Blood Chemistry (blood + chemistry)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Biochemical and white blood cell profiles of baboon neonates consuming formulas with moderate and high dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids

A.T. Hsieh
Abstract Background, Clinical chemistry and complete blood count (CBC) values were determined in 14 term baboons (Papio species) consuming formula with moderate or high levels of dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) from 2,12 weeks of age. Method, Neonates were randomized to three groups: C: Control, no LCPUFA; L: 0.33% docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)/0.67% arachidonic acid (ARA) (w/w); L3:1.00% DHA/0.67% ARA (w/w). Blood chemistries were assessed at 6 and 12 weeks and CBC parameters were measured at 2, 4, 8, 10, 12 weeks of age. Results, Dietary LCPUFA had significant effects on serum triglyceride (C > L,L3) and calcium (L > C,L3). No other significant effects of diet were detected; pooled values are presented for all other parameters. Conclusion, These data provide longitudinal biochemical and white cell/platelet/immunological data on LCPUFA-fed baboons over the first 12 weeks of life. Data ranges are similar to reference data in cases for which values exist and hematological changes reflect trends observed during human neonatal development. [source]

Plasma transforming growth factor-,1 level and efficacy of ,-tocopherol in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: a pilot study

T. Hasegawa
Background: Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis is a distinct entity, characterized by fatty change, lobular inflammation and fibrosis of the liver. Some cases of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis progress to cirrhosis, but it is not easy to distinguish this disease from non-alcoholic fatty liver by non-invasive examinations. No proven therapy for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis exists. Transforming growth factor-,1 is implicated in the development of liver fibrosis, and is inhibited by ,-tocopherol (vitamin E) in the liver. Therefore, in this study, the significance of the measurement of the level of plasma transforming growth factor-,1 and the effect of ,-tocopherol on the clinical course of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis were investigated. Methods: Twelve patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and 10 patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver, with a diagnosis confirmed by liver biopsy, were studied. None of the patients had a history of alcohol abuse, habitual medicine or malignant or inflammatory diseases. All patients were negative for hepatitis B, C and G virus. Patients were given dietary instruction for 6 months, and then ,-tocopherol (300 mg/day) was given for 1 year. Blood chemistries, measurement of plasma transforming growth factor-,1 level and liver biopsies were undertaken before and after the 1-year ,-tocopherol treatment. Results: The serum alanine transaminase level decreased in non-alcoholic fatty liver patients, but not in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis patients, after 6 months of dietary therapy. Although the serum alanine transaminase level in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis patients was reduced during the 1-year ,-tocopherol treatment, ,-tocopherol had no effect on the serum alanine transaminase level in non-alcoholic fatty liver patients. The histological findings, such as steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis, of the non-alcoholic steatohepatitis patients were improved after ,-tocopherol treatment. The plasma transforming growth factor-,1 level in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis patients was significantly elevated compared with that in non-alcoholic fatty liver patients and healthy controls, and decreased, accompanied by an improvement in serum alanine transaminase level, with ,-tocopherol treatment. Conclusions: lOur data suggest that the measurement of the level of plasma transforming growth factor-,1 represents a possible method of distinguishing between non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and non-alcoholic fatty liver. Long-term ,-tocopherol treatment may be safe and effective for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. A randomized, controlled, double-blind trial is needed to confirm the full potential of ,-tocopherol in the management of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. [source]

Association of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with chronic neutrophilic leukemia

Chikashi Yoshida
Abstract: A 54-yr-old female having chronic neutrophilic leukemia (CNL) associated with severe liver injury is presented. Physical examination on admission showed severe jaundice, hepatosplenomegaly, massive ascites, and pretibial edema. Complete blood count showed a hemoglobin level of 9.1 g/dL, platelet count of 25.8 × 104/,L, and white blood cell count of 36.6 × 103/,L with 89.7% neutrophils. Blood chemistry showed hyperbilirubinemia (21.9 mg/dL) with normal transaminase levels. There was no abnormality in serum cholesterol, triglyceride, or glucose levels. Neutrophil alkaline phosphatase activity was significantly elevated. Bone marrow aspiration showed myeloid hyperplasia with normal karyotype. Rearrangement of the bcr/abl was not detected by either polymerase chain reaction or fluorescence in situ hybridization. Human androgen receptor gene assay (HUMARA) of the bone marrow cells showed clonal proliferation of neutrophils. The patient was diagnosed as having CNL. To evaluate the pathogenesis of the liver injury, a needle biopsy was performed, which showed steatohepatitis with infiltration of neutrophils. As the patient had no history of alcohol abuse, a diagnosis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) was made. Assuming that the infiltration of abnormal neutrophils into the liver contributed to the development of NASH, she was treated with cytoreductive chemotherapy (cytosine arabinoside: 100 mg/d, 1,3 doses/wk). With decreases in white blood cell counts, serum bilirubin levels decreased gradually to 1.5 mg/mL. A postchemotherapy liver biopsy specimen showed marked improvement of the fatty degenerative change. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the development of NASH in a myeloproliferative disorder. We believe that the infiltration of leukemic cells contributed to the development of NASH in this patient. [source]

