Biopolymers

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Chemistry

Kinds of Biopolymers

  • chitosan biopolymer


  • Selected Abstracts


    Forced Soft Lithography (FSL): Production of Micro- and Nanostructures in Thin Freestanding Sheets of Chitosan Biopolymer,

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 21 2007
    G. Fernandez
    A "forced" soft lithography (FSL) technique is described for production of micro- and nanostructures into the surface of polymers at room temperature. The technique can be used with polymer/mould combinations that are unsuitable for conventional soft lithography, and has been used to structure the surface of the Chitosan biopolymer. Theoretical descriptions of the filling of the mould cavities and the possible formation of bubbles in the polymer are given. [source]


    Tartaric Acid Starch Ether: A Novel Biopolymer-Based Polyelectrolyte

    MACROMOLECULAR RAPID COMMUNICATIONS, Issue 16 2003
    Carsten Grote
    Abstract New tartaric acid starch ethers have been synthesized applying starch sources of different amylose content. The reactions were carried out heterogeneously in ethanol/water mixtures with cis -disodiumepoxysuccinate as etherifying reagent leading to products of a degree of substitution (DS) up to 0.3. The molecular structure of the new starch ethers was evaluated by elemental analysis, FTIR and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Preliminary studies using a convenient titration method indicate a high binding capacity for Ca2+ ions which is dependent on the starch source and DS. Tartaric acid starch ethers. [source]


    Cover Picture: Electrophoresis 11'2010

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 11 2010
    Article first published online: 26 MAY 2010
    Issue no. 11 is a special issue on "Bioanalysis" comprising 18 manuscripts distributed over six distinct parts. Part I has 3 review articles describing a novel approach for biopolymer focusing, free flow electrophoresis and mass spectrometry analysis of deamidation of proteins. Part II has 2 research papers on some fundamentals and methodology. Part III is on microRNA while Part IV is on protein and protein complex analysis using CE and microfluidics. Part V, which is on gel based protein analysis and proteomic profiling, has 7 contributions making the bulk of the special issue. Finally, Part VI is on metabolic and toxicological profiling and has 3 contributions. [source]


    Metabolic responses of novel cellulolytic and saccharolytic agricultural soil Bacteria to oxygen

    ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, Issue 4 2010
    Stefanie Schellenberger
    Summary Cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer in terrestrial ecosystems and is degraded by microbial communities in soils. However, relatively little is known about the diversity and function of soil prokaryotes that might participate in the overall degradation of this biopolymer. The active cellulolytic and saccharolytic Bacteria in an agricultural soil were evaluated by 16S rRNA 13C-based stable isotope probing. Cellulose, cellobiose and glucose were mineralized under oxic conditions in soil slurries to carbon dioxide. Under anoxic conditions, these substrates were converted primarily to acetate, butyrate, carbon dioxide, hydrogen and traces of propionate and iso-butyrate; the production of these fermentation end-products was concomitant with the apparent reduction of iron(III). [13C]-cellulose was mainly degraded under oxic conditions by novel family-level taxa of the Bacteroidetes and Chloroflexi, and a known family-level taxon of Planctomycetes, whereas degradation under anoxic conditions was facilitated by the Kineosporiaceae (Actinobacteria) and cluster III Clostridiaceae and novel clusters within Bacteroidetes. Active aerobic sub-communities in oxic [13C]-cellobiose and [13C]-glucose treatments were dominated by Intrasporangiaceae and Micrococcaceae (Actinobacteria) whereas active cluster I Clostridiaceae (Firmicutes) were prevalent in anoxic treatments. A very large number (i.e. 28) of the detected taxa did not closely affiliate with known families, and active Archaea were not detected in any of the treatments. These collective findings suggest that: (i) a large uncultured diversity of soil Bacteria was involved in the utilization of cellulose and products of its hydrolysis, (ii) the active saccharolytic community differed phylogenetically from the active cellulolytic community, (iii) oxygen availability impacted differentially on the activity of taxa and (iv) different redox guilds (e.g. fermenters and iron reducers) compete or interact during cellulose degradation in aerated soils. [source]


    Shell disease in crustaceans , just chitin recycling gone wrong?

    ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, Issue 4 2008
    Claire L. Vogan
    Summary The exoskeletons of aquatic crustaceans and other arthropods contain chitin, a biopolymer of ,-(1,4)-linked N -acetylglucosamine together with associated proteins. Despite the vast amounts of chitin within such animals little is found in sediments and open water because microorganisms rapidly degrade this following its loss after moulting or upon the animals' death. Shell disease syndrome is a worldwide disease condition that affects a wide range of crustaceans. It comes about as a result of bacterial degradation of the exoskeleton leading to unsightly lesions and even death if the underlying tissues become infected. There are at least two potential forms of the disease; one that appears to centre around chitin degradation and an additional form termed ,epizootic' shell disease, in which chitin degradation is of less significance. This account reviews our current understanding of the causative agents of this syndrome, assesses the potential economic consequences of the disease, and critically examines whether it is associated with anthropogenic disturbances including pollution. Overall, despite extensive studies during the last few decades, the potential links between faecal, heavy metal and insecticide pollution and shell disease are still unclear. [source]


    Bioactive and Degradable Composite Microparticulates for the Tissue Cell Population and Osteogenic Development

    ADVANCED ENGINEERING MATERIALS, Issue 10 2009
    Hye-Sun Yu
    Bioactive and degradable composite microspheres (bioactive glass,synthetic biopolymer) were produced to deliver tissue cells and to aid their osteogenic development targeted for hard tissues. Cellular population (left, SEM cell image at day 3) and osteoblastic differentiation (right, immunofluorescence staining with bone marker at day 14) on the microspheres was evident, suggesting the composite microspheres provided effective 3D substrate conditions for hard tissue regeneration. [source]


    Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) of Poly(D,L lactide) (PDLLA) on Three Dimensional Bioglass® Structures

    ADVANCED ENGINEERING MATERIALS, Issue 8 2009
    Valeria Califano
    Matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) was used to coat Bioglass-based tissue engineering scaffolds with poly(D,L lactide). The polymer penetrated to some extent from the surface producing a graded porous composite material. This structure can be beneficial for application in osteochondral tissue engineering, where composite scaffolds are required exhibiting two distinct regions, one for cartilage integration (biopolymer) and the other one for bone contact (bioactive glass). [source]


    Scaffolds Based on Biopolymeric Foams,

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 1 2005
    A. Barbetta
    Abstract A new approach for the preparation of hydrophilic and biocompatible porous scaffolds is described. The procedure involves the derivatization of a biopolymer by the introduction of vinylic moieties, formation of a high-internal-phase oil-in-water emulsion, and its subsequent polymerization. The ensuing materials are characterized by a highly porous morphology represented by pores completely interconnected by a plurality of holes. The hydrophilic and biocompatible nature of these materials make them good candidates for application as scaffolds for tissue engineering. [source]


    Forced Soft Lithography (FSL): Production of Micro- and Nanostructures in Thin Freestanding Sheets of Chitosan Biopolymer,

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 21 2007
    G. Fernandez
    A "forced" soft lithography (FSL) technique is described for production of micro- and nanostructures into the surface of polymers at room temperature. The technique can be used with polymer/mould combinations that are unsuitable for conventional soft lithography, and has been used to structure the surface of the Chitosan biopolymer. Theoretical descriptions of the filling of the mould cavities and the possible formation of bubbles in the polymer are given. [source]


    Irradiation synthesis of biopolymer-based superabsorbent hydrogel: Optimization using the Taguchi method and investigation of its swelling behavior

    ADVANCES IN POLYMER TECHNOLOGY, Issue 2 2009
    Ghasem R. Bardajee
    Abstract In this report, the synthesis of a novel superabsorbent hydrogel via ,-irradiation graft copolymerization of acrylamide onto sodium alginate and kappa-carrageenan hybrid backbones in a homogeneous solution is described. The Taguchi method was used as a powerful experimental design tool for synthesis optimization. A series of superabsorbent hydrogels was synthesized by proposed conditions of Qualitek-4 software. Considering the results of nine trials according to analysis of variance, optimum conditions were proposed. The swelling behavior of optimum superabsorbent hydrogels was studied in various solutions, with pH values ranging from 1 to 13. In addition, swelling kinetics, swelling in various organic solvents, the absorbency under load, and on,off switching behavior were investigated. Also, hydrogel formation was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Surface morphology of the synthesized hydrogels was assessed by scanning electron microscopy. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Adv Polym Techn 28:131,140, 2009; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/adv.20154 [source]


