Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Blue

  • Evan blue
  • acid blue
  • alamar blue
  • alcian blue
  • brilliant blue
  • coomassie brilliant blue
  • dark blue
  • dimethylmethylene blue
  • fast blue
  • luxol fast blue
  • methylene blue
  • nile blue
  • prussian blue
  • reactive blue
  • toluidine blue
  • trypan blue

  • Terms modified by Blue

  • blue analogue
  • blue butterfly
  • blue catfish
  • blue coloration
  • blue colour
  • blue crab
  • blue dye
  • blue electroluminescence
  • blue emission
  • blue emitter
  • blue exclusion
  • blue exclusion test
  • blue fluorescence
  • blue g
  • blue gel
  • blue light
  • blue light emission
  • blue light emitting diode
  • blue light photoreceptor
  • blue luminescence
  • blue mackerel
  • blue monkey
  • blue mould
  • blue mountain
  • blue mountain eye study
  • blue mussel
  • blue native page
  • blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis
  • blue nevi
  • blue nile basin
  • blue photoluminescence
  • blue pigment
  • blue region
  • blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome
  • blue shark
  • blue shift
  • blue shrimp
  • blue solution
  • blue stain
  • blue staining
  • blue stimulus
  • blue tit
  • blue v

  • Selected Abstracts

    Compensation for light loss due to filtering by macular pigment: relation to hue cancellation

    James M. Stringham
    Abstract Background:, A long-standing question in colour vision research is how the visual system is able to correct for the significant absorbance of short wave light by the crystalline lens and macular pigment (MP). Such compensation must be required in order to maintain colour constancy across the retina where MP levels are changing quickly and dramatically. Objective:, We studied this compensation mechanism by measuring MP spatial density profiles and hue cancellation functions across the central retina in a sample of six young healthy subjects. Method:, Yellow (Y, 575 nm)/blue (B, 440 nm) and red (R, 600 nm)/green (G, 501 nm) cancellation functions were obtained at 0, 1, 1.75, 3 and 7° eccentricity. The MP optical density at 460 nm was measured at these same eccentricities using heterochromatic flicker photometry. One subject was assessed repeatedly over a 4-month period during daily supplementation with 30 mg of lutein (L). Results:, Hue cancellation values for the Y/B system did not change across the retina (r = 0.09). In contrast, R/G sensitivity changed as a direct function of MP absorbance (r = 0.99). The Y/B values did not change in the one subject supplemented with 30 mg L daily, despite increases in MP of about 50% over 4 months. Conclusions:, Despite large variations in MP across the retina, hue cancellation values for the Y-B system across the central retina were constant. For example, one subject's MP density declined from a central peak of 0.99 to near zero at 7° (near 90% transmission difference) yet thresholds for the Y/B system were unaffected. In contrast, the G lobe of the R/G system was directly correlated with MP density. Taken together, these results confirm that the Y/B system compensates for MP density, but the R/G system does not. [source]

    A cost analysis of ranked set sampling to estimate a population mean

    ENVIRONMETRICS, Issue 3 2005
    Rebecca A. Buchanan
    Abstract Ranked set sampling (RSS) can be a useful environmental sampling method when measurement costs are high but ranking costs are low. RSS estimates of the population mean can have higher precision than estimates from a simple random sample (SRS) of the same size, leading to potentially lower sampling costs from RSS than from SRS for a given precision. However, RSS introduces ranking costs not present in SRS; these costs must be considered in determining whether RSS is cost effective. We use a simple cost model to determine the minimum ratio of measurement to ranking costs (cost ratio) necessary in order for RSS to be as cost effective as SRS for data from the normal, exponential, and lognormal distributions. We consider both equal and unequal RSS allocations and two types of estimators of the mean: the typical distribution-free (DF) estimator and the best linear unbiased estimator (BLUE). The minimum cost ratio necessary for RSS to be as cost effective as SRS depends on the underlying distribution of the data, as well as the allocation and type of estimator used. Most minimum necessary cost ratios are in the range of 1,6, and are lower for BLUEs than for DF estimators. The higher the prior knowledge of the distribution underlying the data, the lower the minimum necessary cost ratio and the more attractive RSS is over SRS. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    FAMILY COURT REVIEW, Issue 1 2008
    Monica Sharma
    In the midst of a genetic revolution in medicine, Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) has become a well-established technique to help infertile women achieve pregnancy. But many women are now turning to ART not just to circumvent infertility, but consciously to shape their families by determining the sex of their children. Many patriarchal cultures have a gender preference for males and to date have used technological advances in reproductive medicine to predetermine the sex of the child being born. Women have sought sex-selective abortions, where the pregnancy was being terminated solely on the basis of the sex of the unborn fetus. The combination of ART advances and gender preference has led to the disappearance of at least 100 million girls from the world's population leading to a mass gendercide. This article examines the societal impact of unbalanced gender ratios and the need to regulate sex selection to avoid nations of bachelors. [source]