Paramethoxyamphetamine (PMA) poisoning; a ,party drug' with lethal effects

S. Refstad
Among young people in Norway the recreational use of amphetamine derivatives seems to be increasing. Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), known as ecstasy, is the dominant substance, having both stimulant and psychedelic properties. Depending on the illegal source of these so-called ,party drugs' the content and purity can vary. This case report describes the first lethal case of paramethoxyamphetamine (PMA) and paramethoxymethamphetamine (PMMA) intoxication reported in Norway. A 16-year-old male was admitted to a local hospital in a coma with seizures and hyperthermia after he had been found undressed and barefooted in a local forest (temperature 2°C). He was intubated and given supportive care. Blood chemistry revealed hypoglycaemia, hypocalcaemia and hyperkalaemia. Shortly after transfer to the central hospital he developed bradycardia with continuous seizures and asystole. Adverse effects of MDMA are well described and include serotonergic and sympathomimetic symptoms with hyperthermia, coagulopathy, rhabdomyolysis and acute kidney and liver failure. Case reports of PMA deaths collectively suggest PMA to be more toxic than MDMA. A delayed effect after intake of PMA compared with MDMA can lead to increased intake. Hypoglycaemia and hyperkalaemia may be specific to PMA poisoning. Increased thermo genesis will result in a search for cooling, which explains the attempt to undress and a desire to submerge in water. In a cool climate this behaviour itself can be lethal. Measures to treat seizures, hypoglycaemia, electrolyte anomalies and hyperthermia are the therapeutic goals. No specific treatment is available. [source]

Correlation of Biochemical and Hematological Changes with Graft Failure Following Pig Heart and Kidney Transplantation in Baboons

Christoph Knosalla
We have explored biochemical and hematologic parameters that might indicate acute humoral xenograft rejection (AHXR) following pig organ transplantation in baboons. Baboons (n = 15) received an immunosuppressive regimen, and underwent a miniature swine or hDAF kidney (Group 1, n = 6) or heart (Group 2, n = 7) transplantation. Control baboons (Group 3, n = 2) received the immunosuppressive regimen without organ transplantation. Blood chemistry and hematologic parameters were measured daily. Baboon and porcine cytomegalovirus were monitored. In Groups 1 and 2, organ grafts survived for up to 29 days. A plasma fibrinogen of <80 mg/dL on 2 consecutive days, and a serum lactate dehydrogenase of >600 U/L and aspartate transaminase of >300 U/L, were associated with the development of AHXR in both heart and kidney grafts. In Group 1, a decrease in platelet count of >150 000/,L within 3 days, or a count of <50 000/,L, were associated with AHXR. In Group 2, a creatine phosphokinase of >500 U/L was associated with graft failure. In Group 3, no abnormalities were observed. The possibility that porcine CMV may play a role in graft injury could not be excluded. Noninvasive parameters were identified that have predictive potential for AHXR. Monitoring of these might enable therapeutic intervention to reverse rejection. [source]

The effect of diet on total antioxidant status, ceruloplasmin, transferrin and ferritin serum levels in phenylketonuric children

Kleopatra H Schulpis
Abstract Objectives:, To investigate the effect of diet on total antioxidative status (TAS), transferrin, ferritin and ceruloplasmin serum levels in phenylketonuric (PKU) children. Patients and methods:, Seventeen poorly controlled PKU children underwent clinical and laboratory examinations before, ,off diet', and 60 days after adhering to their special diet ,on diet', whereas controls (N = 24) were examined once. Blood chemistry was performed with the appropriate methodologies. Results:, Phenylalanine levels differed significantly among the examined groups. Lipids and lipoproteins were higher in ,off diet' than in ,on diet' group, except of high density lipoprotein and apolipoprotein AI that remained unaffected. Total antioxidative status (386 ± 30 vs 204 ± 23 ,mol/L, p < 0.001), ferritin (48.2 ± 2.3 vs 33.0 ± 2.8 ,g/L, p < 0.001) and ceruloplasmin (40.02 ± 2.5 vs 25.5 ± 2.8 mg/dL, p < 0.001) levels were significantly higher in ,on diet' patients' group compared to ,off diet' one. The low lipoprotein and the high TAS and ferritin levels in patients with PKU ,on diet' may be related to the vegetarian diet and the rich in iron formula supplementation. Conclusions:, The low ferritin levels found in ,off diet' patients with PKU may be attributed to a decreased liver production of ceruloplasmin, which evaluation may be a useful tool for the follow-up of patients with PKU. [source]

Toxicity of oral exposure to 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis),