    Competitive plasticization in ternary plasticized starch biopolymer system

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 1 2010
    Deeptangshu S. Chaudhary
    Abstract Two plasticizers namely, glycerol and xylitol, based on their similar molecular diameter (, 6.3 Å) but different molecular weights (glycerol-92; xylitol-152) were selected were selected for studying the plasticization of starch biopolymer containing 70% amylopectin structure via glass transition measurements carried over a wide range of water activity. A standard calorimetry was used to determine the onset temperature of polymeric viscous flow. For both glycerol and xylitol, typical antiplasticization was evident at low plasticizer concentrations, whereas at higher concentration, there was significant reduction in glass transition temperature. Water activity isotherms showed that equilibrium moisture content of the starch biopolymer (no plasticizer) steadily increases up to 11%, however, for plasticized biopolymer, the moisture content was nearly double than that of biopolymer. We used a modified Gordon-Taylor model, using a new interaction parameter, to understand the competitive plasticization of glycerol and xylitol in presence of water, and determined 8 wt % water as a threshold amount of matrix water for strong three-way interactions: starch-plasticizer, plasticizer-plasticizer/water and starch-water. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2010 [source]


    Influence of hydroxyvalerate composition of polyhydroxy butyrate valerate (PHBV) copolymer on bone cell viability and in vitro degradation

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 6 2010
    Hui Liu
    Abstract The objective of this study was to elucidate the role of hydroxyvalerate (HV) composition in polyhydroxy butyrate valerate (PHBV) copolymer film on the degradation of copolymer and osteoblastic cell activity. Degradation was studied by monitoring time-dependent changes in mass and chemical composition of the macroporous films. The mass loss of PHBV film upon 19 weeks of exposure to pH 7.4 phosphate buffer medium was found to range from 2.8% to 9.2% with a strong dependence on the original composition of the copolyester film and morphology. Tapping mode atomic force microscopy (TMAFM) was used to examine the roughness change of polyester films due to exposure to buffer medium. Chemical analysis of the degraded film was carried out using NMR to aid in the interpretation of the mass loss and TMAFM data. The NMR results showed a significant decrease in the mol % of HV content in the degraded PHBV film. Additionally, we established that UMR-106 cell proliferation on macroporous PHBV matrix is minimally enhanced by the HV content of PHBV copolymer. Information provided by this study can be used in the selection of appropriate PHBV copolymer for clinical use where the biopolymer needs to remain physically intact and chemically unchanged during the intended period of biomedical application. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2010 [source]


    Covalent immobilization of ,-galactosidase on carrageenan coated with chitosan

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 1 2009
    Magdy M.M. Elnashar
    Abstract ,-Galactosidase was covalently immobilized to carrageenan coated with chitosan for the hydrolysis of lactose. The chitosan-carrageenan polyelectrolyte interaction was found to be dependent on the chitosan pH. At pH 4, the chitosan reached its maximum binding of 28.5% (w/w) where the chitosan surface density was 4.8 mg chitosan/cm2 g of carrageenan gel disks, using Muzzarelli method. Glutaraldehyde was used as a mediator to incorporate new functionality, aldehydic carbonyl group, to the bio-polymers for covalent attachment of ,-galactosidase. The enzyme was covalently immobilized to the biopolymer at a concentration of 2.73 mg protein per g of wet gel. FTIR proved the incorporation of the aldehydic carbonyl group to the carrageenan coated with chitosan at 1720 cm,1. The optimum time for enzyme immobilization was found to be 16 h, after which a plateau was reached. The enzyme loading increased from 2.65 U/g (control gel) to 10.92 U/g gel using the covalent technique. The gel's modification has shown to improve the carrageenan gel thermal stability as well as the immobilized enzyme. For example, the carrageenan gel treated with chitosan showed an outstanding thermal stability at 95°C compared with 35°C for the untreated carrageenan gel. Similarly, the immobilization process shifted the enzyme's optimum temperature from 50°C for the free enzyme towards a wider temperature range 45,55 °C indicating that the enzyme structure is strengthened by immobilization. In brief, the newly developed immobilization method is simple; the carrier is cheap, yet effective and can be used for the immobilization of other enzymes. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2009 [source]