    ANZ JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Issue 7 2007
    FRCSEd, FRCSI, Mohamed Ezzedien Rabie MSc
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    ARCHAEOMETRY, Issue 3 2010
    Analyses at the Cu,K, Fe,K and Mn,K edge were performed to study the green, marbled (green and yellow), blue and blackish (deep greyish olive green) glass slabs decorating three sectilia panels from the archaeological site of Faragola. Results indicate that all slabs were made by mixing siliceous sand with natron, sometimes probably mixed with small percentages of plant ash. Cu2+ and Pb antimonates should be responsible for the opaque green colours. The dark green and yellow portions of the marbled slabs are respectively comparable to the slabs comprising only one of these colours. Cu2+ together with Ca antimonates probably produced light blue slabs, whereas cobalt was used to produce dark blue slabs. We consider it possible that the abundance ratio of Fe2+/Fe3+ and the complex Fe3+S2, would have an effect on the blackish slabs. The contribution of Mn cannot be ascertained even if it could have played a role in darkening glass colour. The comparison between the chemical composition of Faragola samples and several glass reference groups provided no conclusive evidence of provenance; whereas, the presence of a secondary local workshop can be hypothesized. [source]


    ARCHAEOMETRY, Issue 2 2010
    The present study shows the analysis performed on pigment samples taken from Sant Pere (Terrassa, Catalonia, Spain), a remarkable church built in the Romanesque style. On the basis of the results obtained from the analysis, an interesting discussion arises after finding evidence of Egyptian blue in one of the samples, a discovery that was not expected due to the time period of the samples. The pigments were identified by the combined use of FTIR and SEM with an EDS facility. For the blue pigment, since the EDS and FTIR analyses suggested the possible presence of cuprorivaite, micro-XRD experiments using synchrotron radiation were run. [source]


    ARCHAEOMETRY, Issue 6 2009
    Visible spectra, composition from SEM/EDX and solid-state electrochemical data are correlated for a set of 12 Maya Blue samples from different archaeological sites of Campeche and Yucatán (Mexico). In addition to indigo and dehydroindigo, indirubin and other possibly indigo-type compounds can be detected in Maya Blue samples. Application of hierarchical cluster analysis techniques allows similarity relationships to be established between samples from different sites, confirming prior results which suggest that the preparation of Maya Blue pigment evolved with time during the Maya culture following a ramified scheme. [source]

    Contact allergy to textile dyes in southern Sweden

    CONTACT DERMATITIS, Issue 6 2006
    K. Ryberg
    Contact allergy to disperse dyes in textiles is documented in prevalence studies from southern Europe. To evaluate the prevalence of allergic patch test reactions to different textile dyes in southern Sweden, and to look at the sites of dermatitis in individuals hypersensitive to textile dyes, we retrospectively investigated 3325 consecutively patch-tested patients. They had all been patch tested with the standard test series supplemented with a textile dye mix (TDM) consisting of 8 disperse dyes, i.e. Disperse (D) Blue 35, 106 and 124, D Yellow 3, D Orange 1 and 3 and D Red 1 and 17. All but 3 of the TDM-positive patients were additionally tested with the separate dyes included in the mix. The frequency of contact allergy to TDM was 1.5%, which is comparable with studies from southern Europe. The most common dye allergen was D Orange 1. The high prevalence of allergic reactions to D Orange 1 was unexpected, whereas test reactions to D Blue 106 and 124 were lower than expected from other studies. Compared to all tested patients, the TDM-positive patients more often had dermatitis on their arms, face, neck and axillary folds, and women also had a higher frequency of hand dermatitis. [source]

