Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Blockage

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  • Selected Abstracts

    Interference of quorum sensing in Pseudomonas syringae by bacterial epiphytes that limit iron availability

    Glenn F. J. Dulla
    Summary Leaf surfaces harbour bacterial epiphytes that are capable of influencing the quorum sensing (QS) system, density determination through detection of diffusible signal molecules, of the plant-pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae (Pss) which controls expression of extracellular polysaccharide production, motility and other factors contributing to virulence to plants. Approximately 11% of the bacterial epiphytes recovered from a variety of plants produced a diffusible factor capable of inhibiting the QS system of Pss as indicated by suppression of ahlI. Blockage of QS by these interfering strains correlated strongly with their ability to limit iron availability to Pss. A direct relationship between the ability of isogenic Escherichia coli strains to sequester iron via their production of different siderophores and their ability to suppress QS in Pss was also observed. Quorum sensing induction was inversely related to iron availability in culture media supplemented with iron chelators or with FeCl3. Co-inoculation of interfering strains with Pss onto leaves increased the number of resultant disease lesions over twofold compared with that on plants inoculated with Pss alone. Transposon-generated mutants of interfering strains in which QS inhibition was blocked did not increase disease when co-inoculated with Pss. Increased disease incidence was also not observed when a non-motile mutant of Pss was co-inoculated onto plants with QS interfering bacteria suggesting that these strains enhanced the motility of Pss in an iron-dependent manner, leading to an apparent increase in virulence of this pathogen. Considerable cross-talk mediated by iron scavenging apparently occurs on plants, thereby altering the behaviour of bacteria such as Pss that exhibit important QS-dependent traits in this habitat. [source]

    Role of Ca2+ -Activated Cl, Current in Ventricular Action Potentials of Sheep During Adrenoceptor Stimulation

    Arie O. Verkerk
    Adrenoceptor stimulation enhances repolarising and depolarising membrane currents to different extents in cardiac myocytes. We investigated the opposing effects of the repolarising Ca2+ -activated Cl, current (ICl(Ca)) and depolarising L-type Ca2+ current (ICa,L) on the action potential configuration of sheep ventricular myocytes stimulated with noradrenaline. Whole-cell current-clamp recordings revealed that noradrenaline accelerated and prolonged phase-1 repolarisation. We define the minimal potential at the end of phase-1 repolarisation as ,notch level'. Noradrenaline (1 ,M) caused the notch level to fall from 14 ± 2.6 to 7.8 ± 2.8 mV (n= 24), but left action potential duration, resting membrane potential or action potential amplitude unaffected. Whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings showed that 1 ,M noradrenaline increased both ICa,L and ICl(Ca), but it had no significant effect on the principal K+ currents. Blockage of ICl(Ca) by 0.5 mM 4,4,-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2,-disulphonic acid (DIDS) in both the absence and the presence of noradrenaline abolished phase-1 repolarisation. In the presence of noradrenaline, DIDS caused elevation of the plateau phase amplitude and an increase in the action potential duration. In conclusion, elevation of the plateau phase amplitude and action potential prolongation associated with an increased ICa,L upon adrenoceptor stimulation is prevented by an increased ICl(Ca) in sheep ventricular myocytes. [source]

    Blockage of voltage-gated calcium signaling impairs migration of glial cells in vivo

    GLIA, Issue 3 2005
    Christian Lohr
    Abstract Migration of glial cells is an essential step in the development of the antennal lobe, the primary olfactory center of insects, to establish well-defined borders between olfactory glomeruli required for odor discrimination. In the present study, we used two-photon microscopy to visualize calcium signaling in developing antennal lobe glial cells of the sphinx moth Manduca sexta. We found a correlation between the upregulation of functional voltage-gated calcium channels and the onset of glial cell migration. In addition, glial cells migrating into the center of the antennal lobe express larger voltage-gated calcium transients than glial cells that remain at the periphery. Migration behavior and calcium signaling of glial cells in vivo were manipulated either by deafferentation, by injection of the calcium channel blockers diltiazem, verapamil, and flunarizine, or by injection of the calcium chelators BAPTA-AM and Fluo-4-AM. In deafferented antennal lobes, glial cells failed to express functional voltage-gated calcium channels and did not migrate. Calcium channel blockage or reducing glial calcium signals by calcium chelators prevented glial cell migration and resulted in antennal lobes lacking glial borders around glomeruli, indicating that voltage-gated calcium signaling is required for the migration of antennal lobe glial cells and the development of mature olfactory glomeruli. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Enhanced T cell transmigration across the murine liver sinusoidal endothelium is mediated by transcytosis and surface presentation of chemokines,

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 4 2008
    Arnhild Schrage
    Transmigration through the liver endothelium is a prerequisite for the homeostatic balance of intrahepatic T cells and a key regulator of inflammatory processes within the liver. Extravasation into the liver parenchyma is regulated by the distinct expression patterns of adhesion molecules and chemokines and their receptors on the lymphocyte and endothelial cell surface. In the present study, we investigated whether liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC) inhibit or support the chemokine-driven transmigration and differentially influence the transmigration of pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory CD4+ T cells, indicating a mechanism of hepatic immunoregulation. Finally, the results shed light on the molecular mechanisms by which LSEC modulate chemokine-dependent transmigration. LSEC significantly enhanced the chemotactic effect of CXC-motif chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12) and CXCL9, but not of CXCL16 or CCL20, on naive and memory CD4+ T cells of a T helper 1, T helper 2, or interleukin-10,producing phenotype. In contrast, brain and lymphatic endothelioma cells and ex vivo isolated lung endothelia inhibited chemokine-driven transmigration. As for the molecular mechanisms, chemokine-induced activation of LSEC was excluded by blockage of Gi -protein,coupled signaling and the use of knockout mice. After preincubation of CXCL12 to the basal side, LSEC took up CXCL12 and enhanced transmigration as efficiently as in the presence of the soluble chemokine. Blockage of transcytosis in LSEC significantly inhibited this effect, and this suggested that chemokines taken up from the basolateral side and presented on the luminal side of endothelial cells trigger T cell transmigration. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate a unique capacity of LSEC to present chemokines to circulating lymphocytes and highlight the importance of endothelial cells for the in vivo effects of chemokines. Chemokine presentation by LSEC could provide a future therapeutic target for inhibiting lymphocyte immigration and suppressing hepatic inflammation. (HEPATOLOGY 2008.) [source]