Craig A. McFarland
Abstract Contamination of the soil with the explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) has been found at military sites, many of which are habitats used by reptiles. To provide data useful in assessing ecological risk for reptilian species, acute, subacute, and subchronic oral toxicity studies were conducted with the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis). Oral median lethal dose (LD50) values for TNT in corn oil were 1,038 and 1,579 mg/kg of body weight for male and female lizards, respectively. Overt signs of toxicity included chromaturia, abdominal enlargement, and tremors. A 14-d subacute study followed in which male lizards were orally dosed with TNT (corn oil) at 0, 33, 66, 132, 263, 525, and 1,050 mg/kg of body weight each day. Clinical signs of toxicity, while similar to the LD50 study, were more subtle and noted in lizards receiving TNT amounts of at least 66 mg/kg/d. Chromaturia was an early consistent sign, often preceding the onset of adverse effects. Male lizards in the 60-d subchronic study were dosed at 0, 3, 15, 25, 35, and 45 mg/kg/d with nearly complete survival (>90%) for lizards in all treatments. Changes in food consumption and body weight were observed at 35 and 45 mg/kg/d. Alterations in hematological end points; blood chemistries (albumin, total protein, alkaline phosphatase, calcium); kidney, spleen, and liver weights; and adverse histopathology were observed in lizards exposed at 25 to 45 mg/kg/d. Testosterone concentration, sperm count, and motility were variable between treatments. Although not significant, incidences of hypospermia and testicular atrophy were observed in some individuals. Together, these data suggest a lowest-observed-adverse effect level of 25 mg/kg/d and a no-observed-adverse effect level of 15 mg/kg/d in S. occidentalis. [source]

Dose-related effects following oral exposure of 2,4-dinitrotoluene on the western fence lizard, Sceloporus occidentalis

Jamie G. Suski
Abstract 2,4-dintitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) is an explosive frequently found in the soil of military installations. Because reptiles can be common on these sites, ecological risk assessments for compounds such as 2,4-DNT could be improved with toxicity data specific to reptiles. Western fence lizards, Sceloporus occidentalis, were used to develop a laboratory toxicity model for reptiles. A hierarchical approach was used; acute to subchronic studies were conducted to provide toxicity data relevant to short- and long-term exposures. First, a modified median lethal dose (LD50) study was conducted on male and female lizards using a stage-wise probit model. The LD50 was 577 mg/kg for female and 380 mg/kg for male lizards. Subsequently, a subacute experiment was conducted to further assess 2,4-DNT toxicity to male lizards and to define exposure levels for a longer term, subchronic study. The subchronic study was conducted for 60 consecutive days; male lizards were exposed to 0, 9, 15, 25, 42, 70 mg/kg/d. Dose-dependent mortality was observed in the three highest dose groups (25, 42, and 70 mg/kg/d); all other animals survived the study duration. Benchmark dose model calculations based on mortality indicated a 5% effect level of 15.8 mg/kg/d. At study termination, a gross necropsy was performed, organ weights were taken, and blood was collected for clinical and hematological analysis. Body weight, kidney weight, food consumption, postdose observations, and blood chemistries all were found to be significantly different from controls at doses above 9 mg/kg/d. Also, preliminary results suggest behavioral observations, and reduced food consumption may be a sensitive indicator of toxicity. The present study indicates Sceloporus occidentalis is suitable for evaluating toxicity of compounds to reptilian species. [source]

General Anesthesia and the Ketogenic Diet: Clinical Experience in Nine Patients

EPILEPSIA, Issue 5 2002
Ignacio Valencia
Summary: ,Purpose: To determine if children actively on the ketogenic diet (KD) can safely undergo general anesthesia (GA) for surgical procedures. Methods: The records of children treated with the KD at Children's Hospital (Boston, Massachusetts) from 1995 to the present were reviewed. The charts of children who had received GA while on the diet were evaluated with regard to demographics, procedure information, anesthesia records, blood chemistries, and perioperative course. Of 71 children on the KD during the period of the study, nine (12.7%) had procedures requiring GA while on the diet. Results: Nine children received GA for surgical procedures ranging from central line placement to hemispherectomy while on the KD. At the time of GA, the children ranged from age 1 to 6 years, and had been on the KD for 2,60 months. The patients received carbohydrate-free intravenous solutions perioperatively. Anesthesia duration ranged from 20 min to 11.5 h; for longer procedures, serum pH, glucose, and electrolyte levels were monitored. Serum glucose levels remained stable in all patients, but serum pH typically decreased; the largest reduction was to 7.16. In three procedures, patients received intravenous bicarbonate because of level of acidosis. There were no perioperative complications. Conclusions: Children on the KD can safely undergo GA for surgical procedures. Although serum glucose levels appear to remain stable, serum pH or bicarbonate levels should be monitored because of the risk of metabolic acidosis. [source]

Efficacy and safety of DALI LDL-apheresis at high blood flow rates: A prospective multicenter study