    P01 Contact dermatitis from textile colours in three Spanish towns

    CONTACT DERMATITIS, Issue 3 2004
    Begoña Garcia-Bravo
    Objective:, Prevalence of textile dye contact dermatitis (TD-CD) are lacking in many countries. Our aim is to know the frequency of TD-CD in three different areas of Spain. Methods:, 100 patients were tested with Spanish standard series and the five most frequent TD in each city. D. Orange 1, D. Orange 3, D. Blue 35, D. Blue 106, D. Blue 124 were included in Murcia and Seville, and the three last and D. Red 1, D. Red 17 in Santiago. Results:, 23/300 (15 women and 8 men) were positives to one or more TD. D. Blue 124 was the most frequent allergen (18/300), followed by D. Blue 106 (17/300). D. Red 1, D. Red 17 and D. Orange 1 were positives in 2/200. D. Orange 3 and D. Blue 35 were positives in 1/200. Eczema was located on hands in 13 cases. Clinical picture was variable. Origin of sensitization was clothing and occupational. Relevance was obtained in 20/23 cases. Conclusions:, The study confirm an high frequency of disperse dye allergy in Spain with a very different prevalence in the three areas: Seville 14%, Murcia 5% and Santiago 4%, that are probably due to social and cultural factors. We recommend the inclusion of D. Blue 106, D. Blue 124, D. Blue 35, D. Red 1, D. Red 17, D. Orange 1 and D. Orange 3 in standard series in order to detect sensitivity to textile colours that is most frequent than previously suspected. [source]

    Contact allergy to Disperse Blue 106/124 mix in consecutive German, Austrian and Swiss patients

    CONTACT DERMATITIS, Issue 5 2003
    Wolfgang Uter
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Novel MRI and fluorescent probes responsive to the Factor XIII transglutaminase activity

    Lorenzo Tei
    Abstract Transglutaminases, including factor XIII and tissue transglutaminase, participate in multiple extracellular processes associated with remodeling of the extracellular matrix during wound repair, blood clotting, tumor progression and fibrosis of ischemic injuries. The aim of this work was to evaluate a novel substrate analog for transglutaminase optimized by molecular modeling calculations (DCCP16), which can serve for molecular imaging of transglutaminase activity by magnetic resonance imaging and by near-infrared imaging. Experimental data showed covalent binding of Gd,DCCP16 and DCCP16-IRIS Blue to human clots, to basement membrane components and to casein in purified systems as well as in three-dimensional multicellular spheroids. In vivo, DCCP16 showed enhancement with a prolonged retention in clots and tumors, demonstrating the ability to detect both factor XIII and tissue transglutaminase mediated covalent binding of the contrast material. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    An Electrochemical DNA Biosensor for the Detection of the Apa I Polymorphism in the Vitamin D Receptor Gene Using Meldola's Blue as a Hybridization Indicator

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 5 2010
    Nilay Aladag
    Abstract Electrochemical detection of nucleic acid base mismatches related to Apa I single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the vitamin D receptor gene was performed successfully using 7-dimethyl-amino-1,2-benzophenoxazinium salt (Meldola's blue, MDB) with 10.9,pmol/100,,L of detection limit. MDB reduction signals obtained from probe, mismatch(probe-SNP containing target) and hybrid(probe-target) modified pencil graphite electrode(PGE) increased respectively. The sensor was able to clearly distinguish perfect match from mismatch DNA in a 30,min. detection time. Several factors affecting on the hybridization and indicator response are studied to maximize sensitivity and selectivity. The advantages of the biosensor are discussed in comparison with previous electrochemical assays for DNA hybridization. [source]

    Current-Free Deposition of Prussian Blue with Organic Polymers: Towards Improved Stability and Mass Production of the Advanced Hydrogen Peroxide Transducer

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 3-5 2009
    Abstract We report on a novel approach for open-circuit (current-free) deposition of Prussian blue. Synthesis of Prussian blue is carried out by reduction of ferric ferricyanide with organic molecules, which are known to form polymers upon oxidation. The proposed interfacial deposition is a result of the synthesis in the presence of electrode support due to preconcentration of precursors at the interface. The resulting modified electrodes displayed the dramatically improved operational stability in hydrogen peroxide continuous monitoring with no loss of either electrochemical or analytical performance characteristics compared to electrodes with electrochemically deposited Prussian blue. The shown possibility to deposit stable films with regular structure in the absence of any external voltage could open new horizons for sensor science. [source]

    Prussian Blue Dispersed Sphere Catalytic Labels for Amplified Electronic Detection of DNA

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 3 2008
    Siriwan Suwansa-ard
    Abstract A highly sensitive electrochemical DNA hybridization assay using Prussian blue (PB)-modified polymeric spheres as the oligonculeotide labeling tag is described. The sandwich assay relies on a secondary nucleic-acid probe functionalized with polystyrene beads loaded with numerous Prussian blue nanoparticles. The very strong catalytic activity of the captured PB ,artificial peroxidase' tag towards the reduction of hydrogen peroxide, along with the encapsulation of numerous catalytic particles onto polymeric beads, allows amperometric detection of the DNA target down to the 50,fM level (2.5,amol). Imaging and spectroscopic measurements are used to characterize the PB-tagged polystyrene beads. Such coupling of PB catalytic labels with polymeric carrier beads offers great promise for amplified transduction of different biomolecular interactions. [source]