    Blockage of the neurokinin 1 receptor and capsaicin-induced ablation of the enteric afferent nerves protect SCID mice against T-cell-induced chronic colitis

    Monika Gad PhD
    Abstract Background: The neurotransmitter substance P (SP) released by, and the transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV1), expressed by afferent nerves, have been implicated in mucosal neuro-immune-regulation. To test if enteric afferent nerves are of importance for the development of chronic colitis, we examined antagonists for the high-affinity neurokinin 1 (NK-1) SP receptor and the TRPV1 receptor agonist capsaicin in a T-cell transfer model for chronic colitis. Methods: Chronic colitis was induced in SCID mice by injection of CD4+CD25, T cells. The importance of NK-1 signaling and TRPV1 expressing afferent nerves for disease development was studied in recipient SCID mice systemically treated with either high-affinity NK-1 receptor antagonists or neurotoxic doses of capsaicin. In addition, we studied the colitis-inducing effect of NK-1 receptor deleted CD4+CD25, T cells. Results: Treatment with the NK-1 receptor antagonist CAM 4092 reduced the severity of colitis, but colitis was induced by NK-1 receptor-deleted T cells, suggesting that SP in colitis targets the recipient mouse cells and not the colitogenic donor T cells. Capsaicin-induced depletion of nociceptive afferent nerves prior to CD4+CD25, T-cell transfer completely inhibited the development of colitis. Conclusions: Our data demonstrate the importance of an intact enteric afferent nerve system and NK-1 signaling in mucosal inflammation and may suggest new treatment modalities for patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2009) [source]

    Blockage of NF-,B by IKK,- or RelA-siRNA rather than the NF-,B super-suppressor I,B, mutant potentiates adriamycin-induced cytotoxicity in lung cancer cells

    Wenshu Chen
    Abstract Ambiguous roles of genotoxic anticancer therapeutic-induced NF-,B activation in regulating gene expression (activation or suppression) and apoptosis (anti- or pro-apoptosis) have recently been suggested. In order to clarify this controversy and determine the usefulness of NF-,B blockage for sensitizing anticancer therapy, we have systematically investigated the effect of distinct NF-,B-blocking approaches on lung cancer cells' responses to Adriamycin-induced cytotoxicity. The results show that Adriamycin-induced NF-,B activation functions as a transcriptional activator triggering the expression of anti-apoptotic genes. Blocking NF-,B with IKK,- or RelA siRNA substantially sensitized Adriamycin-induced cytotoxicity, suggesting that the NF-,B pathway could be a target for sensitizing lung cancer cells to Adriamycin's anticancer effect. Surprisingly, although it effectively blocks NF-,B activation, the I,B, super-suppressor (I,B,AA) antagonized Adriamycin-induced cell death. Additionally, the induction of death receptor 5 (DR5), which contributes to Adriamycin-induced cytotoxicity, was not affected by NF-,B blockage. Thus, our results suggest that Adriamycin-induced NF-,B is a transcriptional activator that protects lung cancer cells against apoptosis, and IKK,- or RelA siRNA rather than I,B,AA is an appropriate NF-,B blocking approach for sensitizing lung cancer cells to Adriamycin-induced cytotoxicity. J. Cell. Biochem. 105: 554,561, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Calcium control of gene regulation in rat hippocampal neuronal cultures

    Giulietta Pinato
    Blockage of GABA-A receptors in hippocampal neuronal cultures triggers synchronous bursts of spikes initiating neuronal plasticity, partly mediated by changes of gene expression. By using specific pharmacological blockers, we have investigated which sources of Ca2+ entry primarily control changes of gene expression induced by 20,µM gabazine applied for 30,min (GabT). Intracellular Ca2+ transients were monitored with Ca2+ imaging while recording electrical activity with patch clamp microelectrodes. Concomitant transcription profiles were obtained using Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarrays and confirmed with quantitative RT-PCR. Blockage of NMDA receptors with 2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV) did not reduce significantly somatic Ca2+ transients, which, on the contrary, were reduced by selective blockage of L, N, and P/Q types voltage gated calcium channels (VGCCs). Therefore, we investigated changes of gene expression in the presence of blockers of NMDA receptors and L, N, and P/Q VGCCs. Our results show that: (i) among genes upregulated by GabT, there are genes selectively dependent on NMDA activation, genes selectively dependent on L-type VGCCs and genes dependent on the activation of both channels; (ii) the majority of genes requires the concomitant activation of NMDA receptors and Ca2+ entry through VGCCs; (iii) blockage of N and P/Q VGCCs has an effect similar but not identical to blockage of L-type VGCCs. J. Cell. Physiol. 220: 727,747, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Metyrapone-Induced Glucocorticoid Depletion Modulates Tyrosine Hydroxylase and Phenylethanolamine N -Methyltransferase Gene Expression in the Rat Adrenal Gland by a Noncholinergic Transsynaptic Activation