T. Wendler
Abstract Direct adsorption of lipids (DALI) is the first LDL-apheresis method compatible with whole blood. Usually, the blood flow rate is adjusted at 60,80 ml/min, which results in session times of about 2 hr. The present study was performed to test the safety and efficacy of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] removal by DALI at high blood flow rates in order to reduce treatment time. Thirteen chronic DALI patients in seven centers suffering from hypercholesterolemia (LDL-C 162 ± 42 mg/dl at baseline) and coronary artery disease were treated on a weekly or biweekly basis by DALI apheresis. The blood flow rate QB was held constant for at least two sessions, respectively, and was increased from 60 to 80, 120, 160, 200, and 240 ml/min. All patients had pre-existing av-fistulas. The anticoagulation was performed by a heparin bolus plus ACD-A at a ratio of citrate: blood ranging from 1:20 to 1:90. Clinically, the sessions were well tolerated and only 26/201 sessions (12%) of the treatments were fraught with minor adverse events. Acute LDL-C reductions (derived from LDL-C levels determined by lipoprotein electrophoresis) averaged 72/66/60/53/50/48% for QB = 60/80/120/160/200/240 ml/min. Lp(a) reductions were 68/67/62/60/58/56%, whereas HDL-C losses were ,10%. Routine blood chemistries and blood cell counts remained in the normal range. Treatment times averaged 142/83/45 min at Qb = 60/120/240 ml/min. On average, DALI LDL-apheresis could be performed safely and effectively at high blood flow rates up to at least 120 ml/min in patients with good blood access, which significantly reduced treatment time from 142 to 83 min (,42%). J. Clin. Apheresis 18:157,166, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

High-density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and prevalence and severity of coronary artery disease in 5641 consecutive patients undergoing coronary angiography

H. F. Alber
ABSTRACT Background, Although high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are well-established predictors for future cardiovascular events, little information is available regarding their correlation with the prevalence and severity of angiographically evaluated coronary artery disease (CAD). Material and methods,, Five thousand six hundred forty-one consecutive patients undergoing coronary angiography for the evaluation of CAD were analysed. Cardiovascular risk factors were assessed by routine blood chemistry and questionnaire. CAD severity was graded by visual estimation of lumen diameter stenosis with significant stenoses defined as lumen diameter reduction of , 70%. Coronary angiograms were graded as one-, two- or three-vessel disease, as nonsignificant CAD (lumen irregularities < 70%) or non-CAD. Results,, HDL-C (60·3 ± 18·5 vs. 51·9 ± 15·3 mg dL,1; P < 0·001) was higher and CRP was lower (0·65 ± 1·68 vs. 1·02 ± 2·38 mg dL,1; P < 0·001) in non-CAD (n = 1517) compared to overall CAD patients (n = 4124). CAD patients were older (65·2 ± 10·5 years vs. 59·9 ± 11·4 years), more often diabetics (19·2% vs. 10·6%) and hypertensives (79·2% vs. 66·0%) and included more smokers (18·8% vs. 16·5%) (all P < 0·005). Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (124·5 ± 38·3 vs. 126·0 ± 36·3 mg dL,1; P = NS) was similar in overall CAD and non-CAD patients with more statin users (43·4% vs. 27·9%; P < 0·001) among CAD patients. Comparing non-CAD with different CAD severities using analysis of variance, results did not change substantially. In a multivariate analysis, HDL-C and CRP remained independently associated with the prevalence of CAD. In addition, HDL-C is also a potent predictor for the severity of CAD. Conclusions,, In this large consecutive patient cohort, HDL-C and CRP are independently associated with the prevalence of CAD. In this analysis, HDL-C is an even stronger predictor for CAD than some other major classical risk factors. [source]

Evaluating the physiological and physical consequences of capture on post-release survivorship in large pelagic fishes

Abstract, Sharks, tunas and billfishes are fished extensively throughout the world. Domestic and international management measures (quotas, minimum sizes, bag limits) mandate release of a large, yet poorly quantified, number of these fishes annually. Post-release survivorship is difficult to evaluate, because standard methods are not applicable to large oceanic fishes. This paper presents information on the current approaches to characterising capture stress and survivorship in sharks, tunas and marlins. To assess mortality associated with capture stress, researchers must examine the cumulative impacts of physical trauma and physiological stress. Physical trauma, manifested as external and internal tissue and organ damage, is caused by fishing gear and handling. Gross examination and histopathological sampling have been used to assess physical trauma and to infer post-release survivorship. Exhaustive anaerobic muscular activity and time out of water cause physiological stress, which has been quantified in these fishes through the analyses of blood chemistry. Conventional, acoustic and archival tagging have been used to assess post-release survivorship in these species. Future studies relating capture stress and post-release survivorship could yield information that helps fishermen increase survivorship when practicing catch and release. [source]

Tolerability and Safety of Frovatriptan With Short- and Long-term Use for Treatment of Migraine and in Comparison With Sumatriptan