    New Methylene Blue (NMB) Encapsulated in Mesoporous AlMCM-41 Material and Its Application for Amperometric Determination of Ascorbic Acid in Real Samples

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 15 2007
    Shabnam Sohrabnezhad
    Abstract New methylene blue (NMB) dye incorporated into AlMCM-41 surfactant-free and hybrid surfactant-AlMCM-41 mesophase. UV-vis evidence shows that new methylene blue dye protonated in both cases of zeolites. New methylene blue is electroactive in zeolites and their electrochemical activity has been studied by cyclic voltammetry and compared to that of NMB in aqueous solutions. New methylene blue molecules are not released to the solution during CV measurements and are accessible to H3O+ ions. The presence of surfactant affects the kinetics of the redox process through proton ions diffusion. The midpoint potentials (Em) values show that new methylene blue dye incorporated into AlMCM-41 can be reduced easily with respect to solution new methylene blue. New methylene blue interacting with surfactant polar heads and residual Br, ions as a results, it shows a couple of peaks in high potential with respect to new methylene blue solution. The electrode made with methylene blue-AlMCM-41 without surfactant was used for the mediated oxidation of ascorbic acid. The anodic peak current observed in cyclic voltammetry was linearly dependent on the ascorbic acid concentration. The calibration plot was linear over the ascorbic acid concentration range 1.0×10,5 to 5.0×10,4 M. The detection limit of the method is 1.0×10,5 M, low enough for trace ascorbic acid determination in various real samples. [source]

    Preparation, Characterization and Electrocatalytic Studies on Copper Complex Dye Film Modified Electrodes

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 13 2007
    Shen-Ming Chen
    Abstract Copper complex dye (C.I. Direct Blue 200) film modified electrodes have been prepared by multiple scan cyclic voltammetry. The effect of solution pH and nature of electrode material on film formation was investigated. The optimum pH for copper complex film formation on glassy carbon was found to be 1.5. The mechanism of film formation on ITO seems to be similar to that on GC surface but completely different mechanism followed with gold electrode. Cyclic voltammetric features of our modified electrodes are in consistent with a surface-confined redox process. The voltammetric response of modified electrode was found to be depending on pH of the contacting solution. UV-visible spectra show that the nature of copper complex dye is identical in both solution phase and after forming film on electrode. The electrocatalytic behavior of copper complex dye film modified electrode towards oxidation of dopamine, ascorbic acid and reduction of SO52, was investigated. The oxidation of dopamine and ascorbic acid occurred at less positive potential on film electrode compared to bare glassy carbon electrode. Feasibility of utilizing our modified electrode in analytical estimation of dopamine, ascorbic acid was also demonstrated. [source]

    Investigation of the Effect of Different Glassy Carbon Materials on the Performance of Prussian Blue Based Sensors for Hydrogen Peroxide

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 3 2003
    Francesco Ricci
    Abstract Three different kinds of glassy carbon (GC-R, GC-K, GC-G) were equally pretreated, further modified with electrochemically deposited Prussian Blue and used as sensors for hydrogen peroxide at an applied potential of ,50,mV (vs. Ag|AgCl). Their performance was evaluated with respect to the following parameters: the coverage and electrochemistry of the electrodeposited Prussian Blue, the sensitivity and the lower limit of detection for hydrogen peroxide, and the operational stability of the sensors. GC-R showed the best behavior concerning the surface coverage and the operational stability of the electrodeposited Prussian Blue. For this electrode the sensitivity for hydrogen peroxide (10,,M) was 0.25,A/M cm2 and the detection limit was 0.1,,M. Scanning electron microscopy was used to study the surfaces of the three electrodes before and after the electrodeposition of Prussian Blue and to search for the reason for the three different behaviors between the different glassy carbon materials. The Prussian Blue modified GC-R was also used for the construction of a glucose biosensor based on immobilizing glucose oxidase in Nafion membranes on top of electrodeposited Prussian Blue layer. The operational stability of the glucose biosensors was studied in the flow injection mode at an applied potential of ,50,mV (vs. Ag|AgCl) and alternatively injecting standard solutions of hydrogen peroxide (10,,M) and glucose (1,mM) for 3,h. For the GC-R based biosensor a 2.8% decrease of the initial glucose response was observed. [source]

    Label-Free and Label Based Electrochemical Detection of Hybridization by Using Methylene Blue and Peptide Nucleic Acid Probes at Chitosan Modified Carbon Paste Electrodes