    Swelling properties of CMC- g -poly (AAm- co -AMPS) superabsorbent hydrogel

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 6 2009
    Ali Pourjavadi
    Abstract A series of biopolymer-based superabsorbent hydrogels based on carboxymethyl cellulose has been prepared by free-radical graft copolymerization of acrylamide and 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropan sulfonic acid (AMPS) in aqueous solution using methylenebisacrylamide as a crosslinking agent and ammonium persulfate as an initiator. The effect of variables on the swelling capacity such as: acrylamide/AMPS weight ratio, reaction temperature, and concentration of the initiator and crosslinker were systematically optimized. The results indicated that with increasing the amount of AMPS, the swelling capacity is increased. FT-IR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope analysis were used to confirm the hydrogel structure. Swelling measurements of the synthesized hydrogels in different salt solutions indicated considerable swelling capacity. The absorbency under load of the superabsorbent hydrogels was determined by using an absorbency under load tester at various applied pressures. A preliminary swelling and deswelling behaviors of the hydrogels were also studied. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2009 [source]


    Novel thermally and mechanically stable hydrogel for enzyme immobilization of penicillin G acylase via covalent technique

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 6 2008
    Magdy M. M. Elnashar
    Abstract ,-Carrageenan hydrogel crosslinked with protonated polyethyleneimine (PEI+) and glutaraldehyde (GA) was prepared and evaluated as a novel biocatalytic support for covalent immobilization of penicillin G acylase (PGA). The method of modification of the carrageenan biopolymer is clearly illustrated using a schematic diagram and was verified by FTIR, elemental analysis, DSC, and INSTRON using the compression mode. Results showed that the gels' mechanical strength was greatly enhanced from 3.9 kg/cm2 to 16.8 kg/cm2 with an outstanding improvement in the gels thermal stability. It was proven that, the control gels were completely dissolved at 35°C, whereas the modified gels remained intact at 90°C. The DSC thermogram revealed a shift in the endothermic band of water from 62 to 93°C showing more gel-crosslinking. FTIR revealed the presence of the new functionality, aldehydic carbonyl group, at 1710 cm,1 for covalent PGA immobilization. PGA was successfully immobilized as a model industrial enzyme retaining 71% of its activity. The enzyme loading increased from 2.2 U/g (control gel) to 10 U/g using the covalent technique. The operational stability showed no loss of activity after 20 cycles. The present support could be a good candidate for the immobilization of industrial enzymes rich in amino groups, especially the thermophilic ones. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]


    Pervaporation of tertiary butanol/water mixtures through chitosan membranes cross-linked with toluylene diisocyanate,

    JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY & BIOTECHNOLOGY, Issue 12 2005
    Smitha Biduru
    Abstract Membranes made from 84% deacetylated chitosan biopolymer were cross-linked by a novel method using 2,4-toluylene diisocyanate (TDI) and tested for the separation of t -butanol/water mixtures by pervaporation. The unmodified and cross-linked membranes were characterized by Fourier transform infra red (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies and sorption studies in order to understand the polymer,liquid interactions and separation mechanisms. Thermal stability was analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) while tensile strength measurement was carried out to assess mechanical strength. The membrane appears to have good potential for breaking the aqueous azeotrope of 88.2 wt% t -butanol by giving a high selectivity of 620 and substantial water flux (0.38 kg m,2 hr,1). The effects of operating parameters such as feed composition, membrane thickness and permeate pressure on membrane performance were evaluated. Copyright © 2005 Society of Chemical Industry [source]