HEADACHE, Issue 2002
Gilles Géraud MD
Objective.,To evaluate the tolerability and safety of frovatriptan 2.5 mg in patients with migraine. Background.,Frovatriptan is a new, selective serotonin agonist (triptan) developed for the acute treatment of migraine. Dose range-finding studies identified 2.5 mg as the dose that conferred the optimal combination of efficacy and tolerability. Methods.,The tolerability and safety of frovatriptan 2.5 mg were assessed during controlled, acute migraine treatment studies, including a study that compared frovatriptan 2.5 mg with sumatriptan 100 mg, as well as a 12-month open-label study during which patients could take up to three doses of frovatriptan 2.5 mg within a 24-hour period. Safety and tolerability were assessed through the collection of adverse events, monitoring of heart rate and blood pressure performance of 12-lead electrocardiogram, hematology screen, and blood chemistry studies. Results.,In the short-term studies, 1554 patients took frovatriptan 2.5 mg and 838 took placebo. In the 12-month study, 496 patients treated 13 878 migraine attacks. Frovatriptan was well tolerated in the short- and long-term studies with 1% of patients in the short-term studies and 5% of patients in the long-term study withdrawing due to lack of tolerability. The incidence of adverse events was higher in the frovatriptan-treated patients than in the patients who took placebo (47% versus 34%) and the spectrum of adverse events was similar. When compared to sumatriptan 100 mg, significantly fewer patients taking frovatriptan experienced adverse events (43% versus 36%; P=.03) and the number of adverse events was lower (0.62 versus 0.91), there were also fewer adverse events suggestive of cardiovascular symptoms in the frovatriptan group. Analysis of the entire clinical database (n=2392) demonstrated that frovatriptan was well tolerated by the patients regardless of their age, gender, race, concomitant medication, or the presence of cardiovascular risk factors. No effects of frovatriptan on heart rate, blood pressure, 12-lead electrocardiogram, hematology screen, or blood chemistry were observed. No patient suffered any treatment-related serious adverse event. Conclusions.,Short- and long-term use of frovatriptan 2.5 mg was well tolerated by a wide variety of patients. Frovatriptan treatment produced an adverse events profile similar to that of placebo, and in a direct comparison study was better tolerated than sumatriptan 100 mg. [source]

Active immunization against leptin fails to affect reproduction and exerts only marginal effects on glucose metabolism in young female goats

H. Sauerwein
Summary Approximately 150 days before expected breeding time, 12 female goats (3 months of age) were actively immunized against ovine leptin. Booster injections were given throughout the following year. Control animals (n = 6) were sham-immunized. After the first observed oestrus, a buck was introduced and goats were mated. Blood samples were collected twice weekly and frequent blood sampling series were performed on days ,15, 76, 153 and 286 relative to the first immunization. Nine of the immunized goats developed titres within 3 months and had elevated serum concentrations of leptin compared with controls (p < 0.0001). Hematological parameters and blood chemistry were not affected by the immunization. No differences were detectable in all reproductive parameters recorded. Serum insulin was higher in immunized goats during the frequent blood sampling series of day 287 after the first immunization. Glucose metabolism was investigated during pregnancy using hyperglycaemic and euglycaemic/hyperinsulinaemic clamps. None of the parameters derived from the clamp studies was different (p > 0.05) between the two groups. During the hyperglycaemic clamp there was a trend (p < 0.15) towards increased insulin concentrations in immunized animals whereas glucose infusion rates were not different between the groups. This indicates decreased insulin sensitivity in immunized goats. Our study describes the ontogenesis of serum concentrations of leptin during growth, puberty and first pregnancy and parturition for the caprine species. The effects of the immunization were not detectable or only marginal and the approach aimed at therefore not effective to investigate leptin action in detail. [source]

Changes in serum cortisol, metabolites, osmotic pressure and electrolytes in response to different blood sampling procedures in cultured sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.)

This study investigated the effect of five sampling procedures on serum cortisol, glucose, total protein, osmolality, Na+, Cl,, K+ and Ca++ concentrations in 2-year-old cultured sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L). Mild disturbance caused by rapid removal of fish and brief handling did not induce significant variation in any of the blood parameters investigated. Confinement and crowding elicited a high and significant increase in serum cortisol, glucose, osmolality, Na+, Cl,, and Ca++ concentrations. Exposure to MS 222 (140 mg L,1) significantly increased osmolality, but not ionic concentration. Site of blood withdrawal (cardiac sinuses/caudal vein) had no effect on the concentration of analysed blood constituents, except for K+ levels. Scattered literature of sea bass blood chemistry is reviewed and compared with ,normal' ranges of blood constituents measured in this study. We conclude that it is necessary to select and rigorously execute an opportune blood sampling procedure whenever blood constituents are used as indicators of fish functional state. [source]

A study of gross, histological and blood biochemical changes in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), with rainbow trout gastroenteritis (RTGE)

J Del-Pozo
Abstract The mechanisms behind the pathogenesis of rainbow trout gastroenteritis (RTGE) are still unknown. This study examined the macroscopic and microscopic changes in trout with RTGE (RTGE+), as well as the blood chemistry. A total of 464 rainbow trout were sampled from 11 sites in the UK, comprising 152 RTGE+ fish and 330 random, apparently healthy fish. A case definition for RTGE was assessed by the analysis of its agreement with three laboratory tests: histopathology, packed cell volume and kidney bacteriology. Cluster analysis indicated the presence of three distinct presentations within the population of RTGE+ fish. Cluster A included gross signs associated with moribund RTGE+ fish, and clusters B and C identified gross signs consistent with concurrent diseases, notably furunculosis, enteric redmouth and proliferative kidney disease. The information gained was used to select RTGE+ fish without concurrent disease for the analysis of RTGE pathogenesis with blood biochemistry. This analysis revealed a severe osmotic imbalance and a reduced albumin/globulin ratio as indicatives of selective loss of albumin. These findings are compatible with a protein losing enteropathy. [source]