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 24 2002
    Pinar Kara
    Abstract A chitosan modified carbon paste electrode (ChiCPE) based DNA biosensor for the recognition of calf thymus double stranded DNA (dsDNA), single stranded DNA (ssDNA) and hybridization detection between complementary DNA oligonucleotides is presented. DNA and oligonucleotides were electrostatically attached by using chitosan onto CPE. The amino groups of chitosan formed a strong complex with the phosphate backbone of DNA. The immobilized probe could selectively hybridize with the target DNA to form hybrid on the CPE surface. The detection of hybridization was observed by using the label-free and label based protocols. The oxidation signals of guanine and adenine greatly decreased when a hybrid was formed on the ChiCPE surface. The changes in the peak currents of methylene blue (MB), an electroactive label, were observed upon hybridization of probe with target. The signals of MB were investigated at dsDNA modified ChiCPE and ssDNA modified ChiCPE and the increased peak currents were observed, in respect to the order of electrodes. The hybridization of peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes with the DNA target sequences at ChiCPE was also investigated. Performance characteristics of the sensor were described, along with future prospects. [source]

    Separation of Nile Blue-labelled fatty acids by CE with absorbance detection using a red light-emitting diode

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 8 2007
    Michael C. Breadmore Dr.
    Abstract The separation of fatty acids derivatised with Nile Blue (NB) by CE with detection using a red light-emitting diode (LED) was examined. NB was selected as the derivatisation agent due to its high molar absorption coefficient of 76,000,M,1cm,1 at 633,nm, making it well suited for sensitive absorbance detection using a red 635,nm LED. NB-labelled fatty acids were separated by both MEKC using SDS micelles, i -PrOH and n -BuOH and by NACE in a number of solvents including MeOH, EtOH and ACN. The sensitivity of NACE was superior to MEKC, with detection limits of 5×10,7,7×10,7,M obtained for each acid, approximately 20 times lower than the MEKC method. The NACE detection limits are approximately 100 times lower than previous reports on the separation of fatty acids by CE using indirect absorbance detection, ten times lower than using indirect fluorescence detection and are inferior only to those obtained using precapillary derivatisation and direct fluorescence detection. The efficiency of the NACE method was also superior to MEKC and allowed the separation of unsaturated fatty acids to be examined, although it was not possible to baseline-resolve linoleic (C18:2) and linolenic (C18:3) acids in a reasonable time. The method was used to analyse the fatty acid profile of two edible oils, namely sunflower and sesame oils, after alkali hydrolysis, where it was possible to identify both the saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in each sample. [source]

    High-efficiency protein extraction from polyacrylamide gels for molecular mass measurement by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 6 2005
    Ya Jin
    Abstract A simple and fast method of protein extraction from Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB)-stained polyacrylamide gels suited for molecular mass measurement of proteins by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) is reported. Proteins in CBB-stained gel pieces were extracted by a 10-min soaking in 0.1,M NaOH at 25°C. The recovery of this one-step extraction method was 34,73% for proteins <67,kDa. CBB adduction to proteins during mass spectrometric analysis was avoided by a destaining step before the alkaline extraction. The molecular mass values of the extracted proteins coincided with those of purified proteins within ±0.01,0.10% deviation for all the proteins <36,kDa. Because of the high extraction recovery, mass measurement was possible for the proteins extracted from CBB-stained gels with loaded protein quantities as little as 34,ng for cytochrome,c, ,-lactalbumin, myoglobin, ,-lactoglobulin, trypsinogen, and carbonic anhydrase (12.4,29.0,kDa), 340,ng for glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (35.6,kDa) and albumin (66.3,kDa). This method provides a highly efficient approach to utilize CBB-stained one- or two-dimensional gels for whole protein analysis using MALDI-TOF-MS. [source]

    Comparison of fluorescent stains: Relative photostability and differential staining of proteins in two-dimensional gels

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 15 2004
    Gary B. Smejkal
    Abstract The fluorescence of proteins stained with Deep Purple and SYPRO Ruby was measured over a time course of UV transillumination to determine the relative photostability of each stain. Mean spot fluorescence (n = 200 matched spots) in gels stained with Deep Purple decreased 27% following 2 min of UV transillumination, compared to SYPRO Ruby, which decreased 17%. After 19 min, an 83% decrease in Deep Purple fluorescence was observed, compared to 44% for SYPRO Ruby. By interpolation, the half-life of Deep Purple fluorescence was estimated to be approximately 6 min. The half-life of SYPRO Ruby fluorescence was not reached during the 19 min time course. Further, differential staining of proteins was observed in gels stained with Deep Purple and SYPRO Ruby as compared to colloidal Coomassie Brilliant Blue and silver staining. [source]

