow Visible Light Photocatalysis

    Guangxiu Cao
    Hierarchical porous, self-supporting La- and F-codoped TiO2 with high durability was prepared using a simple polymer template gel. The TiO2 foams were in the anatase phase, with a specific surface area of up to 88 m2/g, and showed a network-like structure containing meso-/macropores. The macropores had a diameter of ca. 300 nm and a wall thickness of 100,300 nm, while the mesopores were narrowly distributed with a mean diameter of around 5.4 nm. The UV-vis diffuse reflection spectra of the sample showed that the presence of intraband gap states was likely responsible for its absorption of visible light. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that La2O3 and O,Ti,F bonds were formed. The sample showed an excellent visible light photocatalytic activity and a high durability of photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methylene blue solution. [source]

    Vaginal and Cervical Anatomic Modifications During the Oestrus Cycle in Relation to Transcervical Catheterization in the Domestic Cat

    D Zambelli
    Contents In a previous study we observed that it is possible to reach the cervix in all queens with a 1 mm diameter probe only. So, we developed both a new technique and a catheter (1 mm diameter) to allow transcervical insemination [Zambelli and Castagnetti 2001]. The aims of this study were to investigate vaginal and cervical anatomic modifications during the various stages of the oestrus cycle and to test the previously described technique of transcervical catheterization during the various stages of the oestrus cycle. In experiment 1, silicon impression moulds were obtained from the reproductive tracts of 21 queens' cadavers and vaginal and cervical measures were taken. The results showed that there are some significant anatomic modifications during the various stages of the oestrus cycle in vaginal and cervical anatomy, principally related to the dorsal medial fold increase induced by the follicular phase. In experiment 2, transcervical catheterization was attempted in 95 queens at various stages of oestrus cycle both during reproductive and non-reproductive season. After catheterization, methylene blue solution was injected through the cervical catheter. Successful catheterization was assessed during surgery, when colour was observed in the uterine horns. It was possible to perform transcervical catheterization during non-reproductive season in 16 of 20 anoestrus queens and in 12 of 15 induced oestrus queens; during reproductive season in nine of 21 interoestrus queens, in eight of 13 dioestrus/pregnancy queens, in four of 18 oestrus queens and in seven of eight queens in first oestrus during lactation. [source]

    Leakage of fluid around high-volume, low-pressure cuffs

    ANAESTHESIA, Issue 1 2001
    We studied the ability of high-volume, low-pressure tracheal tube cuffs (Portex Soft Seal®, Portex Profile®, Mallinckrodt Lo-Contour® and Mallinckrodt Hi-Lo® tubes) to prevent leakage of fluid into the airway, in a model trachea and lung. Five tubes (7.0 and 8.0 mm internal diameter) of each type were used. Each tube was inserted into the model trachea and the cuff inflated until the intracuff pressure reached either 20, 30 or 40 cmH2O. The model lung was ventilated with a tidal volume of 700 ml and respiratory rate of 14 breath.min,1 at a compliance of 20 cmH2O. Ten millilitres of 0.01% methylene blue solution were infused over the cuff and the volume of fluid leaking past the cuff over 5 min was measured. The leak volume for the Soft Seal tube was less than that for the Profile or Lo-Contour tubes at all intracuff pressures (all p <,0.05). Compared with the Hi-Lo tube, the volume leaking past the cuff for the Soft Seal tube was greater at an intracuff pressure of 20 cmH2O (p <,0.05), whereas there was no significant difference between these two tubes at an intracuff pressure of 30 or 40 cmH2O. We conclude that the cuff of the Portex Soft Seal tube prevented leakage of fluid significantly more than that of the Portex Profile or Mallinckrodt Lo-Contour tubes, and to a similar degree to that of the Mallinckrodt Hi-Lo tube. [source]

    Self-Association Based on Interfacial Structured Water Leads to {Mo154},1165 Super Clusters: A Dielectric Study

    CHEMPHYSCHEM, Issue 5 2007
    Alla Oleinikova Dr.
    Surface water does the job: Molybdenum blue solutions contain unique nanosized wheel-shaped polyoxometalate-type clusters, while structured surface water on the clusters initiates the assembly, leading to the super cluster shown in the figure, which contains an internal "water pool". [source]