    C. Laborie
    Abstract The hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone system and the sympathetic nervous system are anatomically and functionally interconnected and hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis contribute to the regulation of catecholaminergic systems. To investigate the role of glucocorticoids on activity of the adrenal gland, we analysed plasma and adrenal catecholamines, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and phenylethanolamine N -methyltransferase (PNMT) mRNA expression in rats injected with metyrapone or dexamethasone. Metyrapone-treated rats had significantly lower epinephrine and higher norepinephrine production than control rats. Metyrapone increased TH protein synthesis and TH mRNA expression whereas its administration did not affect PNMT mRNA expression. Dexamethasone restored plasma and adrenal epinephrine concentrations and increased PNMT mRNA levels, which is consistent with an absolute requirement of glucocorticoids for PNMT expression. Adrenal denervation completely abolished the metyrapone-induced TH mRNA expression. Blockage of cholinergic neurotransmission by nicotinic or muscarinic receptor antagonists did not prevent the metyrapone-induced rise in TH mRNA. Finally, pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) adrenal content was not affected by metyrapone. These results provide evidence that metyrapone-induced corticosterone depletion elicits transsynaptic TH activation, implying noncholinergic neurotransmission. This may involve neuropeptides other than PACAP. [source]

    Melatonin increases stress fibers and focal adhesions in MDCK cells: participation of Rho-associated kinase and protein kinase C

    Gerardo Ramírez-Rodríguez
    Abstract:, Melatonin cyclically modifies water transport measured as dome formation in MDCK cells. An optimal increase in water transport, concomitant with elevated stress fiber (SF) formation, occurs at nocturnal plasma melatonin concentrations (1 nm) after 6 hr of incubation. Blockage in melatonin-elicited dome formation was observed with protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors. Despite, this information on the precise mechanism by which melatonin increases SF formation involved in water transport is not known. Focal adhesion contacts (FAC) are cytoskeletal structures, which participate in MDCK membrane polarization. SF organization and vinculin phosphorylation are involved in FAC assembly and both processes are mediated by PKC, an enzyme stimulated by melatonin; in these processes also involved is Rho-associated kinase (ROCK). Thus, we studied FAC formation and the ROCK/PKC pathway as the mechanism by which melatonin increases SF formation and water transport. The results showed that 1 nM melatonin and the PKC agonist phorbol-12-miristate-13-acetate increased FAC. The PKC inhibitor GF109203x, and the ROCK inhibitor Y27632, blocked increased FAC caused by melatonin. ROCK and PKC activities, vinculin phosphorylation and FAC formation were increased with melatonin. The PKC inhibitor, GF109203x, abolished both melatonin stimulated FAC in whole cells and ROCK activity, indicating that ROCK is a downstream kinase in the melatonin-stimulated PKC pathway in MDCK cultured cells that causes an increase in SF and FAC formation. Data also document that melatonin modulates water transport through modifications of the cytoskeletal structure. [source]

    Chrysophanol induces necrosis through the production of ROS and alteration of ATP levels in J5 human liver cancer cells

    Chi-Cheng Lu
    Abstract Anthraquinone compounds have been shown to induce apoptosis in different cancer cell types. Effects of chrysophanol, an anthraquinone compound, on cancer cell death have not been well studied. The goal of this study was to examine if chrysophanol had cytotoxic effects and if such effects involved apoptosis or necrosis in J5 human liver cancer cells. Chrysophanol induced necrosis in J5 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Non-apoptotic cell death was induced by chrysophanol in J5 cells and was characterized by caspase independence, delayed externalization of phosphatidylserine and plasma membrane disruption. Blockage of apoptotic induction by a general caspase inhibitor (z-VAD-fmk) failed to protect cells against chrysophanol-induced cell death. The levels of reactive oxygen species production and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (,,m) were also determined to assess the effects of chrysophanol. However, reductions in adenosine triphosphate levels and increases in lactate dehydrogenase activity indicated that chrysophanol stimulated necrotic cell death. In summary, human liver cancer cells treated with chrysophanol exhibited a cellular pattern associated with necrosis and not apoptosis. [source]

    Downregulation of CD36 results in reduced phagocytic ability of peritoneal macrophages of women with endometriosis,

    Pei-Chin Chuang
    Abstract Endometriosis, defined as the growth of endometrial tissues outside of the uterine cavity, is a severe and complex disease affecting more than 10% of women. The aetiology of endometriosis is unclear but immune dysfunction might be an important factor for its development. The natural function of the immune system is to detect and destroy aberrant or abnormal cells. Failure of the immune system to eradicate these aberrant cells often results in disease pathogenesis. We report here that the phagocytic ability of macrophages is reduced in peritoneal macrophages isolated from women with endometriosis. In-depth investigation revealed that the level of CD36, a class B scavenger receptor, in peritoneal macrophages derived from women with endometriosis was lower than that in normal macrophages. Blockage of CD36 function by neutralized antibody or knocking down CD36 using siRNA impaired the phagocytic ability of normal macrophages. In contrast, forced expression of CD36 in macrophages isolated from women with endometriosis restored phagocytic ability. Taken together, we identified that the scavenger receptor CD36 is reduced in the peritoneal macrophages of women with endometriosis, which leads to a decrease of the phagocytic ability of macrophages. These findings revealed a potential mechanism of immune dysfunction during endometriosis development. Copyright © 2009 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Expression of Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 in the Nucleus Ambiguus Following Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Injury in the Rat