    A systematic investigation into the recovery of radioactively labeled proteins from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 1 2004
    Shaobo Zhou
    Abstract We report the results of a systematic investigation designed to optimize a method for quantifying radioactivity in proteins in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. The method involves dissolving appropriately sized pieces of gel in hydrogen peroxide and heating to 70°C overnight followed by liquid scintillation counting. H2O2 had no effect on the count rates of [14C]bovine serum albumin (BSA) when counted in a conventional liquid scintillation system, and the count rates remained stable for several days. Temperatures below 70°C resulted in incomplete extraction of radioactivity from gels containing [14C]BSA, but there was also a significant reduction in count rates in samples incubated at 80°C. At 70°C recovery was not affected by the amount of sample loaded onto the gel or by the staining procedure (Coomassie Brilliant Blue or SYPRO Ruby). Recoveries were in the range of 89,94%, and the coefficient of variation for five replicate samples was 5,10%. This method offers a reliable way of measuring the amount of radioactivity in proteins that have been separated by electrophoresis. It may be useful, for example, in quantitative metabolic labeling experiments when it is necessary to know precisely how much tracer has been incorporated into a particular protein. [source]

    Potential Applications of Oxidoreductases for the Re-oxidation of Leuco Vat or Sulfur Dyes in Textile Dyeing

    F. Xu
    Abstract Conventional textile dyeing by vat and sulfur dyes includes reduction and re-oxidation steps (with chemical reductants and oxidants), so that the insoluble dyes can be solubilized in the dyeing solution, adsorbed by the fabric, and fixed onto the dyed fabric. The treatments often involve hazardous chemicals, expensive catalysts, or conditions that are suboptimally effective, energy-intensive, caustic, or polluting. Improving these steps with enzyme technology could be of significant interest in terms of better dyeing, handling of hazardous chemicals, disposal of waste, or production economy. The idea of an enzymatic re-oxidation step for vat and sulfur dyeings was tested under simplified laboratory conditions. Selected vat and sulfur dyes, including Vat Blue,43, Vat Orange,7, Vat Green,3, Vat Orange,2, Vat Red,13, Vat Yellow,2, and Sulfur Black,1, were first chemically reduced. The reduced (leuco) dyes were then re-oxidized by aerated buffer solutions or H2O2, in the presence or absence of an oxidoreductase, selected from seven laccases from Myceliophthora thermophila, Scytalidium thermophilum, Coprinus cinereus, Trametes villosa, Rhizoctonia solani, Pycnoporus cinnabarinus, Botrytis cinerea, a bilirubin oxidase from Myrothecium verrucaria, and a heme peroxidase from Coprinus cineresu. It was shown that the enzymes were able to catalyze and accelerate the re-oxidation of the reduced dyes, even when they were adsorbed on cotton fabric, by dissolved air (O2) or H2O2. Small redox-active mediators could facilitate the enzymatic re-oxidation. For Sulfur Black,1, a higher conversion of the leuco dye was achieved with laccase-catalyzed re-oxidation. The further development of this potential enzyme application is discussed. [source]

    Genotoxicity of acrylamide and its metabolite glycidamide administered in drinking water to male and female Big Blue mice,

    Mugimane G. Manjanatha
    Abstract The recent discovery of acrylamide (AA), a probable human carcinogen, in a variety of fried and baked starchy foods has drawn attention to its genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. Evidence suggests that glycidamide (GA), the epoxide metabolite of AA, is responsible for the genotoxic effects of AA. To investigate the in vivo genotoxicity of AA, groups of male and female Big Blue (BB) mice were administered 0, 100, or 500 mg/l of AA or equimolar doses of GA, in drinking water, for 3,4 weeks. Micronucleated reticulocytes (MN-RETs) were assessed in peripheral blood within 24 hr of the last treatment, and lymphocyte Hprt and liver cII mutagenesis assays were conducted 21 days following the last treatment. Further, the types of cII mutations induced by AA and GA in the liver were determined by sequence analysis. The frequency of MN-RETs was increased 1.7,3.3-fold in males treated with the high doses of AA and GA (P , 0.05; control frequency = 0.28%). Both doses of AA and GA produced increased lymphocyte Hprt mutant frequencies (MFs), with the high doses producing responses 16,25-fold higher than that of the respective control (P , 0.01; control MFs = 1.5 ± 0.3 × 10,6 and 2.2 ± 0.5 × 10,6 in females and males, respectively). Also, the high doses of AA and GA produced significant 2,2.5-fold increases in liver cII MFs (P , 0.05; control MFs = 26.5 ± 3.1 × 10,6 and 28.4 ± 4.5 × 10,6). Molecular analysis of the mutants indicated that AA and GA produced similar mutation spectra and that these spectra were significantly different from that of control mutants (P , 0.001). The predominant types of mutations in the liver cII gene from AA- and GA-treated mice were G:C,T:A transversions and ,1/+1 frameshifts in a homopolymeric run of Gs. The results indicate that both AA and GA are genotoxic in mice. The MFs and types of mutations induced by AA and GA in the liver are consistent with AA exerting its genotoxicity in BB mice via metabolism to GA. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2006. Published 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Just how does the cII selection system work in MutaÔMouse?