    EFFECT OF GLYCEROL ON PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF CASSAVA STARCH FILMS

    JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESSING AND PRESERVATION, Issue 2010
    P. BERGO
    ABSTRACT In this work, the effect of glycerol on the physical properties of edible films were identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), infrared (FTIR) and microwave spectroscopy. According to XRD diffractograms, films with 0 and 15% glycerol displayed an amorphous character, and a tendency to semicrystallization, for films with 30% and 45% glycerol. From DSC thermograms, the glass transition (Tg) of the films decreased with glycerol content. However, two Tgs were observed for samples with 30% and 45% glycerol, due to a phase separation. The intensity and positions of the peaks in FTIR fingerprint region presented slight variations due to new interactions arising between glycerol and biopolymer. Microwave measurements were sensitive to moisture content in the films, due to hydrophilic nature of the glycerol. The effect of plasticizer plays, then, an important rule on the physical and functional properties of these films, for applications in food technology. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Edible and/or biodegradable films are thin materials used mainly in food recovering, food packaging and other applications, in substitution of the films obtained by synthetic ways. In view of these applications, these films must satisfy some of the exigencies in order to increase the food shelf-life, or in other words, they must be flexible, transparent, resistant to some gases such as oxygen, as well as resistant to water vapor. The addition of plasticizers alters the functional properties of the films. Thus, the physical characterization of these films becomes fundamental in order to increase their potential use in industry. [source]


    Contribution of the Starch, Protein, and Lipid Fractions to the Physical, Thermal, and Structural Properties of Amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus) Flour Films

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 5 2007
    D. Tapia-Blácido
    ABSTRACT:, Amaranth protein,lipid (PL) and protein (P) films were elaborated and compared with amaranth flour films in order to determine the contribution of the interactions between the biopolymer (starch and protein) and the lipids to the film properties. The films were made by the casting method, using the same glycerol concentration (0.9 g glycerol/100 g solution). A separation of the lipid fraction in the PL films and a polymorphic transformation of the corresponding fatty acids were observed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and verified by an analysis of the microstructure by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The flour films showed no separation of the lipid fraction, evidence that the lipids were strongly associated with the proteins and homogenously distributed throughout the starch network, contributing to the good mechanical properties when compared to the PL films and to the excellent barrier properties when compared to both the PL and P films. The protein-protein interactions also contributed to the mechanical properties of the flour films. The presence of proteins and lipids in the flour films had an important effect on film solubility, and also on the color and opacity of the films. This study showed that the flour film properties depended on the interactions formed by their polymers (starches and proteins) and by the lipid, on the distribution of these interactions within the film matrix and on the concentrations of each component in the film. [source]


    Greenhouse Gas Profile of a Plastic Material Derived from a Genetically Modified Plant

    JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY, Issue 3 2000
    Devdatt Kurdikar
    Abstract: This article reports an assessment of the global warming potential associated with the life cycle of a biopolymer (poly(hydroxyalkanoate) or PHA) produced in genetically engineered corn developed by Monsanto. The grain corn is harvested in a conventional manner, and the polymer is extracted from the corn stover (i.e., residues such as stalks, leaves and cobs), which would be otherwise left on the field. While corn farming was assessed based on current practice, four different hypothetical PHA production scenarios were tested for the extraction process. Each scenario differed in the energy source used for polymer extraction and compounding, and the results were compared to polyethylene (PE). The first scenario involved burning of the residual biomass (primarily cellulose) remaining after the polymer was extracted from the stover. In the three other scenarios, the use of conventional energy sources of coal, oil, and natural gas were investigated. This study indicates that an integrated system, wherein biomass energy from corn stover provides energy for polymer processing, would result in a better greenhouse gas profile for PHA than for PE. However, plant-based PHA production using fossil fuel sources provides no greenhouse gas advantage over PE, in fact scoring worse than PE. These results are based on a "cradle-to-pellet" modeling as the PHA end-of-life was not quantitatively studied due to complex issues surrounding the actual fate of postconsumer PHA. [source]


    Emulsifying properties of gum kondagogu (Cochlospermum gossypium), a natural biopolymer