    THE LARYNGOSCOPE, Issue 12 2000
    Tetsuji Sanuki MD
    Abstract Objectives To examine fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) immunoreactivity in the nucleus ambiguus (NA) after three different recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injuries. Study Design Immunohistochemical analysis of FGF-2. Methods Thirty adult rats underwent left-sided RLN crush (group A). The left RLN was transected in groups B (n = 30) and C (n = 30); in group C, both nerve stumps were covered with silicone caps. FGF-2 in the NA was assessed as the ratio of the positive areas on the left (operated [O]) and right (unoperated [U]) sides. The ratio (O/U) was measured 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 days after the procedure. Three rats underwent left-sided RLN exposure and were killed 7 days later (control). Results Left-sided RLN paralysis occurred until day 28 in group A. In the control group, O/U was approximately 1. In group A, O/U was significantly elevated on day 7; in group B, on days 3, 7, and 14; and in group C, on day 3. O/U in group B was significantly greater than that in group A on days 14 and 28. Maximal FGF-2 immunoreactivity was significantly lower in group C than in groups A and B. Conclusions We demonstrated elevated production of FGF-2 in the NA after RLN injury. This endogenous FGF-2 might contribute to preventing lesion-induced neuronal death. Blockage of axonal regeneration might suppress FGF-2 production in the NA. Further understanding of the roles of FGF-2 after RLN in-jury may contribute to the prevention of neuronal death and facilitation of axonal regeneration. [source]

    Potential Role of NKG2D and Its Ligands in Organ Transplantation: New Target for Immunointervention

    B. Suárez-Álvarez
    NKG2D is one of the best characterized activating receptors on Natural Killer (NK) and CD8+ T cells. This receptor recognizes several different ligands (MICA/MICB and ULBPs) induced by cellular stress and infection. In addition to the role described in cancer surveillance, recent data highlight the importance of NKG2D and its ligands in organ transplantation. Allografts show evidence of MICA and MICB expression in both acute and chronic rejection. The presence of anti-MICA antibodies has been correlated with incidence of graft rejection. Furthermore, NKG2D-ligand engagement activates NK cells, which provides T-cell costimulation, and enhances antigen specific CTL-mediated cytotoxicity. Activated NK cells may function as a bridge between innate and adaptive immunity associated with transplantation. Activated NK cells in response to IL-15 can also trigger organ rejection through NKG2D and affect the maturation of both donor and recipient antigen presenting cells (APCs) and ultimately the T-cell allogeneic response. Regulatory T cells, which modulate T-cell responses in organ transplantation and infections, were reduced in numbers by NK cells exposed to intracellular pathogens, possibly via interaction with one NK2GD receptor. Blockage of NKG2D-NKG2D-L interactions provides a novel pathway for development of inhibitors. These studies have important clinical and therapeutic implications in solid organ transplantation. [source]

    Role of Wnt-5A in interleukin-1,,induced matrix metalloproteinase expression in rabbit temporomandibular joint condylar chondrocytes

    ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM, Issue 9 2009
    Xianpeng Ge
    Objective To determine the possible involvement and regulatory mechanisms of Wnt-5A signaling in interleukin-1, (IL-1,),induced increase in matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1), MMP-3, MMP-9, and MMP-13 expression in temporomandibular joint (TMJ) condylar chondrocytes. Methods Primary rabbit condylar chondrocytes were treated with IL-1,, purified Wnt-5A protein, or both and transfected with Wnt-5A expression vector. Expression of Wnt-5A, MMP-1, MMP-3, MMP-9, MMP-13, and type II collagen, as well as cell morphologic changes, were examined. To explore the mechanisms of action of Wnt-5A, the accumulation and nuclear translocation of ,-catenin, the transcription activity of the ,-catenin,Tcf/Lef complex, phosphorylated JNK, phosphorylated ERK, and phosphorylated p38 were analyzed. SP600125, a JNK inhibitor, was used to investigate the role of the JNK pathway in Wnt-5A induction of MMP-1, MMP-3, MMP-9, and MMP-13. Results Treatment of rabbit condylar chondrocytes with IL-1, up-regulated Wnt-5A expression. Purified Wnt-5A protein and transfection with Wnt-5A expression vector promoted the expression of MMP-1, MMP-3, MMP-9, and MMP-13. Wnt-5A did not cause accumulation and nuclear translocation of ,-catenin or activation of the ,-catenin-Tcf/Lef transcription complex. Instead, Wnt-5A activated JNK, and an inhibitor of JNK blocked the Wnt-5A,induced up-regulated expression of MMPs. Conclusion These findings indicate that IL-1, up-regulates Wnt-5A, and the activation of Wnt-5A signaling induces the expression of MMP-1, MMP-3, MMP-9, and MMP-13 via the JNK signaling pathway in rabbit TMJ condylar chondrocytes. Blockage of JNK signaling impairs the Wnt-5A,induced up-regulation of MMPs. Thus, Wnt-5A may be associated with cartilage destruction by promoting the expression of MMPs. [source]

    Retraction: Blockage of intracellular proton extrusion with proton pump inhibitor induces apoptosis in gastric cancer

    CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 1 2008
    Marie Yeo
    The following article from Cancer Science, ,Blockage of intracellular proton extrusion with proton pump inhibitor induces apoptosis in gastric cancer' by Marie Yeo, Dong-Kyu Kim, Hee Jin Park, Sung Won Cho, Jae Youn Cheong and Kwang Jae Lee (doi: 10.1111/j.1349-7006.2007.00642.x), published online on 23 October 2007 on Blackwell Synergy (, has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor in Chief, Takashi Tsuruo, and Blackwell Publishing. All authors wish to retract this paper because of the use of RGM-1 without the prior permission of the original establisher. Proton pump inhibitors have been used for treatment of acid-related gastroesophageal diseases and they act as potent inhibitors of gastric acid pump, H+/K+ -ATPase. Since cancer cells in vivo often exist in an ischemic microenvironment with a lower pH, maintenance of cellular pH is important for cell survival. In this study, we evaluated whether blocking of proton extrusion with proton pump inhibitors could inhibit the viability of gastric cancer cells. Treatment of human gastric cancer cells with proton pump inhibitors significantly attenuated cell viability in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The pro-apoptotic activity of proton pump inhibitors was mediated by release of cytochrome c and caspases activation. Gastric cancer cells showed the resistance to acidity of culture medium, which was related with a remarkable increase of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation in the acidic condition. This ERK1/2 phosphorylation was completely inhibited by pretreatment with proton pump inhibitors, suggesting that its inhibitory action on phosphorylation of ERK1/2 might contribute to the induction of apoptosis in gastric cancer cells. In conclusion, our results suggest novel therapeutic approaches for gastric cancer with proton pump inhibitors. (Cancer Sci 2008; 99: 185,185) [source]