    Roy R. Swiger
    Abstract The lambda CII protein is an essential component in the lytic vs. lysogeny decision a bacteriophage makes upon infection of a host at low temperatures. The protein interacts with numerous phage promoters modulating the expression of the CI repressor, thus providing the mechanism for lysogenization soon after infection. The Big Blue® and MutaÔMouse are two widely used in vivo mutational model systems. The assays rely on retrievable lambda-based transgenes housing mutational targets (lacI or lacZ, respectively). The transgenes provide an elegant vehicle for the quantification of mutations sustained in virtually any tissue of the rodent. The use of the bacteriophage cII locus as an alternative, or additional mutational target for use with the Big Blue® rodent system was first reported by Jakubczak et al. ([1996]: Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93:9073,9078). More recently, this selection assay has been applied successfully to the MutaÔMouse (Swiger et al. [1999]: Environ Mol Mutagen 33:201,207). The use of an Hfl bacterial strain and low temperature allows the determination of mutations sustained at the cII locus in either system, with high fidelity. The cII selection assay in the Big Blue® relies on the presence of the lambda repressor protein CI. In contrast, the recombinant construct used to make the MutaÔMouse transgene lacks functional CI protein. Nevertheless, we report an excellent system for quantifying mutations at the cII locus in MutaÔMouse. Just how does cII selection work in the MutaÔMouse? Written in the context of lambda recombinant genetics, this paper explores the question further. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 37:290,296, 2001 © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Hydration of exercised Standardbred racehorses assessed noninvasively using multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis

    Summary Reasons for performing study: In human and animal clinical practice, multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MF-BIA) is increasingly used as a diagnostic tool to assess hydration of intra-and extracellular fluid compartments. Accurate determination of changes in hydration status within individuals over time has remained problematic due to the requirement for complete impedance-frequency relationships at the time points of interest. Objectives: To use MF-BIA in 13 Standardbred racehorses and 7 ,endurance' research horses to determine if MF-BIA could be used to track changes in total body water (TBW), intracellular fluid volume (ICFV) and extracellular fluid volume (ECFV) resulting from exercise. Methods: Jugular venous blood was sampled at rest and for 2,13 h following exercise. TBW, ECFV and plasma volume (PV) were measured at rest using indicator dilution techniques (D2O, thiocyanate and Evans Blue, respectively). TBW, ECFV, ICFV and PV were correlated to impedance measures and predictive equations used to determine hydration status from MF-BIA measures. Results: TBW loss continued throughout the recovery period, and was primarily borne by the ECF compartment at 90 min of recovery. Conclusions: MF-BIA predictions of compartmental hydration status were significantly correlated to measured/calculated decreases in these compartments. Potential relevance: Practical applications for MF-BIA in horses include monitoring of hydration status during transport and competition, assessment of body compostion, clinical health assessment and critical care management. [source]

    Reciprocal connections between olfactory structures and the cortex of the rostral superior temporal sulcus in the Macaca fascicularis monkey

    A. Mohedano-Moriano
    Abstract Convergence of sensory modalities in the nonhuman primate cerebral cortex is still poorly understood. We present an anatomical tracing study in which polysensory association cortex located at the fundus and upper bank of the rostral superior temporal sulcus presents reciprocal connections with primary olfactory structures. At the same time, projections from this polysensory area reach multiple primary olfactory centres. Retrograde (Fast Blue) and anterograde (biotinylated dextran,amine and 3H-amino acids) tracers were injected into primary olfactory structures and rostral superior temporal sulcus. Retrograde tracers restricted to the anterior olfactory nucleus resulted in labelled neurons in the rostral portion of the upper bank and fundus of superior temporal sulcus. Injections of biotinylated dextran,amine at the fundus and upper bank of the superior temporal sulcus confirmed this projection by labelling axons in the dorsal and lateral portions of the anterior olfactory nucleus, as well as piriform, periamygdaloid and entorhinal cortices. Retrograde tracer injections at the rostral superior temporal sulcus resulted in neuronal labelling in the anterior olfactory nucleus, piriform, periamygdaloid and entorhinal cortices, thus providing confirmation of the reciprocity between primary olfactory structures and the cortex at the rostral superior temporal sulcus. The reciprocal connections between the rostral part of superior temporal sulcus and primary olfactory structures represent a convergence for olfactory and other sensory modalities at the cortex of the rostral temporal lobe. [source]