    JOURNAL OF THE SCIENCE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE, Issue 8 2009
    Ganga Modi Naidu Vegi
    Abstract BACKGROUND: Natural polymers are widely used as emulsifying agents in the food and pharmaceutical industries because of their low cost, biocompatibility and non-toxic nature. In the present study, emulsifying properties of the novel natural biopolymer gum kondagogu (GKG) were investigated. GKG solutions of different concentrations (0.1,0.6% w/v) were prepared in water and emulsified with liquid paraffin oil (40% v/v) in a high-speed homogeniser. Flow properties of the emulsions were measured using a rheometer. Emulsion stability and droplet size distribution were determined by visual observation, photomicrography and laser-scattering particle size distribution analysis. RESULTS: The emulsions prepared with GKG showed pseudoplastic behaviour. The size of oil droplets and the viscosity of emulsions at concentrations of 0.4,0.6% w/v showed little change over time (up to 30 days), indicating that the emulsions were stable. Measurements of the zeta potential of emulsions adjusted to different pH, with and without added electrolyte, showed that the stabilisation of emulsions with GKG was due to mutual repulsion between electrical double layers of particles and adsorption of macromolecules on oil droplets. CONCLUSION: The results of this experimental investigation show that GKG is a good emulsifying agent even at low concentrations, with many potential applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Copyright © 2009 Society of Chemical Industry [source]


    Microgel-Based Engineered Nanostructures and Their Applicability with Template-Directed Layer-by-Layer Polyelectrolyte Assembly in Protein Encapsulation

    MACROMOLECULAR BIOSCIENCE, Issue 5 2005
    Dinesh B. Shenoy
    Abstract Summary: A novel strategy for the fabrication of microcapsules is elaborated by employing biomacromolecules and a dissolvable template. Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) microparticles were used as sacrificial templates for the two-step deposition of polyelectrolyte coatings by surface controlled precipitation (SCP) followed by the layer-by-layer (LbL) adsorption technique to form capsule shells. When sodium alginate was used for inner shell assembly, template decomposition with an acid resulted in simultaneous formation of microgel-like structures due to calcium ion-induced gelation. An extraction of the calcium after further LbL treatment resulted in microcapsules filled with the biopolymer. The hollow as well as the polymer-filled polyelectrolyte capsules were characterized using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and scanning force microscopy (SFM). The results demonstrated multiple functionalities of the CaCO3 core , as supporting template, porous core for increased polymer accommodation/immobilization, and as a source of shell-hardening material. The LbL treatment of the core-inner shell assembly resulted in further surface stabilization of the capsule wall and supplementation of a nanostructured diffusion barrier for encapsulated material. The polymer forming the inner shell governs the chemistry of the capsule interior and could be engineered to obtain a matrix for protein/drug encapsulation or immobilization. The outer shell could be used to precisely tune the properties of the capsule wall and exterior. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) image of microcapsules (insert is after treating with rhodamine 6G to stain the capsule wall). [source]


    Novel Shape-Memory Materials Based on Potato Starch

    MACROMOLECULAR MATERIALS & ENGINEERING, Issue 2 2010
    Cyril Véchambre
    Abstract Shape-memory properties such as shape fixity and recovery ratio of amorphous starch-based materials extruded under normal conditions were evaluated for the case of single and cyclic recovery processing. This study focused on the effect of moisture as a stimulus for the activation of recovery. A high recovery ratio (Rr,>,90%) was obtained at high relative humidity, at deformation ratios up to 200%. In the case of plasticized starch with a glycerol content of 10%, the recovery ratio was close to 50% because crystallization limited the shape recovery. Results were compared to those obtained with synthetic or bio-based shape-memory polymers such as semi-crystalline PU or PLAGC. Efficient shape memory properties for a non-modified biopolymer are highlighted in this study. [source]


    Synthesis of Guanidinium-Modified Hyaluronic Acid Hydrogel

    MACROMOLECULAR RAPID COMMUNICATIONS, Issue 13 2010
    Oommen P. Varghese
    Abstract In this report, a new guanidinylating reagent is presented, which was developed without any protection/deprotection strategy and was successfully employed for linking to hyaluronan in aqueous solution. The dually functionalised HA biopolymer bearing guanidinium and hydrazide groups was synthesised to form hydrogel in less than a minute when mixed with aldehyde-modified HA. This hydrogel exhibited higher storage modulus with enhanced stability in PBS when compared to the non-guanidine-containing gel. The gel shift assay showed that this biopolymer formed a stable complex with DNA as well as efficient gene transfection to cells that express HA-receptor CD44. The toxicity studies of this polymer with fibroblast cells revealed that the cells were almost 80% viable after 4,d of incubation at high HA concentration (2.5,×,10,3,M). [source]