    Tumoral and tissue-specific expression of the major human ,-tubulin isotypes,

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 4 2010
    Luis J. Leandro-García
    Abstract The ,-tubulins are microtubule components encoded by a multigene family, which produces slightly different proteins with complex expression patterns. Several widely used anticancer drugs base their activity on ,-tubulin binding, microtubule dynamics alteration, and cell division blockage. The expression of these drug targets in tumoral and normal cells could be of crucial importance for therapy outcome, unfortunately, the complex ,-tubulin expression patterns have been poorly characterized in human. In this study, we developed a quantitative RT-PCR technique that accurately determines the mRNA expression of the eight human ,-tubulin isotypes, encoding class I, IIa, IIb, III, IVa, IVb, V, and VI and applied it to 21 nontumoral tissues and 79 tumor samples belonging to seven cancer types. In the nontumoral tissues, we found that, overall, TUBB (I), TUBB2C (IVb), and TUBB6 (V) were ubiquitous, TUBB1(VI) was hematopoietic cell-specific, and TUBB2A (IIa), TUBB2B (IIb), TUBB3 (III), and TUBB4 (IVa) had high expression in brain; however, the contribution of the different isotypes to the total ,-tubulin content varied for each tissue and had a complex pattern. In tumoral tissues, most isotypes exhibited an altered expression in specific tumor types or related to tumoral characteristics. In general, TUBB3 showed a great increase in expression while TUBB6 expression was largely decreased in most tumors. Thus, normal tissues showed a complex ,-tubulin isotype distribution, which could contribute to the toxicity profile of the microtubule-binding drugs. In addition, the specific isotypes significantly altered in tumors might represent markers for drug response. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Tankyrase is necessary for canonical Wnt signaling during kidney development

    Courtney M. Karner
    Abstract Recent studies using small molecule antagonists have revealed that the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) Tankyrase 1 and 2 are critical regulators of canonical Wnt signaling in some cellular contexts. However, the absence of any activity during zebrafish embryogenesis suggested that the tankyrases may not be general/core components of the Wnt pathway. Here, we show that Tnks1 and 2 are broadly expressed during mouse development and are essential during kidney and lung development. In the kidney, blockage of tankyrase activity phenocopies the effect of blocking production of all Wnt ligands. Tankyrase inhibition can be rescued by activation of ,-catenin demonstrating its specificity for the Wnt pathway. In addition, treatment with tankyrase inhibitors appears to be completely reversible in some cell types. These studies suggest that the tankyrases are core components of the canonical Wnt pathway and their inhibitors should enjoy broad usage as antagonists of Wnt signaling. Developmental Dynamics 239:2014,2023, 2010 © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Endoscopic Injection Sclerotherapy for the Treatment of Recurrent Esophageal Varices after Esophageal Transection

    Hiroshi Yoshida
    Background: ,We examined the hemodynamic changes associated with recurrent esophageal varices after esophageal transection (ET) and evaluated the effectiveness of endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (EIS) as the treatment for these varices. Methods: ,Nineteen patients with recurrent esophageal varices after ET were treated by EIS. Endoscopic varicealography during injection sclerotherapy, following oral blockage of flow by a balloon, identified three patterns: (i) type 1: common type, continuous filling by the feeder vessel of the varix; (ii) type 2: retrograde-disappearing type, confirmed hepatofugal flow; and (iii) type 3: immediate washout type, immediate washout of contrast medium. Results: ,Angiography revealed that the hepatofugal feeder vessel was the right gastric vein in all cases. Fourteen patients (73.7%) were classified as type 1, 4 patients (21.1%) as type 2, and 1 patient (5.3%) as type 3. Fewer treatment sessions were required in type 1 than in type 2 (P < 0.005). Recurrent varices were completely eradicated in all patients except the patient with type 3 disease. Cumulative re-recurrence rates at 5 and 10 years were similar for types 1 and 2 (28.6 and 71.4%vs 25 and 25%, respectively). The cumulative survival rates after EIS at 5 and 10 years were also similar for types 1 and 2 (77.1 and 66.1%vs 66.7 and 66.7%). Conclusion: ,Endoscopic injection sclerotherapy is an effective treatment for recurrent esophageal varices after ET, except in type 3 disease. Our classification based on endoscopic varicealography during injection sclerotherapy provides knowledge of blood flow within the varices that helps to inform the treatment strategy. [source]

    Prediction of the behaviour of landslide dams using a geomorphological dimensionless index

    L. Ermini
    Abstract Landslide dams are a common phenomenon. They form when a landslide reaches the bottom of a river valley causing a blockage. The first effect of such a dam is the infilling of a lake that inundates the areas upstream, while the possibility of a sudden dam collapse, with a rapid release of the impounded waters, poses a higher flood risk to the downstream areas. The results of the main inventories carried out to date on landslide dams, have been examined to determine criteria for forecasting landslide dam evolution with particular emphasis on the assessment of dam stability. Not all landslides result in the blockage of a river channel. This only occurs with ones that can move a large amount of material with moderate or high-velocities. In most cases, these landslides are triggered by rainfall events or high magnitude earthquakes. A relationship also exists between the volume of the displaced material and the landslide dam stability. Several authors have proposed that landslide dam behaviour can be forecast by defining various geomorphological indexes, that result from the combination of variables identifying both the dam and the dammed river channel. Further developments of this geomorphological approach are presented in this paper by the definition of a dimensionless blockage index. Starting with an analysis of 84 episodes selected worldwide, it proved to be a useful tool for making accurate predictions concerning the fate of a landslide dam. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    PRECLINICAL STUDY: Is withdrawal hyperalgesia in morphine-dependent mice a direct effect of a low concentration of the residual drug?