    Polycationic States of Oligoanilines Based on Wurster's Blue

    Akihiro Ito
    Abstract Polycations of two oligoanilines based on Wurster's blue,N,N,,N, -tris[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]- N,N,,N, -trimethyl-1,3,5-benzenetriamine (2) and N,N, -bis(3-{N -[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]- N -methylamino}phenyl)- N,N, -dimethyl- p -phenylenediamine (3), have been generated efficiently by a stepwise oxidation procedure. Their redox behavior was characterized in terms of the embedded p -phenylenediamine (PD) units and their intramolecular connectivity. EPR analysis of the oxidized 2 and 3 species revealed the existence of high-spin species in solution. It was found that spin multiplicities of the dominant polycationic species of 2 and 3 formed by 3 equiv. of oxidant can be assigned to quartet and doublet states, respectively on the basis of pulsed EPR spectroscopy. These results demonstrate that the intramolecular connectivity between the spin-containing units decisively influences the spin preference of the multispin systems based on oligoanilines.(© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2009) [source]

    That Which Makes the Sensation of Blue a Mental Fact: Moore on Phenomenal Relationism

    Benj Hellie
    A gift of a dollar for each article in the philosophy of perception and consciousness published since 1990 making reference, explicitly or implicitly, to Moore's discussion in the second half of Moore 19031 of an alleged ,transparency' and ,diaphanousness' pertaining to some aspect of perceptual experience would very likely cover the tab of a mid-priced dinner for two.2 Moore's poetically expressed observations have captured the imagination of contemporary philosophers of perception and consciousness, and have served as the basis of much fruitful discussion in those areas. Still, despite all the attention these observations have received, the contemporary literature lacks a close reading of the second half of Moore's paper, without which it is impossible to understand Moore's observations in the context in which they were originally expressed. It is understandable that such a close reading is lacking: the second half of Moore's paper has been rightly described by one of his most sympathetic and dedicated interpreters as ,extremely dense and opaque' (Klemke 2000: 55).3 But despite the evident difficulties of the task, I aim here, with some trepidation, to provide the missing close reading. The main points of my interpretation will be these. The centerpiece of the anti-idealist manoeuvrings of the second half of the paper is a phenomenological argument for what I will call a relational view of perceptual phenomenal character, on which, roughly, ,that which makes the sensation of blue a mental fact' is a relation of conscious awareness, a view close to the opposite of the most characteristic contemporary view going under the transparency rubric.4 The discussion of transparency and diaphanousness is a sidelight, its principal purpose to shore up the main line of argumentation against criticism; in those passages all Moore argues is that the relation of conscious awareness is not transparent, while acknowledging that it can seem to be. My discussion will proceed as follows. In section 1, I will discuss some theses and elucidate some notions from the philosophy of perception and consciousness which will be central to my interpretation; having done so, I will be in a position to explain how an accurate understanding of Moore may contribute to theoretical advances in the philosophy of perception and consciousness. The next two sections contain the exegetical heart of the paper: section 2 provides an analysis of Moore's case for the relational view; section 3 attempts to explain the place of the relational view in the overall refutation of idealism. Section 4 critically discusses a pair of competing interpretations. Section 5 wraps things up, drawing concluding morals as to the campaigns on behalf of which Moore should and should not be enlisted. [source]

    Quantifying dye tracers in soil profiles by image processing

    I. Forrer
    Summary Developing and testing models for solute transport in the field requires experimental data on the spreading of solutes in the soil. Obtaining such data is costly, and a substantial part of the total costs is in the preparation and chemical analysis of the tracing compounds in the gathered samples. We developed a cheap method to quantify the concentration of the mobile dye tracer Brilliant Blue FCF from digitized photographs of stained soil profiles, and we have tested it in the field. Soil sampling and chemical analyses were necessary only to establish a calibration relation between the dye content and the colour of the soil. The digital images were corrected for geometrical distortions, varying background brightness, and colour tinges, and then they were analysed to determine the soil colour at sampling points in the profiles. The resident concentration of the dye was modelled by polynomial regression with the primary colours red, green, blue and the soil depth as explanatory variables. Concentration maps of Brilliant Blue were then computed from the digitized images with a spatial resolution of 1 mm. Validation of the technique with independent data showed that the method predicted the concentration of the dye well, provided the corrected images contained only the colours included in the calibration. [source]