    Synthesis and Characterization of Modified Chitosan Through Immobilization of Complexing Agents

    MACROMOLECULAR SYMPOSIA, Issue 1 2005
    Karin Cristiane Justi
    Abstract Summary: The complexation agents 2[-bis-(pyridylmethyl)aminomethyl]-4-methyl-6-formyl-phenol (BPMAMFF) and 2-[2-(hydroxybenzyl)-2-(pyridylmethyl)aminomethyl]-4-methyl-6-formyl-phenol (HBPAMFF) were immobilized on chitosan biopolymer in order to obtain new adsorbent materials for metal ions. The chitosan derivatives were characterized by IR spectroscopy, DSC, TGA, and CHN analysis. The characterization study proved that the chitosan surface was chemically modified with both complexing agents and however, it is expected that these modifications improve the selectivity for metal ions specific in relation to the chitosan. [source]


    Process and recyclability analyses of innovative bio-composite for tray

    PACKAGING TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE, Issue 4 2010
    Julien Bras
    Abstract The originality of the present study is to give complete and pragmatic information associated with the preparation of a totally bio-based composite. It covers the most relevant investigations from analyses of the fibres used as reinforcing elements to the final product acquisition and its recyclability analyses. This study is destined for packaging areas. It demonstrates the three-dimensional formation processes with these new kinds of bio-composites, as well as the recyclable features related to the prepared materials. Thus, several processing parameters were studied and a final tray was prepared. The addition of the fibres gives rise to an increase of the tray stiffness, when a flexible biopolymer is used as a matrix. The prepared bio-composites were recycled several times (10 recycling cycles) and found that they maintain their most relevant characteristics. Thus, such bio-composites can be reused several times. All these data, including a prototype sample prepared as a demonstrator, support the innovative and sustainable character of the packaging materials described. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Preparation and characterization of chitosan/KSF biocomposite film

    POLYMER COMPOSITES, Issue 8 2009
    Aylin Alt
    Chitosan,clay biocomposites have been prepared in which KSF-montmorillonite (KSF) is used as filler and diluted acetic acid is used as solvent for dissolving and dispersing chitosan and montmorillonite, respectively. The effect of KSF loadings in biocomposites has been investigated. The characterization with different methods (FTIR, DSC, TGA, SEM, and XRD) on chitosan/KSF biocomposites systems was examined. Morphology and properties of chitosan biocomposites have been studied compared with those of pure chitosan. The FTIR and SEM results indicated the formation of an intercalated-and-exfoliated structure at low KSF content and an intercalated-and-flocculated structure at high KSF content. The thermal stability and the mechanical properties of the composites were also examined by DSC, TGA/DTG, and tensile strength measurements, respectively. The dispersed clay improves the thermal stability of the matrix systematically with the increase of clay loading. Tensile strength of a chitosan film was enhanced until the clay ratio up to 2 wt% and elongation-at break decreased with addition of clay into the chitosan matrix. The XRD results confirmed the intercalation of the biopolymer in the clay interlayer by the decrease of 2, values while the chitosan,clayratio increases. POLYM. COMPOS., 2009. © 2008 Society of Plastics Engineers [source]


    Carrageenan- g -poly(acrylamide)/poly(vinylsulfonic acid, sodium salt) as a novel semi-IPN hydrogel: Synthesis, characterization, and swelling behavior

    POLYMER ENGINEERING & SCIENCE, Issue 9 2007
    Ali Pourjavadi
    A semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN) hydrogel based on kappa-carrageenan (,C) and poly (vinylsulfonic acid, sodium salt) (PVSA) was prepared by graft copolymerization of acrylamide (AAm) using methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) as a crosslinking agent and ammonium persulfate (APS) as an initiator. FTIR spectroscopy was used for confirming the structure of the final product. It was found that the chemical composition of the Semi-IPN hydrogel is equal to the initial homopolymers and monomer feed compositions. The swelling capacity of the hydrogel was shown to be affected by the MBA, APS, and AAm concentration as well as ,C/PVSA weight ratio. The swelling behavior of the hydrogel was also investigated in various pHs and salt solutions. Since the highly swelling biopolymer-based hydrogel exhibits low salt-sensitivity, it may be referred to as an anti-salt superabsorbent hydrogel. The swelling kinetics of the superabsorbent hydrogels was studied as well. POLYM. ENG. SCI., 47:1388,1395, 2007. © 2007 Society of Plastics Engineers [source]