Haematology and blood chemistry of Cebus apella in relation to sex and age

M. Cristina Riviello
An effective health care program entails the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of medical problems. A knowledge of baseline values in clinically normal individuals is essential for determining the limits between good health and disease and for understanding the changes produced by pathogenic agents. However, very little information is currently available concerning the blood chemistry and haematological values of different species of monkeys, particularly new-world primates. The values of some haematological and chemical parameters in Cebus apella were determined. The aim of the present work was to verify the effect of age and sex on normal blood values. Blood samples were collected once a year for two successive years from 36 monkeys living in large captive social groups. Significant differences between males and females were found for AST, GGT, urea nitrogen and creatinine, erythrocytes, haemoglobin and haematocrit. Significant differences between juveniles and adults were found for calcium, AST, alkaline phosphatase, inorganic phosphorus, glucose, neutrophils, lymphocytes and serum protein parameters. [source]

Changes in Plasma Cortisol, Glucose, and Selected Blood Properties in the Summer Flounder Paralichthys dentatus Associated with Sequential Movement to Three Experimental Conditions

James A. Sulikowski
To determine the changes in blood chemistry associated with sequential transfer of summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus (320,480 g), 300 hatchery-reared fish were moved to three different environmental conditions during a 20-d period. Fish were transferred in progression from a recirculating seawater system (22 ppt, 22.5 C) to a flow-thru seawater system (31 ppt, 20.0 C), to three small coastal net pens (33 ppt, 15.5 C), and finally to a large open ocean net pen (33 ppt, 16.0 C). For this study, eight random fish were captured at each progressive step (environmental condition), anesthetized (MS222), and bled from the caudal vein (2 mL). Transferred flounder were bled every 12 h for 48 h to collect plasma cortisol and glucose samples. Fish were bled 24 h after transport and every 3 d thereafter for osmolarity, hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular hemoglobin content, glucose, cortisol, and the electrolytes Cl - Na+, K+ and Ca+. The most significant perturbations to blood chemistry (P < 0.05) occurred within 24 h of initial transfer from the recirculating to flow-thru seawater systems, suggesting an osmoregulatory rather than handling or transfer related stress. Osmolarity, electrolyte, and hematological parameters fluctuated and then recovered to stable levels by day 8 in the flow-thru seawater system. However, unlike the initial transfer, successive movement to the coastal and then the open ocean net pens produced transient increases in both plasma cortisol and glucose levels, suggesting a high level of stress associated with extended flounder handling and transfer. [source]

The decline of Steller sea lions Eumetopias jubatus in Alaska: a review of the nutritional stress hypothesis

MAMMAL REVIEW, Issue 1 2003
ABSTRACT 1.,The decline of Steller sea lions Eumetopias jubatus in the Gulf of Alaska and Aleutian Islands between the late 1970s and 1990s may have been related to reduced availability of suitable prey. Many studies have shown that pinnipeds and other mammals suffering from nutritional stress typically exhibit reduced body size, reduced productivity, high mortality of pups and juveniles, altered blood chemistry and specific behavioural modifications. 2.,Morphometric measurements of Steller sea lions through the 1970s and 1980s in Alaska indicate reduced body size. Reduced numbers of pups born and an apparent increase in juvenile mortality rates also appear to be nutritionally based. Blood chemistry analyses have further shown that Steller sea lions in the Gulf of Alaska and Aleutian Islands area exhibited signs of an acute phase reaction, or immune reaction, in response to unidentified physical and/or environmental stress. Behavioural studies during the 1990s have not noted any changes that are indicative of an overall shortage in the quantity of prey available to lactating female sea lions. 3.,The data collected in Alaska are consistent with the hypothesis that Steller sea lions in the declining regions were nutritionally compromised because of the relative quality of prey available to them (chronic nutritional stress), rather than because of the overall quantity of fish per se (acute nutritional stress). This is further supported by captive studies that indicate the overall quality of prey that has been available to Steller sea lions in the declining population could compromise the health of Steller sea lions and hinder their recovery. [source]

Age-Related Pregnancy Results and Further Examination of Bitches after Aglepristone Treatment of Pyometra

P Jurka
Contents The cystic endometrial hyperplasia and pyometra complex is one of the most common uterine diseases in bitches. The appearance of pharmacological preparations containing anti-progestagens created new possibilities for pyometra treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the curative effect of the anti-progestagen aglepristone treatment of pyometra in bitches of different ages. Twenty four bitches of different breeds, aged from 0.8 to 9.5 years (21,48 kg) exhibiting clinical pyometra symptoms (two groups , I , 5 years, n = 14 and II >5 years, n = 10) were evaluated. Information about the general reproductive health was collected up to 54 months after anti-progestagen treatment. Remission of clinical symptoms and return of blood chemistry results and total leucocyte count to referential values were achieved in all cases within 14 days of treatment. Bitches were naturally mated at the first, and when unsuccessful, the second oestrus after treatment. In group I, no recurrence of pyometra symptoms was observed during following cycle(s). Eight bitches (57.1%) had a full-term pregnancy and the number of newborn pups ranged from 1 to 12. None of the bitches from the group II became pregnant. In conclusion, the basic indication for conservative pharmacological treatment of pyometra is preserving female fertility and obtaining offspring. The important conditions for successful aglepristone treatment are: the young age (up to 5 years) and the lack of detectible ovarian cysts. It seems necessary to mate bitches in the first or second oestrus after finishing treatment. The efficacy of treatment can be measured by the after-treatment pregnancy rate. [source]