    ADDICTION BIOLOGY, Issue 4 2009
    Vardit Rubovitch
    ABSTRACT Withdrawal of opioid drugs leads to a cluster of unpleasant symptoms in dependent subjects. These symptoms are stimulatory in nature and oppose the acute, inhibitory effects of opiates. The conventional theory that explains the opioid withdrawal syndrome assumes that chronic usage of opioid drugs activates compensatory mechanisms whose stimulatory effects are revealed upon elimination of the inhibitory opioid drug from the body. Based on previous studies that show a dose-dependent dual activity of opiates, including pain perception, we present here an alternative explanation to the phenomenon of withdrawal-induced hyperalgesia. According to this explanation, the residual low concentration of the drug that remains after cessation of its administration elicits the stimulatory withdrawal hyperalgesia. The goal of the present study was to test this hypothesis. In the present study we rendered mice dependent on morphine by a daily administration of the drug. Cessation of morphine application elicited withdrawal hyperalgesia that was completely blocked by a high dose of the opiate antagonist naloxone (100 mg/kg). Similarly, naloxone (2 mg/kg)-induced withdrawal hyperalgesia was also blocked by 100 mg/kg of naloxone. The blockage of withdrawal hyperalgesia by naloxone suggested the involvement of opioid receptors in the phenomenon and indicated that withdrawal hyperalgesia is a direct effect of a residual, low concentration of morphine. Acute experiments that show morphine- and naloxone-induced hyperalgesia further verified our hypothesis. Our findings offer a novel, alternative approach to opiate detoxifications that may prevent withdrawal symptoms by a complete blockage of the opioid receptors using a high dose of the opioid antagonist. [source]

    Neurocutaneous syndrome with mental delay, autism, blockage in intracellular vescicular trafficking and melanosome defects

    S. Buoni
    We evaluated a 11-year-old male patient with mental delay, autism and brownish and whitish skin spots. The former resembled those of neurofibromatosis, the latter those of tuberous sclerosis. The patient received a complete clinical work-up to exclude neurofibromatosis, tuberous sclerosis, or any other known neurocutaneous disease, with biochemistry, chromosome analysis and analysis of skin specimens. Being all the other tests not significant, two main ultrastructural defects were observed. The first was a blockage in intracellular vescicular trafficking with sparing of the mitochondria; the second an aberrant presence of melanosomes in vacuoles of several cell lines and abnormal transfer of these organelles to keratinocytes. This patient presented with a unique clinical picture distinct from neurofibromatosis or tuberous sclerosis or any other known neurocutaneous disease. The ultrastructural abnormalities suggested a defect in cell trafficking involving several cell lines and compartments. [source]

    Growth hormone-releasing peptide 6 protection of hypothalamic neurons from glutamate excitotoxicity is caspase independent and not mediated by insulin-like growth factor I

    A. Delgado-Rubín
    Abstract Treatment of the fetal hypothalamic neuronal cell line RCA-6 with growth hormone-releasing peptide 6, an agonist of the ghrelin receptor, or insulin-like growth factor I activates intracellular signalling cascades associated with anti-apoptotic actions. Abnormally high concentrations of glutamate provoke over-excitation of neurons leading to cell damage and apoptosis. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate whether the administration of growth hormone-releasing peptide 6 and insulin-like growth factor I attenuates monosodium glutamate-induced apoptosis in RCA-6 neurons and the mechanisms involved. Two different mechanisms are involved in glutamate-induced cell death, one by means of caspase activation and the second through activation of a caspase-independent pathway of apoptosis mediated by the translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor. Growth hormone-releasing peptide 6 partially reversed glutamate-induced cell death but not the activation of caspases, suggesting blockage of the caspase-independent cell death pathway, which included interference with the translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor to the nucleus associated with the induction of Bcl-2. In contrast, the addition of insulin-like growth factor I to RCA-6 neurons abolished glutamate-induced caspase activation and cell death. These data demonstrate for the first time a neuroprotective role for growth hormone secretagogues in the caspase-independent cell death pathway and indicate that these peptides have neuroprotective effects independent of its induction of insulin-like growth factor I. [source]

    Immune-related mechanisms participating in resistance and susceptibility to glutamate toxicity

    Hadas Schori
    Abstract Glutamate is an essential neurotransmitter in the CNS. However, at abnormally high concentrations it becomes cytotoxic. Recent studies in our laboratory showed that glutamate evokes T cell-mediated protective mechanisms. The aim of the present study was to examine the nature of the glutamate receptors and signalling pathways that participate in immune protection against glutamate toxicity. We show, using the mouse visual system, that glutamate-induced toxicity is strain dependent, not only with respect to the amount of neuronal loss it causes, but also in the pathways it activates. In strains that are genetically endowed with the ability to manifest a T cell-dependent neuroprotective response to glutamate insult, neuronal losses due to glutamate toxicity were relatively small, and treatment with NMDA-receptor antagonist worsened the outcome of exposure to glutamate. In contrast, in mice devoid of T cell-dependent endogenous protection, NMDA receptor antagonist reduced the glutamate-induced neuronal loss. In all strains, blockage of the AMPA/KA receptor was beneficial. Pharmacological (with ,2 -adrenoceptor agonist) or molecular intervention (using either mice overexpressing Bcl-2, or DAP-kinase knockout mice) protected retinal ganglion cells from glutamate toxicity but not from the toxicity of NMDA. The results suggest that glutamate-induced neuronal toxicity involves multiple glutamate receptors, the types and relative contributions of which, vary among strains. We suggest that a multifactorial protection, based on an immune mechanism independent of the specific pathway through which glutamate exerts its toxicity, is likely to be a safer, more comprehensive, and hence more effective strategy for neuroprotection. It might suggest that, because of individual differences, the pharmacological use of NMDA-antagonist for neuroprotective purposes might have an adverse effect, even if the affinity is low. [source]