    Partially hydrolyzed kappa carrageenan,polyacrylonitrile as a novel biopolymer-based superabsorbent hydrogel: Synthesis, characterization, and swelling behaviors

    POLYMER ENGINEERING & SCIENCE, Issue 12 2006
    M. T. Savoji
    In this paper, synthesis and swelling behavior of a novel superabsorbent hydrogel based on kappa carrageenan (,C) and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) was investigated. To achieve partially hydrolyzed ,C-PAN hydrogel, physical mixture of ,C and PAN was hydrolyzed by NaOH solution. During alkaline hydrolysis, the nitrile groups of PAN are converted to a mixture of hydrophilic carboxamide and carboxylate groups follow by in situ crosslinking of the grafted PAN chains. The reaction variables affecting on the swelling capacity of the hydrogel were systematically optimized to achieve a hydrogel with swelling capacity as high as possible. Under the optimized conditions concluded, super swelling hydrogel with the ability of water absorption up to 3260 g/g (water/dry hydrogel powder) has been prepared. Swelling measurements of the synthesized hydrogels was carried out in various salt solutions and solutions with different pH. The results indicate that the hydrogels have good pH sensitivity and pH-reversible property between pH 2 and pH 8. POLYM. ENG. SCI. 46:1778,1786, 2006. © 2006 Society of Plastics Engineers. [source]


    Development of renewable resource,based cellulose acetate bioplastic: Effect of process engineering on the performance of cellulosic plastics

    POLYMER ENGINEERING & SCIENCE, Issue 5 2003
    A. K. Mohanty
    This paper deals with the development of a cellulose acetate biopolymer. Plasticization of this biopolymer under varying processing conditions to make it a suitable matrix polymer for bio-composite applications was studied. In particular, cellulose acetate was plasticized with varying concentrations of an eco-friendly triethyl citrate (TEC) plasticizer, unlike a conventional, petroleum-derived phthalate plasticizer. Three types of processing were used to fabricate plasticized cellulose acetate parts: compression molding, extrusion followed by compression molding, and extrusion followed by injection molding. The processing mode affected the physicomechanical and thermal properties of the cellulosic plastic. Compression molded samples exhibited the highest impact strength, tending towards the impact strength of a thermoplastic olefin (TPO), while samples that were extruded and then injection molded exhibited the highest tensile strength and modulus values. Increasing the plasticizer content in the cellulosic plastic formulation improved the impact strength and strain to failure while decreasing the tensile strength and modulus values. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the cellulose acetate increased with increasing amounts of plasticizer. Plasticized cellulose acetate was found to be processable at 170,180°C, approximately 50°C below the melting point of neat cellulose acetate. [source]


    Influence of the rubbery phase on the crystallinity and thermomechanical properties of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)/elastomer blends

    POLYMER INTERNATIONAL, Issue 6 2010
    Patrícia S Calvão
    Abstract Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) is a very promising biopolymer. In order to improve its processability and decrease its brittleness, PHB/elastomer blends can be prepared. In the work reported, the effect of the addition of a rubbery phase, i.e. ethylene,propylene,diene terpolymer (EPDM) or poly(vinyl butyral) (PVB), on the properties of PHB was studied. The effects of rubber type and of changing the PHB/elastomer blend processing method on the crystallinity and physical properties of the blends were also investigated. For blends based on PHB, the main role of EPDM is its nucleating effect evidenced by a decrease of crystallization temperature and an increase of crystallinity with increasing EPDM content regardless of the processing route. While EPDM has a weak effect on PHB glass transition temperature, PVB induces a marked decrease of this temperature thank to its plasticizer that swells the PHB amorphous phase. A promising solution to improve the mechanical properties of PHB seems to be the melt-processing of PHB with both plasticizer and EPDM. In fact, the plasticizer is more efficient than the elastomer in decreasing the PHB glass transition temperature and, because of the nucleating effect of EPDM, the decrease of the PHB modulus due to the plasticizer can be counterbalanced. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry [source]