Influences of dietary fatty acid profile on growth, body composition and blood chemistry in juvenile fat cod (Hexagrammos otakii Jordan et Starks)

Abstract This study was conducted to investigate the influence of dietary lipid source and n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFA) level on growth, body composition and blood chemistry of juvenile fat cod. Triplicate groups of fish (13.2 ± 0.54 g) were fed the diets containing different n-3 HUFA levels (0,30 g kg,1) adjusted by either lauric acid or different proportions of corn oil, linseed oil and squid liver oil at 100 g kg,1 of total lipid level. Survival was not affected by dietary fatty acids composition. Weight gain, feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio (PER) of fish fed the diets containing squid liver oil were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those fed the diets containing lauric acid, corn oil or linseed oil as the sole lipid source. Weight gain, feed efficiency and PER of fish increased with increasing dietary n-3 HUFA level up to 12,16 g kg,1, but the values decreased in fish fed the diet containing 30 g kg,1 n-3 HUFA. The result of second-order polynomial regression showed that the maximum weight gain and feed efficiency could be attained at 17 g kg,1 n-3 HUFA. Plasma protein, glucose and cholesterol contents were not affected by dietary fatty acids composition. However, plasma triglyceride content in fish fed the diet containing lauric acid as the sole lipid source was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than that of fish fed the other diets. Lipid content of fish fed the diets containing each of lauric acid or corn oil was lower than that of fish fed the diets containing linseed oil or squid liver oil only. Fatty acid composition of polar and neutral lipid fractions in the whole body of fat cod fed the diets containing various levels of n-3 HUFA were reflected by dietary fatty acids compositions. The contents of n-3 HUFA in polar and neutral lipids of fish increased with an increase in dietary n-3 HUFA level. These results indicate that dietary n-3 HUFA are essential and the diet containing 12,17 g kg,1 n-3 HUFA is optimal for growth and efficient feed utilization of juvenile fat cod, however, excessive n-3 HUFA supplement may impair the growth of fish. [source]

Effect of dietary lipid level on the growth performance, feed utilization, body composition and blood chemistry of juvenile starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus)

Liyun Ding
Abstract A study was conducted to determine the effect of dietary lipid level on the growth performance, feed utilization, body composition and blood chemistry of juvenile starry flounder. Five isonitrogenous diets with increasing dietary lipid levels (6%, 10%, 14%, 18% and 22% dry material) were each fed to triplicate groups of starry flounder (29.9 g) for 8 weeks. Weight gain (WG) and specific growth rate of fish fed the 6% lipid diet were significantly lower than the other groups, while there was no significant difference in fish fed the 10%, 14%, 18% and 22% lipid diets. Body lipid content increased with increasing dietary lipid levels. The moisture content of the whole body was negatively correlated to the dietary lipid level. The dietary lipid level also affected the lipid content of the dorsal muscle positively. Liver lipid content increased as the dietary lipid level increased from 6% to 14% and then decreased. With increasing dietary lipid level, the nitrogen retention achieved the highest value when the fish were fed the 14% lipid diet, but there were no significant differences with the 10% and 22% groups. The plasma total protein content first showed an increasing and then a decreasing trend with increasing dietary lipid level, and it was significantly higher in the 14% lipid group than other groups. Based on the WG response using the broken-line model, the optimum dietary lipid level for juvenile starry flounder was estimated to be 10.62% in the experiment. [source]

Effect of high dietary starch levels on the growth performance, blood chemistry and body composition of gibel carp (Carassius auratus var. gibelio)

Qingsong Tan
Abstract An 8-week growth trial was carried out in a semi-recirculation system to investigate the effect of high dietary starch levels on the growth performance, blood chemistry, starch utilization and body composition of gibel carp (Carassius auratus var. gibelio). Five isonitrogenous and isocarloric experimental diets were formulated to contain different starch levels (24%, 28%, 32%, 36% and 40% respectively). Triplicate groups of fish (24 fish per tank with an average body weight, of 8.5 g) were assigned to each diet. The results showed that dietary carbohydrate levels significantly affected the growth performance, hepatopancreatic lipid content, pyruvate kinase (PK) activity and whole-body lipid content. Growth performance, body crude lipid and plasma glucose concentrations showed a decreasing trend with an increase in dietary starch from 24% to 40%. Pyruvate kinase activities and hepatopancreatic lipid content showed an increasing trend with the dietary starch increasing from 24% to 32%, and then a decreasing trend with the dietary starch increasing from 32% to 40%. No significant difference in the hepatopancreatic hexokinase (HK) activity, plasma triglyceride contents, body crude protein, ash and calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) contents was observed between different treatments. In conclusion, higher dietary starch levels (32,40%) significantly (P<0.05) decreased the growth of gibel carp in the present study. [source]