    The role of mineral and organic components in phenanthrene and dibenzofuran sorption by soil

    R. Celis
    Summary Improved predictions of sorption of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) in soil require a better knowledge of the relative contribution of inorganic and organic soil constituents to the sorption process. In this paper, sorption of a three-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (phenanthrene) and a three-ring heterocyclic,aromatic compound (dibenzofuran) by six agricultural soils, their clay-size fractions, and a series of single, binary, and ternary model sorbents was evaluated to elucidate the relative role of soil mineral and organic components in the retention of these two model HOCs. The sorption coefficients for phenanthrene and dibenzofuran on purified soil organic materials (Kd = 821,9080 litre kg,1) were two orders of magnitude greater than those measured on mineral model sorbents (Kd = 0,114 litre kg,1). This, along with the strong correlation between sorption and the organic C content of the soil clay fractions (r = 0.99, P < 0.01), indicated a primary role of soil organic matter in the retention of both compounds. However, weak relationships between phenanthrene and dibenzofuran sorption coefficients and the organic C content of the bulk soils and variability of Koc values among soils, clay fractions, and model sorbents (1340,21020 litre kg,1 C for phenanthrene and 1685,7620 litre kg,1 C for dibenzofuran) showed that sorption was not predictable exclusively from the organic C content of the materials. Organic matter heterogeneity and domain blockage arising from organic matter,clay interactions and associated pH shifts were identified as the most likely causes of the different organic C-normalized sorption capacities of the soils. A direct contribution from minerals to the sorption of phenanthrene and dibenzofuran by the soils studied was likely to be small. Our results suggested that suitable descriptors for the extent of organic matter,mineral interactions would help to improve current Koc -based sorption predictions and subsequently the assessment of risk associated with the presence of HOCs in soil. [source]

    Coupling of endothelin receptors to the ERK/MAP kinase pathway,

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 20 2001
    Roles of palmitoylation
    Endothelins are potent mitogens that stimulate extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK/MAP kinases) through their cognate G-protein-coupled receptors, ETA and ETB. To address the role of post-translational ET receptor modifications such as acylation on ERK activation and to identify relevant downstream effectors coupling the ET receptor to the ERK signaling cascades we have constructed a panel of palmitoylation-deficient ET receptor mutants with differential G, protein binding capacity. Endothelin-1 stimulation of wild-type ETA or ETB induced a fivefold to sixfold increase in ERK in COS-7 and CHO cells whereas full-length nonpalmitoylated ETA and ETB mutants failed to stimulate ERK. A truncated ETB lacking the C-terminal tail domain including putative phosphorylation and arrestin binding site(s) but retaining the critical palmitoylation site(s) was still able to fully stimulate ERK activation. Using mutated ET receptors with selective G-protein-coupling we found that endothelin-induced stimulation of G,q, but not of G,i or G,s, is essential for endothelin-mediated ERK activation. Inhibition of protein kinases A and C or epidermal growth factor receptor kinase failed to prevent ETA - and ETB -mediated ERK activation whereas blockage of phospholipase C-, completely abrogated endothelin-promoted ERK activation through ETA and ETB in recombinant COS-7 and native C6 cells. Complex formation of Ca2+ or inhibition of Src family tyrosine kinases prevented ET-1-induced ERK-2 activation in C6-cells. Our results indicate that endothelin-promoted ERK/MAPK activation criticially depends on palmitoylation but not on phosphorylation of ET receptors, and that the G,q/phospholipase C-,/Ca2+/Src signaling cascade is necessary for efficient coupling of ET receptors to the ERK/MAPK pathway. [source]

    Cross-talk between olfactory second messenger pathways

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 14 2000
    Alexander Vogl
    The second messengers 3,-5,-cyclic-monophosphate (cAMP) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) have been implicated in olfactory signal transduction in various species. The results of the present study provide evidence that the two olfactory second messenger pathways in rat olfactory neurons do not work independently but rather show a functional antagonism: whereas inhibition of phospholipase C (PLC) in isolated olfactory cilia by U-73122 led to an augmentation of odor-induced cAMP signaling, activation of the phosphoinositol pathway resulted in attenuation of odor-induced cAMP formation. Furthermore, this study indicates that elevated cAMP levels cause suppression of odor-induced InsP3 signaling, whereas inhibition of adenylate cyclase (AC) by cisN -(2-phenylcyclopentyl)azacylotridec-1-en-2-amine (MDL-12,330 A) results in potentiation of odor-induced InsP3 formation. Concerning the molecular mechanism involved in cross-interaction, the experimental data indicate that the observed antagonism of elevated cAMP is based on inhibition of PLC activation rather than on stimulation of InsP3 degradation. As blockage of the endogenous protein kinase A (PKA) prevented the inhibitory effect of cAMP, the suppression of odor-induced InsP3 signaling by cAMP may be mediated by a PKA-controlled reaction. [source]

    The Ohalo II prehistoric camp (19.5 Ky): New evidence for environmental and tectonic changes at the Sea of Galilee

    Shmuel Belitzky
    Combined archaeological data, shore surveys, and aerial photos of submerged sediments in the Sea of Galilee provide new insights into environmental and tectonic events, their dating, and their impact on the Ohalo II prehistoric camp (ca. 19,500 yr B.P.) and its surroundings. The Ohalo II waterlogged campsite contains excellently preserved brush hut remains and other in situ features, all embedded in late Pleistocene lacustrine strata. The findings indicate relatively short occupation of the site, not more than months or several years at a time. The high quality in situ preservation of delicate organic materials, as well as the short occupation period, suggests a quick and gentle burial by fine sediments. The evident fast submergence (water level rise of the Sea of Galilee) could have been the result of climatic fluctuations towards the end of the last glaciation and/or small-scale tectonic subsidence. The site is located on a tectonic block formed in the western fault belt of the Dead Sea Rift. We present new evidence of post-occupational folding of the late Pleistocene strata and recent tilting and faulting. A westward tectonic tilt may have caused the blockage of the old Jordan River outlet after A. D. 1106. Excellent preservation of the fault traces to the east of the site is attributed to the young age of the displacement on the fault. The last displacement apparently post-dates the blockage of the old Jordan River. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    Blockage of voltage-gated calcium signaling impairs migration of glial cells in vivo

    GLIA, Issue 3 2005
    Christian Lohr
    Abstract Migration of glial cells is an essential step in the development of the antennal lobe, the primary olfactory center of insects, to establish well-defined borders between olfactory glomeruli required for odor discrimination. In the present study, we used two-photon microscopy to visualize calcium signaling in developing antennal lobe glial cells of the sphinx moth Manduca sexta. We found a correlation between the upregulation of functional voltage-gated calcium channels and the onset of glial cell migration. In addition, glial cells migrating into the center of the antennal lobe express larger voltage-gated calcium transients than glial cells that remain at the periphery. Migration behavior and calcium signaling of glial cells in vivo were manipulated either by deafferentation, by injection of the calcium channel blockers diltiazem, verapamil, and flunarizine, or by injection of the calcium chelators BAPTA-AM and Fluo-4-AM. In deafferented antennal lobes, glial cells failed to express functional voltage-gated calcium channels and did not migrate. Calcium channel blockage or reducing glial calcium signals by calcium chelators prevented glial cell migration and resulted in antennal lobes lacking glial borders around glomeruli, indicating that voltage-gated calcium signaling is required for the migration of antennal lobe glial cells and the development of mature olfactory glomeruli. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The triakontatetraneuropeptide TTN increases [Ca2+]i in rat astrocytes through activation of peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptors

    GLIA, Issue 2 2001
    Pierrick Gandolfo
    Abstract Astrocytes synthesize a series of regulatory peptides called endozepines, which act as endogenous ligands of benzodiazepine receptors. We have recently shown that one of these endozepines, the triakontatetraneuropeptide TTN, stimulates DNA synthesis in astroglial cells. The purpose of the present study was to determine the mechanism of action of TTN on cultured rat astrocytes. Binding of the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor ligand [3H]Ro5-4864 to intact astrocytes was displaced by TTN, whereas its C-terminal fragment (TTN[17,34], the octadecaneuropeptide ODN) did not compete for [3H]Ro5-4864 binding. Microfluorimetric measurement of cytosolic calcium concentrations ([Ca2+]i) with the fluorescent probe indo-1 showed that TTN (10,10 to 10,6 M) provokes a concentration-dependent increase in [Ca2+]i in cultured astrocytes. Simultaneous administration of TTN (10,8 M) and Ro5-4864 (10,5 M) induced an increase in [Ca2+]i similar to that obtained with Ro5-4864 alone. In contrast, the effects of TTN (10,8 M) and ODN (10,8 M) on [Ca2+]i were strictly additive. Chelation of extracellular Ca2+ by EGTA (6 mM) or blockage of Ca2+ channels with Ni2+ (2 mM) abrogated the stimulatory effect of TTN. The calcium influx evoked by TTN (10,7 M) or by Ro5-4864 (10,5 M) was not affected by the N- and T-type calcium channel blockers ,-conotoxin (10,6 M) and mibefradil (10,6 M), but was significantly reduced by the L-type calcium channel blocker nifedipine (10,7 M). Patch-clamp studies showed that, at negative potentials, TTN (10,7 M) induced a sustained depolarization. Reduction of the chloride concentration in the extracellular solution shifted the reversal potential from 0 mV to a positive potential. These data show that TTN, acting through peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptors, provokes chloride efflux, which in turn induces calcium influx via L-type calcium channels in rat astrocytes. GLIA 35:90,100, 2001. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Central venous access devices for paediatric patients with haemophilia: a single-institution experience

    HAEMOPHILIA, Issue 1 2009
    Summary., Use of a central venous access device (CVAD) can facilitate early introduction of home-based infusion of factor concentrate for long-term prophylaxis or immune tolerance therapy in children with bleeding disorders. The aim was to review outcomes associated with use of CVAD. Retrospective review of paediatric patients with bleeding disorders was observed at the Mayo Clinic Comprehensive Hemophilia Center. Thirty-seven CVAD were placed in 18 patients (haemophilia A [n = 15], type 3 von Willebrand disease [n = 2] and haemophilia B [n = 1]). Follow-up was for 45 952 CVAD days, and median time that CVAD remained in place was 1361 days per device. Factor VIII (FVIII) inhibitors were present in 4 of the 15 patients. Ten CVAD-related infections occurred (median, 672 days; range, 72,1941 days), of which six were in one patient with FVIII inhibitors. Overall infection rate was 0.22 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.10,0.40) per 1000 CVAD days, with 0.11 infections in patients without FVIII inhibitors compared with a pooled incidence of 0.66 (95% CI, 0.44,0.97) reported in the literature. Indications for removal of 27 CVAD were blockage, change to peripheral venous access, catheter displacement, infection, leak in the port septum, short catheter and skin erosion. No clinically apparent thrombosis or sequelae of thrombosis were observed. Infection is the most common complication associated with CVAD use and is increased in patients who have inhibitors. The low rate of clinically apparent thrombosis reflects our practice of not screening for thrombosis. The low infection rate reflects our practice of using and reinforcing the aseptic technique. [source]