Extremely low frequency-modulated static magnetic fields to treat cancer: A pilot study on patients with advanced neoplasm to assess safety and acute toxicity

Flavio Ronchetto
Abstract Results of a toxicity pilot human study approved by the competent ethical Committee are reported. Eleven patients with heavily pre-treated advanced cancer were enrolled in a pilot study with different schedules of time exposure to static magnetic fields (MF), amplitude modulated by ELF. An area including the neck, thoracic and abdomen was MF exposed daily, 5 days/week for 4 weeks according to two different schedules: 20 min daily (4 patients) and 70 min daily (7 patients). ECOG performance status was 1 (2 patients), 2 (8 patients), 3 (1 patient). Toxicity was assessed according to WHO criteria. ECG, Chest X-ray, physical examination, blood cell count and complete blood chemistry were performed before and at the end of the treatment. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevation (grade 2 toxicity) in 1 patient and microscopic urinary abnormalities in 5 patients were the only negative effects observed. We conclude that MF can be safely administrated according to the MF exposure schedules. Bioelectromagnetics 25:563,571, 2004. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

TASER X26 Discharges in Swine Produce Potentially Fatal Ventricular Arrhythmias

Robert J. Walter PhD
Abstract Objectives:, Data from the authors and others suggest that TASER X26 stun devices can acutely alter cardiac function in swine. The authors hypothesized that TASER discharges degrade cardiac performance through a mechanism not involving concurrent acidosis. Methods:, Using an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC)-approved protocol, Yorkshire pigs (25,71 kg) were anesthetized, paralyzed with succinylcholine (SCh; 2 mg/kg), and then exposed to two 40-second discharges from a TASER X26 with a transcardiac vector. Vital signs, blood chemistry, and electrolyte levels were obtained before exposure and periodically for 48 hours postdischarge. Electrocardiograms and echocardiography (echo) were performed before, during, and after the discharges. p-Values < 0.05 were considered significant. Results:, Electrocardiograms were unreadable during the discharges due to electrical interference, but echo images showed unmistakably that cardiac rhythm was captured immediately at a rate of 301 ± 18 beats/min (n = 8) in all animals tested. Capture continued for the duration of the discharge and in one animal degenerated into fatal ventricular fibrillation (VF). In the remaining animals, ventricular tachycardia (VT) occurred postdischarge for 1,17 seconds, whereupon sinus rhythm was regained spontaneously. Blood chemistry values and vital signs were minimally altered postdischarge and no significant acidosis was seen. Conclusions:, Extreme acid,base disturbances usually seen after lengthy TASER discharges were absent with SCh, but TASER X26 discharges immediately and invariably produced myocardial capture. This usually reverted spontaneously to sinus rhythm postdischarge, but fatal VF was seen in one animal. Thus, in the absence of systemic acidosis, lengthy transcardiac TASER X26 discharges (2 × 40 seconds) captured myocardial rhythm, potentially resulting in VT or VF in swine. [source]

Interstitial Foxp3-positive T cells may predict renal survival in patients with myeroperoxidase anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated glomerulonephritis

Junko Yoshimura
Summary 1. Regulatory T cells (Treg) and cytotoxic T cells (CTL) are involved in various immune diseases. However, the prognostic impact of Treg and CTL in patients with myeroperoxidase anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated glomerulonephritis (MPO-ANCA-GN) is not well known. Therefore, in the present study, we examined the relationship between expression of forkhead box P3 (Foxp3) and T cell intracytoplasmic antigen (TIA)-1, Treg and CTL markers and renal survival in patients with MPO-ANCA-GN. 2. Forty patients with MPO-ANCA-GN and 10 patients with minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) underwent physical examination, determination of blood chemistry and renal biopsy. Immunohistochemical staining for Foxp3 and TIA-1 was performed on paraffin-embedded renal sections. 3. Although almost all patients received standard immunosuppressive treatment for 6 months, seven MPO-ANCA-GN patients needed maintenance haemodialysis (HD), whereas 33 patients did not (non-HD). Both Foxp3- and TIA-1-positive cells were detected in the interstitium and glomeruli of MPO-ANCA-GN patients, whereas they were rarely detected in patients with MCNS. The total crescent rate was significantly higher in the HD group than in the non-HD group (35.9 ± 3.5 vs 65.8 ± 7.4, respectively). In the interstitium, the age-adjusted Foxp3/TIA-1 ratio was significantly higher in the non-HD group than in the HD group (0.016 ± 0.016 vs 0.004 ± 0.008, respectively; P < 0.05). The Foxp3/TIA-1 ratio, but not the Foxp3/CD3 ratio, remained significantly higher in the non-HD group than in the HD group even after adjustment for crescent rate. Age- and total crescent rate-adjusted renal survival rates were higher in patients with a Foxp3/TIA-1 ratio , 0.06 than in patients with a Foxp3/TIA-1 ratio < 0.06 (P = 0.02). 4. The results of the present study suggest that Treg could play a protective role against MPO-ANCA-GN and that a decreased Foxp3/TIA-1 ratio in interstitial areas may predict future renal failure in patients with MPO-ANCA-GN. [source]